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also a prolonged body, but it is prorided with in any of the articulata. These animals with legs; and the articulation of the cover- hare generally five pairs of legs, two strong ing both of the body and legs is very dis.maudibles. two pairs of slender maxillæ, and tinct.— Insects, which are distinguished in two pairs of antennæ. The solid crust form. their perfect state by the possession of one ing the skeleton of crustacea is cast off perior two pairs of wings; by the restriction of odically. This is accomplished by the anithe legs, which are never more than six mal first detaching the cutis and muscles from in puber, to the thorax; and by the the inner surface of the old shell; then sedivision of the truok into three portions, creting from the surface of ille cutis a new the head, thorax, and abdomen, which are layer of epidermis; next a layer of colouring usually very distinct from one another. matter; and within this the calcareous maThey are also distinguished by their re- terials of the new shell.

W. C. markable metamorphosis, commencing from a form which resembles that of the Annelida. -Arachnida, the spider and scorpion tribe, THE FREE INQUIRER'S WHY AND which differ from insects, in having the

BECAUSE. head and thorax united, in undergoing vo WRITTEN BY CHARLES SOUTHWELL. metamorphosis, and in having eight or more

IV. legs.--Crustacea, which have a hard en. Why has the science of man been treated of velope, principally composed of earthy as physical and moral? matter, and which are adapted for aquatic Because that branch of science which respiration. Many of them have the form treats of matter, its bulk, weight, figure, of insects; but their legs are never less than density, and general properties, is called ten iu number.

physical or natural (the term physics being The foregoing constitnte a tolerably regn. derived from aGreek word, signifying nature). Jar series, iato which we must also introduce The term Natural Philosophy, in its comthe entozoa, which seem to exhibit the prehensive sense, includes all the sciences, characters of the worm tribe in their most but receives in its primary divisions different degraded condition, and the animals com

names according to the kind of properties posing which are parasitic upon or within which it is its object to investigate. That others; the rotifera, or wheel-animalcule which has for its subject quantity in general, tribe, of which some approach the holypi is called mathematics, figure geometry, fera and polygastrica, whilst others approxi. motion—that is, motion of entire masses mate the crustacea; and the cirrhopoda, dynamics, from two Greek words, siguifying or barnacle tribe, which bear a strong general power, or force and motion; while that resemblance to the mollusca, but unques which investigates the motion of the integtionably belong to this series.

