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not upon all fours; they use sticks for weapons, divine has to administer to the soul, that is his they live in society, they carry off negro girls, profession; and whatever may be thought of whom they make slaves of, and use both for its utility, it makes all that concerns the digwork and pleasure.” This, it must be con- nity of the soul the peculiar care of the divine, fessed, is anything but “asserting the dignity who would feel much scandalized were it proved of human nature, but it is of far more conse- that bis flock were, after all, but the fiftietli quence than asserting human dignity, to know cousins of sheep. While physicians, who in the that when Lord Monboddo talks of whole practice of their honourable profession are as nations of monkey men, without the use of little interested in the entire care of bodies ** speech, who walked erect, and not upon all- the divines are in the entire cure of-souls, are fours ; he gave us a legacy of nonsense, and shrewd enough to understand the real state of bad men having possession of the precious relic the question,

which is this, that did correct and use it most unscrupulously as a sharp weapon sober ideas prevail with regard to the nature of against those who maintain the substance and man, his rights, duties, and real position as a sense of Monboddo's theory, without its out-member of the great commonwealth-physic rageous nonsense. To our minds one simple would be thrown to the dogs, for assuredly mon fact is sufficient to overturn the theory of Mon- would have none on't. So that these two boddo, a fact mentioned by White, which is, brothers in the medicinal art have long made that the law of gradation, that philosophers common cause together, most artfully raising of his school so strenuously maintain, would be such a cloud of prejudice that the patients can't destroyed if the hypothesis of tailed men were see an inch in advance of their noses, but are correct; for in descending through the species led by that useful organ, to borrow an expresof apes, we meet with no tails till we reach the sion from the poet, as asses are." If, however, baboons, which are further removed from man which is not very common, a Taylor or a Lawthan the apes are; but surely it is much better rence step forward to expose these peccadillos, to state the fact or facts, and cure the delusion, why their mouths are stopped with a sop of than to persecute or abuse its author. It will sword; they having the alternative, poverty hereafter be proved that Lord Monboddo is and independence in prison, riches and degrasufficiently refuted by a reference to the rela- dation in a palace ; for whatever may be said of tive structure of men and monkeys; but enough individuals, it is certain that associated bodies has already been said to free us from the im- act to the letter upon the scripture injunctiou, putation of supposing that real bona fide men “if thine eye offend thee pluck it out"-for i or women ever did wear so unsightly an ap- any member offend them they thrust him out. pendage. The tendency of the multitude to be gratified with all that flatters their prejudices

SYMBOL WORSHIP. and puffs them up with the notion that they are in action like angels, in form, apprehension, &c. like gods, has strangely affected philoso-" The Egyptians assigned to their gods certain animals, phers, especially modern ones, who, though at as their symbols. They were introduced into the fitting opportunities will preach and moralize

temples, as were the images into the churches of the

Christians, and afterwards they were adored. Clement to admiration about corrupt, degraded, and of Alexandria says, that the Egyptians regarded tha fallen human nature, will yet insist that there ibis and ichneumon as the statues of the gods. That is in that nature something divine, angelic, and

is to say, as their symbols."-Jurieu's Histoire des

Dogmes et des Cultes de l'Eglise. the like ; so that he had better been born a dog who, notwithstanding all this fuss, should It is intended to devote a portion of these affirm that man is but a two-legged, two-handed pages to a consideration of the nature and origin animal, less swift than the hare, less strong than of symbolic worship. An attempt will be made the lion, and, though better organized for all to trace its moral influence upon the social and the purposes of intelligence and happiness, has political condition of nations. A concise, plainly been perhaps less reasonable than either. But written series of papers upon a subject so pregit is evident that in a state of society where it is nant with important considerations will, it is treason to expose bad governments, however hoped, be acceptable to general readers, who vile and corrupt, and flat blasphemy to propa- may not be in a condition to purchase, nor even gate any opinions against a hireling priesthood to afford so much of leisure as would enable and law-made religions ; it is natural to suppose them to wade through, bulky and expensive that the people should be systematically de- folios. The aim here is to popularise, by ceived, and reduced to that state of servile vas- smoothing the difficulties which in many learned salage, both of mind and body, that wholesome works beset the path of the student, and thus truth is an abomination to them; and the bring the mysteries, or hidden things, of the public orator, who is loaded with popular ap- world of symbols within the reach of the simplause,has good reason demand, like Phocion, plest understanding. There is no want of adwhether he have not given birth to something mirable matter for a full and complete history foolish. Between doctors for the body, and of symbolic worship, but the narrow limits of doctors for the soul, the credulous multitude this paper render it necessary to crowd much have been physicked out of all plain sense. The that is useful into a small space, to do which