rant particles of masses, and the results of The anuelida, or red-blooded worms, lead such motion, denominated chemistry, as a step higher in the development of ske- Now, sensation, intelligence, and all that leton; for although the balithea, the leech, phenomena commonly understood by the the vais, &c., possess a flexible membraneous term mental, belongs to moral science, as covering, many others, as the serpulæ, are before observed; the notion that mind and shielded by adventitious, solid, calcareous matter were separate existences was not held tubes. The common earth-worm is provided by the ancients, who considered the mind or with four pairs of sharp spines, or setæ, for mental phenomena like attraction and repal. the purpose of progression. The skeletons of sion. Life has been called a property of insects is for the greater part composed of a organisation, by which is meant that all thin, epidermic layer, and a thick internal atoms of matter, whether organic or inorone, resembling the woody fibres of plants, ganic, are the same in essence, the only difbut of an animal nature, termed chitive and ference consists in the arrangement of them. coccine, blended with portious of phosphate Dead matter is called inorganic, that is, not of lime, magnesia and iron. These animals so arranged as to display the phenomena also present distinct legs and wings." In the called living, so that the terms inorganised arachnida we meet with a more consolidated and dead, mean exactly the same thing, form of skeleton; generally more than three Whereas, when we speak of an organised pairs of legs; and, at the sides of their head, substance, we speak of a living substance. a pair of sharp-pointed piercing instruments, The difference between the life of a man and suited to their retired, cunning, and carnivo that of a beetle or caterpillar, is one of derous habits. These animals throw off peri- gree, vot of essence, ani is a necessary conodically their exterior coverings, like the lar. sequence of the different arrangement of the væ of insects; and like the crustacea, they atoms which compose them. Arrangement are capable of reproducing their members generally termed structure, or organisation, when destroyed. The crustacea affords us is life; derangement, or decomposition is by far the most solid form of skeleton met death; so that the phenomena called life, is a consequence of the organs, their powers, heing, material and immaterial, body and and susceptibilities. “ Life,” says a modern soul, something and noțbiog; which body author, as far as we affix any scientific and soul are not to be considered as necesa meaning to the word, is a peculiar mode of sarily connected, but merely for the time being, in which a certain series of pheno-being. Others contend that the soul was mena are observed to take place; these phe. matter under a certain point of view, nomena are never found associated with any colour is nothing but effects produced upon other conditions but that one to the designa- the retina of the eye, by the situations and tion of which the term life is appropriated; motions of substances. To thein the soul hence we use this word merely as the shortex. was, as regards the body, as the sound of pression by which this peculiar state of being or the organ in relation to the instruunent which the associated phenomena which constitute produced it; the sound being nothing of it, are denoted. What life is, independeptly itself- a result, as every one knows, of the of this series of phenomena, we are wholly undulatory motions of the air, when set in ignorant, as we are of everything but appear. motion by the apparatus called an organ. ances, in relation to every object in nature." All the phenomena of sound is but a con. We say that matter is the permanent subject sequence of the action of one substance of certain qualities, such as extension, divi. upon another, whereby we become the reci. sibility, attraction, repulsion, and so on. pients of shocks or sensations which induce We say that mind is the perinanent subject in the brain ideas of soupd; and life is of certain faculties, such as perception, nothing more than a succession of shocks or memory, association, reason. In like man. sensations, Those who demand a more mi. ner, we imagine that there is a permanent nute explanation of what life is, may as well subject, which we name the vital principle ask what heat is, or require a particular upon which we conceive the phenomena of explanation of light, darkness, motion, or living beings to depend. But these per- gravity. The motions of a steam-engine manent subjects, these substrata, in which cannot be separated, even in thought, from qualities are supposed to inhere, must be the steam-engine, and get motion is not an considered, so far as our real knowledge is independent existence. Those who can concerned, fictions of the imagination. All erect motion into a something distinct from we really know, are the ascertained pheno matter, will find po difficulty in doing the mena; beyond these everything of course same for mind. must be conjecture; and the most eminent meu have fallen, and at this very time are « YOU WILL INJURE OUR CAUSE.' constantly falling, into gross error, by not keeping the distinction here suggested stea

“Bubb, in his bubbism, complained that the irre. dily in view. The opinion held by almost ligionis doctrine tended to undermige the instituall the aucient philosophers, and some few tions of the country. Why should they not be of the moderns, that the miud of man is

undermined, if they cannot stand the test of rea

son? and if they can stand that test, why cover, nothing of itself, like putrefaction, exciti- cloak, screen, or suppress reason by indictment ? bility, contraction, gravitation, separation, PHILO PUBLICOLA. attraction : merely certain conditions of mat

“ You will hurt our cause!” has been the selfish, ter, has been deemed harsh and incredible; cowardly cry of all pseudo reformers, looking for the as it is contended that the nature of man, countenance and support of wealth and respectabili. including body and soul, or mind, could ty, when honester men, guided by a love of principle pot spring out of senseless or unreasoning alone, have stepped to the front, and asked no man atoms; seemingly forgetful, or perhaps, pot to help them, but he who felt like themselves, Mea having known that dead substances are com- who are honest in the expression of their opinions, posed of precisely the same particles as look only to the surest mode of carrying them into living ones, which ovly differ in their ar. practice without compromise or injury. To them rangement; so that dead, or inorganic mat- the stern truth is everything, the selfish interests af ter, arranged and modified in a certain may. themselves or others nothing. It were much better ner, becomes living or organic; how this is to allow mankind to remain in ignorance of certain acconiplished pone are wise enough to an. truths, than for the advocates of those truths, by

their indiscretion or cowardice, to bring disgrace swer; but that it is done, all must know who place any reliance upon the evidence of upon themselves by subsequently compromising, their senses. The opinion that the vital though it be but an iota, what they had previously

declared to be essentially necessary, and which they principle, or mind of man, is a self-existent immaterial agent, is a mere opinion; and still, perhaps, think necessary, Thenneducated and has nothing whatever to do with science and men, and the defalcation of a professor is ge

unreflecting seldom distinguish between principles Others assert that the soul, or mind, is a nerally looked upon as a consequence of his opinions, very subtle Auid, which enters into and thus presenting a barrier to their introduction makes use of the body as a shell or covering; to such minds. Besides, parties who desert gemeso that man, thus considered, is a twofold rally ruin theinselves and those who may be willing to stand fast, preferring annihilation to falsehood.

a wife and family, wonld neither by word nor actiot Truths are immutable, it is men only who change. lie to save himself and them from ruin. Such men If it were indispensably necessary to the real happi. have been and are now, I doubt not: in fact, I know ness of man eleven years since, that every particle of there are. We are the benefiters by their self-sacrisuperstition should be rooted out of his constitution fices; they watered the tree of liberty with their blood, and his institutions, it is necessary now, and will and we pluck the fruit. Who will say they died in remain so so long as man is man. With the word vain ? And yet some cringing sycophants, some reform is associated the idea of loss or injury to some deal-tenderly-with-prejudice inongers, soft-spoken one, who had previously been living upon the cor- temporisers, contemporary with them, donbtlessly ruption to be reformed. The men who lose by a exclaimed - "Oh! you go too far, a great deal ; change do not necessarily become enemies to such there's reason in roasting eggs, but there is no reason change; it depends upon their philanthropy or love in you. Besides, you will injure our cause !” The of justice. The just man would smile at his own

Rev. Henry Vincent, Sacred Chartist, once said in min, if it effected the happiness of a large number ;

my presence, when speaking of SOUTHWELL, "I and the honest reformer views with delight the ad- like argument; and for discussions to be conducted rance of sound principles, though they may go be- on philosophical principles; and not to use abuse und yond those held by himself, or may be even such as declamation. He(S.) could expect nothing else (than he cannot openly advocate for a fear of the conse. twelve months' imprisonment, etc.), when he so viquences. It is not always wise for men to ruin their olently attacked people's prejudices!!” Heavens! social prospects, by an open advocacy of obnoxious what was my disgust, to hear a fellow just shot out principles, unless the good to be accomplished for of Monmouth gaol, where he had been imprisoned the mass be greater than the evil to be suffered by for not only hurting people's prejudices, but for enthe few. When men cannot publicly support certain dangering their lives, talk after this rate ! What principles without danger, which danger they are not wonders solitary confinement for some few months, willing to incur, it were better that they did it pri- with bread and water and the Jew-Book, will vately or not at all; by which means they would not work! And this is one of the rotten reeds upon lead the party representing those principles into error which some of the working classes are relying with respect to their real numbers, strength, etc., themselves for emancipation ! Working - men, and not be, as in too many cases, its ruin. Where, cast them off, as your deadliest enemies ! Slaves also, it may be dangerous to defend, care should be themselves-miserable crawling, cringing slaves-to taken not to decry; where the public may confound the worst of tyrants, they only labour the more surely the public principles of a party with the private spe to enslave you! These men will be forgotten, or culations of some individnals of that party, the strict their acts and memory execrated, whilst their deadherents to what they imagine or know to be the serted, betrayed, and persecuted brethren are imprinciples of their body, should not hasten such a


W.C. conclusion, by rushing with breathless anxiety to de

(To be continued.) ery the speculations of their companions, for it not unfrequently generates the opinion so much dreaded :

HISSING AN ATHEIST! it also most unjustly injures the individuals or party complained of, who are looked upon in a false light