with effect demands some skill; it commonly which rests the clumsy superstructure of their happening with the book as with the palace, that divine logic; and not merely so, but their anaabundance of excellent material is rendered themas are pronounced against those shocking worse than useless by a bungling architect: infidels who scruple to receive their assumptions The end to be attained is concentration, not as the only standard by which the truth or diffusion; a bringing close together facts of falsehood of all other ideas and all other systems • peculiar interest, which bear with force upon of theology are to be determined. If the disthe question; and not as is usual to spread cussion turn upon the relative antiquity of the those facts over a large surface, so that by col- Sanscreet and Jewish histories ; if the disputed licting, or as it were drawing, into one focus point be whether the Indian Geeta or the Jewdie rays of information which are now dispersed ish Bible has most claim to the respect and over the pages of many authors, light may be veneration of mankind, it is at once decided by thrown upon a subject hitherto so much ob- these self-sufficient logicians, that as it is clear sured by national vanities, party violence, and a god wrote the Jewish Bible, and as it is equally sectarian prejudices.

clear that the account given of creation in the All that concerns the religion, the learning, sacred books of the Hindoos flatly contradicts the virtues, and vices of antiquity opens to our that furnished by the great Jehovah himself, tit:w a field of investigation of almost unlimited ergo, what is written in the Hindoo books must extent, with no other boundary line than that be false. Their conduct admirably illustrates presented by the great globe itself, and suggests the judicious remark of Sir Thos. Brown, that the idea of periods of time which seem to mock those who would obtain a clear and warrantable all ordinary chronologic computation. The body of truth, must be content to forget or part facts which relate thereto are confined to works with much they know; for how can all truth which, from their costliness, are as completely be obtained by a partial pursuit of it ?-how, sealed books to the poorer and more numerous unless they forget or part with the prejudices ringses of society as though printed and pub- of caste, sect, and nation, can philosophers, lished in the planet Jupiter; and even could Christian or Hindoo, obtain a clear and warthey be placed at the disposal of the mass of rantable body of truth?—or how, in reason's the population, few would have sufficient cou-name, can any writer who assumes that to be true ruge to commence the investigation, or, if they whieh is the very point in dispute, lay claim to made the attempt, would fail to grow weary and the character of an accurate investigator or an lisgusted; weary of the drudgery inseparable impartial historian ? Mr. Maurice, a writer refrom such a pursuit, and disgusted with the spectable by his talent, is the fairest and least sophisms, gratuitous hypothesis, and wild offensive specimen of this genus, yet his History imaginings, so pompously paraded by theologic of Hindostan, and his Indian Antiquities, are historians as sacred truths. Many of these both greatly disfigured by an unnecessary obwriters, who have so largely contributed to trusion of his religious opinions and gratuitous foring this species of literature into merited impertinencies, levelled against those whose ormontempt, seeem to have no other object in thodoxy is not his doxy. The animus of this irw, when treating of the religions of antiquity, writer is shown in the following passage from than studiedly to depreciate and misrepresent the introduction to Indian Antiquities, p. 22: them. When they illustrate the religions of “ I have entered further into their astronomical Cuctia and Egypt, it is with a view to throw disquisitions than my friends may think was into the foreground what they call the divine either necessary or, in regard to the sale of my truth of their own holy religion; so that their book, prudent; but this particular subject was histories amount to little more than special intimately connected with others of a higher pleadings in favour of certain cherished dogmas; nature and more momentous research. The and if they succeed in establishing for a season daring assertions of certain sceptical French shine fanciful hypothesis, or give a colour of philosophers with respect to the age of the nasonableness in favour of some systematic world, whose arguments I have attempted to thecology, they are then reckless as to what be- refute; arguments, principally founded on the

ernes of truth, reason, or any thing so vulgar high assumptions of the Brahmins and other 49 common sense.

Eastern nations, in point of chronology and Making the inspiration of Moses the fixed astronomy, could their extravagant claims be Loint from whence to set out in search of phi- substantiated, have a direct tendency to overlosophy, taking it for granted that he was a turn the Mosaic system, and with it Christiivine legislator, and the account of beginnings anity. I have, therefore, with what success and creation, as given in Genesis, as the only the reader must hereafter determine, laboured ere that can be true, these doughty reasoners to invalidate those claims with all the persemake everything satisfactorily square with their vering assiduity which a hearty belief in the sumptions. Having upon their own autho- truth of the former (the Mosaic system), and hly determined, not only that Moses wrote the an unshaken attachment, not merely profes

sks of Genesis, but also that they were writ- sional, to the latter system (Christianity),could * by the express command of a god, the ideas not fail of exciting and aniniating.” The above »sequent thereupon form the substratum upon passage shows that while Mr. Maurice, wedded to system, and fettered by the prejudices of his criterion of intelligence. They inform is that nation, was quite unfitted to treat fully and size indicates power, ceterus paribus, that is, impartially the important subject he had en- other conditions being equal; arguing that large gaged to develop, that nevertheless he was one heads always have and always will rule the of those men to whom Bacon alludes, who know small ones, which opinion may be very good, how to sound the sharps and flats of discourse ; but it is in direct opposition to that: held by for the strain of his work was well adapted to Aristotle, who insisteil that small headed men tickle the ears of the honourable directors of are by far the most knowing, so it is likely that the East India Company, to whom it was Aristotle had the same idea of a large head that dedicated.

we, in these more enlightened tirnes, have of If the high assumptions of the Brahmins and thich ones. Aristotle, like the phrenadagiats other Eastern point of chronology mapped out the head; or, to speak with deand astronomy be an erroneous assumption ; curacy, the phrenologists map oat the head like if their claim to superior wisdom be "extra- Aristotle; so that organology is by no means vagant,” let such assumptions and claim be a modern science--Aristotle and the phrenoshown to be such by fact and argument. The logists only differing as to the number and assumption of an Indian or Egyptian priest is place of the organs, which, with all due sal. just as good, to our thinking, as the assumption mission to Coombe, Deville, and others, is: of a Christian priest; the claim of the Hindoo ticklish point to determines We leave this philosophers for priority in point of time and reader to take one hypothesis, both, or neither moral superiority, may or may not be extra- as he finds it convenient; as our objeetonoty is vagant, bat if they are the extravagance should to show by facts and figures that men have no be exposed, and let us not violate the plainest more brains than many other creatures, bipes rules of justice and right reason by pronounc- or quadruped, notwithstanding the assertion ing them to be such because they have a di- the phrenologists. - That the elephant, the rect tendency to pverturn the Mosaic system, phin, and the whale have more brain than mm and with it Christianity. Away with the is well known, and we believe the patient Mosaic system, if it require falsehood and in-horious ass has the like advantage over tú justice for its support! perish Christianity, if “ lord of the creation.” So that, as regned it harmonise not with the cultivated reason of absolute size, human beings have no acraatay man! The plain truth is, that Mr. Maurice, over many creatures of an inferior species and all writers of his dogmatic sehool, fully while with respeet to the relatire size, a sam igree with Sir Wur. Jones, that “either the mary of the result of Cavier's investigation i first eleven cligntors of Genesis (all due allow-shown in the following table :ança being made for a âgurative, Eastern style) MAN

QUADS. CONTINUED. are true, or the whole fabric of the Christian

Elephant religion is falsc,” which accounts for their Gibbon

1.48 Sheep, from 1.192to 1.4

1.22 Saiiniri

Ox terrible wrath and fierce declamation against sai


Horse ..... the philosophers who - flourished during the Ouistiti eventful period of the first French revolution Сонiti

Doiphiq, fr. 1.25 to 3.10 the Volneys, Dupuis, and others of the same

You aparaok Porpoise.iris.

Callitriche 1.41 # school, whose writings have so largely contri

butel to destroy all belief in the literal text of Mongabey
Genesis ; relucing it to a mere allegoric fiction,



1.23 thereby aiding, without doubt, to overturn the

Dogs, different spe. Canary Birds 1.24 Mosaie system, and with it Christianity.

from 1.47 to 1.305

Land Turtle ...

Frog The soul was supposed by the Cartesians to Rat to be snugly quartered in the pineal gland(glun- Mouse.. dulis pinealis); granting that to be true, a Field Mouse ...... 1.31

Carp dexterous operator, with a sharp dissecting Cuvier considers the brain in man in propos knife, would be enabled to cut out the apart- tion to his body, as one to thirty, but the con ment containing the soul, and show the soul's rectness of this has been disputed, Professi house upon a plate, for the satisfaction of the Sewal and others calculating it as one to for curious, the thinking principle being carried or fifty about like a monkey in a box. The Jewish

It was a saying of Cæsar's, that "It is ti Rabbins declared that the souls of men were

common vice of nature, that we have the 20 comfortably located in the back bone, which confidence in, and the greatest fear of, thin highly honoured back bone they called luz, and unseen, concealed, and unknown.” if we may believe Manesses Ben Israel, is incorruptible, and so tough as to set fire, water, BRISTOL:- Printed & Published by FIELD, SOUTIEWEI hammers, and everything else at defiance. Our and Co., 6, Narrow Wine-street-LONDOR : Iloths men of science teach that the brain is the sen

ington, Watson. - MANCHESTER : Heywooh-Bz

MINGIAM: Guest, Taylor.-LIVERPOOL : Stavar. sorium or seat of sensation, the size and activity of which phrenologists consider a safe

Saturday, November 6, 1841.