(Concluded.) from the circumstance of their first denunciation by TURN we to Charles Phillips, the hireling advocate those most intimately connected with them. Let of criminals. When JULIAN HIBBERT, the witness the moderators show by their conduct their princi. who presented hims.lf to speak to the prisoner’s chaples, let them live down calumny, and not declain racter, declared himself to be an Atheist, Charles against those who go beyond them. What party in Phillips afected the extreme of horror, and exclairnthis or any other country was not at some period the ed with his usual theatric air, “Witness, I will not extreme party? What were the feelings of its mem- disgrace myself by asking you another question.” bers then, when they were denounced and villified ? But not satisfied with this display, when the witness The truth is seldom told, be it remembered, when we had retired, he called him back again, and made him view principles through the spectacles of fear, and it go through the definition of an Atheist, which the needs not a love of lying to distort the image or pic witness described as “a man who does not believe ture presented. As a general principle men should in the existence of a god." Fancy the vapouring always speak the truth; but it does not follow that absurdity of a man like Charles Phillips, talking they should at all times and seasons speak all the about “ disgracing himself,” his hand being polluted truth they know. A man thrown by accident into daily and hourly by the vile coin of thieves and murthe company of thieves, would be mad to tell them derers, and ruffians, and reptiles, of all descriptions, he had rifty pounds and a gold watch in his pocket who pour in upon him with their five-shilling briefs. -simply because it was a fact; but if asked the He is grateful to his supporters, and does his best to question, it would be immoral to tell a lie. So it is maintain their respectability and their lives. He with respect to principles; the Atheist dependent lives by the life and not by the death of thieves, and upon a godite for support, is not called upon to de- he preserves them as country squires do their game. care his unbelief, unless placed in such a position as, But Atheists bring no grist to the mill, and therefore by his silence, to convey a wrong impression, which he makes war upon Atheists, knowing that the vnlwould be a virtual departure from truth upon his part. gar mob, of high and low, will join with him. It is I am myself of opinion, that it would be better for a capital thing to make a sensation amongst the remankind if reformers never lied, let the consequences ligious folks, especially when there is no fear of conto themselves and families be what it may; and can sequences. It seems, however, that in point of reimagine the Spartan like virtue of the man who, with spectability, JULIAN HIBBERT is far before Charles Philips : for while Charles Phillips lives on five- ral and constant tendeney towards perfection thrortoh shilling briefs, JULIAN HIBBERT lives on an inde- all his changes ? " l'his cannot well be ili proved, pendent property, and as to his attainments, he is a and the inference must be, that the nature of the skilful Greek critic, having written and printed, at a planner of the uviverse must be beneficent. I appre printing press of his own, a work of considerable hend that JULIAN HIBBERT would experience 4010e erndition in that language. He is, moreover, a highly difficulty in disproving this argument, notwithstanilbenevolent, though not a wise man. And now a few ing no two witnesses can be found who can say, words to JULIAN HIBBERT. When he was asked “We have seen god face to face.” Most probabls, to kiss the book, he gratuitously declared that he JULIAN HIBBERT, stung by the illiberality and op. had no belief in its contents. He must be supposed pressive nature of those who wielu religion as att sincere in his declaration, for it was courting public implement for keeping down the poor, has been obloquy, but in so doing he deprived a court of law driven into the not very mathematical conclusion, of the benefit of his evidence. It was a kind of seek- that two wrongs make one right. The religious ing after a martyrdom, a sort of testifying for con- traders say to him, “ You shall believe, or wa will science sake, which was quite uncalled for by cir- bait you, and he replies, “I am bent therefore cumstances, and toerefore it became a ridiculous upon disbelieving, and will disbelieve in spite of you bravado. What if the trial had been a cause of the all.” The fact is, belief or disbelief does not seem highest importance to the community, ought JULIAN in any way to depend on the will of the individual. HIBBERT in such case to have destroyed his utility but on the peculiarity of his mental organisation, to the community by his flippancy? The whole and it is possible for a believer to be a much worze system of oath-taking is vile and absurd. All that member of society than an unbeliever. A man may is needed is that due punishment await the giving readily profess a belief, without examining the prefalse evidence in a public court. Upon every paltry mises, just as men profess themselves Christians; matter of pounds, shillings, and pence debated in a though a true Christian, i.e. a being regulating all court of justice, god is invoked to help thein, times his thoughts and actions upon the principle of ".40 without number. If this be not blasphemy, what as you would be done by," ia scarcely to be met with. then is?. If a tradesman swear to a debt he calls A cold, pure logician, even if he professes to bellero god to witness it, though in many cases the matter in the existence of a god, is not therefore necessarily is plunder, and in others he has no knowledge of the a benevolent man, nor even if he does really believe. transaction beyond hearing, What is the value of a Something of an enthusiastic spirit is necesary to sailor's or a nierchant's oath at the custom-house, prodnce good fruit in the shape of religion, and enand what is the real distinction, whether the smug. thusiasm is a matter of temperament. Dat it is gler kisses the book or kisses his thumb, a mode of quite certain that a man professing to be an Atheist evasion considered very quieting to the conscience? may nevertheless be a moral man, as far as regards When Jonathan had to give evidence as to the occu- the transaction of his social duties, and if he be a pation of land, he was required by his employer to punctilious man in regard to truth, which declarioz swear that he had seen corn grow on it at a stated his belief in opposition to public obloqny, is mostly period. His conscience was in the way, and to quiet a proof of, it is utterly absurd and mischievous to it, he and his employer took a journey to the spot, incapacitate him from giving evidence in a court and planting some heads of growing maize in a run- of law. It seems by the report, that several of the ning brook, they suspended to a tree, on one side the jury joined in the cry of "Turn him out," when figures 1814, and to a tree on the other the fignres WILLIAM M.PHERSON declared his unbeliet. It is 1815. Jonathan then went into court, and swore a proof that they were far less fitted for jurymeu thau that he had seen soine wheat growing in the spring, JULIAN HIBRERT was for an evidence. Their conbetween 1814-15. The fact is, whenever ceremonies duct was most disgraceful to them. This boasted are substituted for substance, the substance is apt to trial by jury seems, in many cases, to be very like be forgotten.