1.44 1.48


1.35 1.25



U - 1.82 to


1.158 1.290 1.76 1.43

1.224 1.17




GLASGO:V : Paton aud Love.


Or, Philosophy Vindicated.



No. 5.)


[Price ld.

I look upon your party, considered as proPOLICY versus PRINCIPLE.

gressors, to be virtually defunct; my reasons

for this opinion shall be given in full in this To the SOCIALISTS of ENGLAND. series of letters; and while addressing you, who LETTER I.

are so numerous, influential, and generally in“ Honesty IS the best Policy.”

telligent a body, my language shall be to the

point-sober, plain, and gravity itself. It is FRIENDS,

my practice to suit the food to the palate, and I OFFER no apology for thus addressing you. use one style with canting hypocrites, and Socialists can require none. Stigmatised by another with just and reasonable people. So bigot enemies as a band of reckless infidel in- that you will please to credit me with the abnovators, you are not now, and I sincerely sence of all intention to cast ridicule upon your trust never will be, respectable enough to stifle proceedings, whatever reflections I may feel it Inquiry; and, as lovers of truth, you consistently my duty to make. If by the mere statement and properly court publicity, challenging of plain truth, such a result be produced, the the most severe investigation of your principles fault cannot justly be chargeable upon me. My and policy. Whether the investigator be friend hostility is not towards the principles of your or foe, it matters little, if you have a principle, society, but the corruptions of them ; not the and that principle be sound; if you have a practices to which you anxiously look forward, policy, and that policy be useful and honest, but the measures adopted to obtain them. Had you cannot fall. A society with true principle principle not been violated; had the association as fundamental, and just practice as super- been true to itself; had your talented leaders structure, cannot be permanently injured by repudiated, instead of imitated, the vices of any weapon, blunt or sharp, friendly or mere demagogues, I would have fought in the unfriendly.

van, in the rear, or side by side, with them : My reasons for taking the present course are aye, even to the last gasp; my notion of these two-fold. First, because having been one of things having ever been, that in the glorious your missionaries, and thinking it my duty to se-warfare against error and tyranny, to a mind parate from you, my silence might have been not spoiled by vanity, it would be held far more misinterpreted, and placed to the account of honourable to be a corporal in a well-disciplined treachery or fear, vices incident to human na- regiment, than a general among ragamuffins. ture, that I heartily abhor. Secondly, because There will be nothing invidiously personal it is criminal to hold back truth, which in our in these papers, and though I shall often have consciences we believe ought to be told. Every to allude to the Social Missionaries, it will be right-minded member of your society will agree as an independent friend, who scorns to flatter with me, that if to deceive when we ought to and disdains to abuse. Their talent is undoubted, instruct is to act the knave; not to undeceive while their morality, as this world goes, is is to be a practical liar. The virtues are active generally unimpeachable. Public men are and passive; it is sometimes good to suffer, it public property ; ånd in glancing, as I shall is often criminal not to resist. True Socialists sometimes have occasion to do, at the conduct are worthy to be called the advanced guard of of your leading missionaries, I wish it to be the army of politicians. The pure philosophy understood, that as men of genius and excellent once taught by Robert Owen is the very poetry moral feeling, who have won the laurel bravely of politics. Now the pure ore is all but lost and worn it nobly, I honour and respect them; amid the dross and rubbish by which it is en- but as Brutus did not love Cæsar less, but cumbered. Before Socialism was churched, Rome more, so I do not love these excellent shorn of its consistency, or its preachers be- friends less, though I love truth much more. reverended, it was, as a theory, more beautiful, Indeed, so far am I from entertaining feelings unique, and admirable than the wit of man personally hostile to the Socialists individually had ever before devised. Those who called or collectively, that all my sympathies, and Socialismn “moral Chartism,” caught the true prejudices, if you will, are knit up and, as it Ilea of what Socialism was, and what it may were, entangled with you. yet become, if, like the phonix, it should rise From Mr. Owen I received the first strong from its own ashes.

ray of light in my benighted intellects, and 33


from the Social body the Promethean touch pedient, or safe, to do me the simple justice of that first warmed me into public life. As our inserting the substance of what I delivered at enemies would say, I was but the cockatrice's the Lambeth Social Institution, upon the occaegg, you hatched it into the serpent; so that sion of my farewell lecture, much of what is for me, because the policy of your society is written above would have been unnecessary ; not my policy, to shower abuse and invective but I am driven to take my own affairs into upon it, would, as I declared in my farewell my own hands, and do myself that justice lecture, be playing the serpent that stung the which they have denied me. This shall be done hand which warmed it into life. My judgment fearlessly and honestly, with a rigid adherence condemns the abandonment of principle of to truth, and full determination not unnecessawhich the Social representatives have been rily to irritate or wound the feelings of any guilty; my judgment heartily despises the party. hesitating, shuffling, equivocating,white-feather It is always a bad sign when men shrink from policy, that has been pursued for some time investigation ; honesty having nothing to dread past, but more especially since the period when so much as concealment. If I should fall into the Bishop of Exeter attacked you in the House error, and these letters contain falsehood, scurof Lords; my judgment condemns the taking rility, or mischievous sophistry, your society of oaths by your missionaries, as a miserable, will furnish many able men, who can use the truckling, unprincipled policy, that had nothing tongue or the pen with equal facility, and drub in its favour but its immediate convenience, no me for my pains. But if I can show that the sort of apology but the wretched one, that those policy of your society is not the policy which who took it were rescued for a season from the ough to be pursued; that it is neither just, fangs of a vile law. All this, and much more, honourable, nor useful; and that if persisted of which you, the Social body, have been pur- in it will end in confusion and shame ; and you posely k pt in utter ignorance, my deliberate who ought to be the admiration, become the judgment despises and condemns; so that laughing-stock, of Europe ; if I can demonwhile feeling tugs at my heart-strings with strate this by reason and argument, you should complaining cries to talk me from my purpose ; at once abandon so vicious a policy, retrace honour an:l right reason demand that, at all your steps, and not be ashamed to acknowledge, hazarrls, and any personal sacrifices, the whole with the Grecian sage, that you grow old learntruth should he told, “ without mystery, mix- ing many things. It is the fundamental axiom ture of error, or fear of man."

of my policy, that no reforms, no morality can All these remarks are preliminary, but es- be safe that is not firmly inbedded in principle. sential and highly useful, for without the soil That a society, or a nation, to be permanently be duly prepared the seed cannot be put in prosperous, must have integrity. No man can with advantage; and though all who know me raise a good building with bad materials, do will answer for my motives and intentions, matter what his architectural skill; no society there are few in your society who do know what or public body can be stable or secure, the my views, sentiments, opinions, and conduct members of which have not a high sense of really are, and this principally in consequence honour, and perfect faith in principle- not a of the narrow policy upon which the now no- nominal, but real, faith ; men and women in minal, but formerly actual editor of the New whose moral scales wealth weighs as nothing Moral World uniformly acted; which was to against principle. I am not fighting shadows exclude from its columns those opinions which but substance, not for empty names but solid he thought it unsafe or inexpedient to publish ; benefits, which nothing but union with knowthat is, all opinions which did not fit his paper's ledge can give ; and what, I ask, hinders union Procrustean bed. I never disputed his right, so much as an affection for pelf, and the readias your editor, to prevent the voice of any ness of individuals and of public bodies to set heterodox missionary being heard ; but I did, their affections upon bricks and mortar, and and do, dispute its justice and policy; and am sacrifice principle, honour, and consistency fully prepared to show it, either through the upon the altar of a time-serving, profitable express or on any public rostrum. If you have pediency? It is the want of principle and tenpaid missionaries, you ought to know what dency to corruption of all public bodies, that opinions they hold; if their opinions be sound, have hitherto existed, that has brought them there can be no harmo; if unsound it is essen- into contempt, and filled men of sense and tial they should be known, so that the interests spirit with disgust; and, let me tell ġou, that of your society may not be sacrificed to the your society will go the way of all societies, unwild vagaries or peculiar crotchets of any less it reforms from within. It has nothing to individuals.

fear from its enemies, but everything to fear So much for matters.purely personal, which from its friends,who, without sterling integrity have stretched over a larger space than I had may, if not checked by your intelligence, be intenderd; for bitter experience teaches, that reckless of principle, and sacrifice all that is the less said about individuals, and the more high and noble-minded in policy. There are about the mass, the better. Had the conduc- no essential diffierences among men, the aggretors of the New Moral World thought it ex- I gate, or individual man, is good or bad accord.

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