trial by, party. Like Charles Phillips, they would Now, touching this matter of belief in a god, it is rather justice should be left undone, than that ar clear that JULIAN HIBBERT spoke withont due re- individual personally obnoxious to thene should be flection. He probably had been somewhat annoyed instrumental in doing it. in his youth, with the cant of religion, while he saw Mr. Alderman Brown addressed Mr. Phillips, through the hypocrisy of its professors, and that gave The public, Mr. Phillips, owe you much for the him so much distaste for the whole thing, that the course you have pursued." Mr. Alderman Brown is hatred of the one became synonymous with the hatred doubtless a highly respectable person : like Bel, the of the other. I myself remember passing through idol,"eating much meat.” But the judge, the resimilar sensations in my boyhood, being driven to corder, sitting in the seat of judgment aml approv. churches and chapels innumerable, sometimes thrice ing the interference of the spectators with the courite rices, and still duller sermons, wherein dogmas were good people all

, as has been done by church-and! made to supply the place of logic, till the very name kiug inobs, before now! You are a Britisb asseur of religion became loatasome to me, as something bly, therefore show your zeal for the supreme being, invariably connected with privation and suffering ; by your want of charity to one of his creatures ! and christianity became synonymous with jesuitry Hunt him out of the pale of society as fast as posand bigotry. Hatred of this tyranny practised in his sible.” The recorder had a predecessor who wax name, made me blind to the beautiful spirit of Christ, commonly called by the name of “Black Jack." blind to the fact, that he was a beneficent and radi- He did inany things, but none more extraordinary cal reformer of the numerous évils to which the hn- thau this. man mind is subjected. It was a most unfortunate (Some remarks upon the foregoing will appear Dext religion for a race of oppressive rulers to live under, and therefore was it they did what in them lay to

week.-ED. 0.] change its beautiful morality to vicious practices. Oppression is utterly incompatible with pure caristi- Per Mr. Watts, Manchester anity. When JULIAN HIBBERT professed his dis. Mr. Follous, card.. belief of the existence of a god, he was illogical. He

ERRATUM.- For A Pew Friends, per Mr. Hulse,' may ask others to prove the existence of a god, but in No. 28, READ, Mr. E. Thornton. they may also challenge him to prove the non-exist

Those who logicize in favour of beliet, state Printed by G. J. HOLYOAKE, No. 8, Holywell-street, their articles very briefly: “Does the general system

Strand, London,and Published for him by all Liberal of the universe give internal evidence of plan or no

Booksellers. Agent for Bristol, J. Chappel, Now plan ?" If the answer be in the affirmative, then the existence of the plan must premise also the existence

Agent, Narrow Wine-street; Macclesfield, Mr.

Roche, Hall of Science; Mr. Thomas Lingard, of a planner. This, allowed, opens atiother argu

New-street, Barnsley. ment; “Does there seem in the race of men a gene

Saturday, July 23, 1812.

€1 12 6

0 5 0



Or, Philosophy Jindicated.



No. 32.]





mercy of Jesus, that was the way he con

verted sinners. J. CHAPPEL, agent for this work in Bristol,

Knowing Mr. Carlile to be no ordinary has received notice from his Christian land

man, I suspected he would show his “ sincere lord to quit his present residence, for announc

sorrow for what he had done,” like nobody ing the Oracle to be on sale in his shop. else. Nor was this conjecture far wrong, as Bravo! bigotry.

Christians! worshippers he has adopted the following curious and ex. of the son of a god of war, the lord of hosts traordinary mode of showing it.

He has written a letter to Sir R. Peel, -the “meek and lowly," who brought a sword into the world— like nnto the inhabi- stating that he thought the fiendish practice

of punishing men for what is called blasphemy tants of the valleys, the lord won't be able to (alias, speaking the truth of theology), was overcome us because of our nerves of iron, abandoned as unworthy a people professing a

W. C. particle of enlightenment. Also, enclosing a

letter from Mr. SOUTHWELL, bearing the

stamp of his keepers, showing that all his MR. RICHARD CARLILE. correspondence was read by them ; thus

prorThe friends of liberty will be glad to hearing that not only his body but his mind too is that this gentleman, so long and deservedly Carlile adds, that if it is thus men are treated

imprisoned by his clerical oppressors. Mr. known for his brave and manly advocacy of for heterodox opinions in 1842, he his self will mental and political freedom, is at this time endeavour to furnish a few more cases of blasin the enjoyment of his health and faculties. phemy, to hasten the termination of the sys. I have had the great gratification of meeting feet of Jesus, I found him posting off to the

tem. Instead of finding Mr. Carlile at the him in London, and from him have received feet of the Cheltenham Daniels “ wot” lately much valuable advice.

came to judgment. For he was completing The priests had boasted the lion had re. arrangements to deliver lectures in that town tired to his lair, but I found him active as in explanation of his views of the bible. He ever, lecturing on Sunday evenings in the intends to do the same in Gloucester, and be City Road, upon his views of theology; and present at the trial.

Mr. Carlile's plan is to give rational insuch views they are, that while mankind terpretations to the scriptures, and though the have much, the priests have nothing to rejoice trouble he takes may be much more than they at-unless one can suppose them rejoicing at are worth, his curious, ingenious, and profound a useful interpretation of their scriptures, a conjectures are worthy of careful considerathing to which they are little addicted.

tion, and to many persons would be very

acceptable. Mr. Jones, one of the Gloucester magis

It has been a grand object of the pious to trates, specially boasted to me that, “ that decry so formidable and powerful a thinker and horrible man,CARLILE! who had used to be in actor as Mr. Carlile, and many persons from

was sincerely sorry for what he whom better things were to have been exhad done, and was now a humble penitent at pected, have been seduced into aiding such the feet of Jesus.”

injustice. However, this is fast decliningThis received no reply; but I thought that, he promises fair to outlive all calumny. Die if he was there, it had taken nine years and when he will, his noble and useful “works will a half of barbarous imprisonment, besides follow him.” Not as the saints follow them, beavy fines, ruinous confiscations, and the to execrate their memory, but to render his incarceration of his wife and numerous ser- name ever fresh and beautiful. Reformers of vants, to bring him there. So that Jesus had every grade owe much to Carlile- for their not much to boast of; besides, awful discounts honor may their regard ever be commensurate must be deducted from the gentleness and I with his merit!

G, J, H.


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