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one, truth will be the first and perpetual pre- and morality is always on the side of the sident, and merit alone will be exalted and better paid brief. honoured. That persons who have so little of According to the argument, this judicious it as counsellor Smith, the judge, and serf-like and all-essential restraint was founded on the jury will be treated as mental invalids there fear of a god and a devil

, which must there is no doubt; and that the iniquity which de- fore be protected from doubt by the jury and mands their profession would be removed they the gaol

. Holiness, then, is founded on hobknow. The name of a god, that pretext for goblins. Piety, not on love but fear. Here all enormities, was, as usual, invoked to justify then is justification, new and ample, of the the prosecution. The jury were assumed assertion that our sublime and sacred mysteries stupid enough to swallow it, which, to their were concocted merely to terrify, and that everlasting disgrace, they did, and a new in- preaching is a trade, encouraged only to frighten. famy was thereby stamped upon christi-people, who ought to have been trained in anity.

morality and educated in virtue. G. J. H. Then, Mr. Smith, kind, careful soul, would

(To be Continued.) extend his fatherly protection to the press. The press, the light of the world, the “ second ark” of mankind, of which Ebenezer

ULITITARIANISM AND THE DELUGE.--A calouElliott bas sung so gloriously, but for the relating friend, who seldom employs any other straints of the law would exceed all decorum interpreter to the bible than the Řule of and shock all Mr. Smith's proprieties! It is Three, being asked his opinion of the deluge, the boy wanting to lead his father. The law replied in a manner worthy of Jeremy Bene should be the child of the press, and will be tham, “I think it a great waste of water, yet. Is the imputation to be borne, that the which might have been more profitably and giant pioneer of civilisation, the nurse humanely employed in quenching hell fire." mother of morality, is to be walked about The HUMANISING EFFECTS OF CHRISTIANITY. with leading strings held by legal libellers ? - The Rev. W. Hoales, in his “ Memoirs of Are we to be told by bribed maligners, that Mr. Chubb; or a fuller and more faithful it is the alcohol of immorality, making drunk account of his Life, Writings, Character, and. all who drink at its fountain ? No it has Death,” published in 1747, after asserting,

without the slightest evidence, that Chubb Holy light within, And every form of grief and sin,

was addicted to the most abominable rices, Will see and feel its fire.

declared that he would have his corpse,

and that of every similar sceptic, instead of Mr. Smith seems the embodiment of origi- being decently buried, “ Dragged by a halte: nal sin. The poet, Campbell, once humorously round the neck to' a gibbet, where the bangaffirmed, that he had nothing original in him, man, after having cut out the heart, plucked but original sin. This might be believed of out the tongue by the roots, and chopped off Mr. Smith, without his confession of it. He the right hand, should burn the whole in : might be pointed to, as the incarnation of fire made with the works which he wrote; and depravity of conception, who looks out upon his ashes being thrown into the air, with the world as on a great gaol, where slaves execration and contempt, would make all those erawl up and down, and adore their keeper who bow the knee at the name of Jesus, lift through fear of the rack, and do homage to a up their hands with joy and great gladness.” tyranny before which they humble. Exalted conception of humanity! He sees no love leading to kindness, no nobleness inciting to

ERRATA. justice, no honor, no morality, excepting that

In the List of Subscriptions in No. 8, instead of which is the forced offspring of base-born

“Sheffield, £3 18s. 6d.," read £3 4s. 11d. terror. Our servants, apprentices, &c., will do nothing for their superiors; and all man

Omitted in prerious List :

£ s. d. kind, like so many comets, will run wild Leicester through eccentric orbits, but for the restraints Bilston of religion. No other, and no more fitting Preston

Newcastle-upon-Tyne use, can these gentlemen discover for religion, tban that of keeping slaves submissive, and servants obedient and dutiful to their pastors Subscriptions received on behalf of Mr. Southwell, and masters, and all set in authority over them. Nottingham, a few friends, per H. L. Knight, : .. It is never expected to influence kings and Circus Street Meeting, Working Man's 'Han, bishops who, locust-like, feed on the green

by W. Skelton things of the earth. Nobody ever dreams that it is to guide the conscience of the lawyer, Printed by G. J. HOLYOAKE, 179, Broomhall Street

, whose soul, like the merchant of Burke, lies

Sheffield; and Published for him by all Liberal in his money bag, and whose love of religion

Booksellers.

Saturday, February 26, 1842.

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Or, Philosophy Uindicated. CULAR UNION "FAITH'S EMPIRE 13 THE WORLD; ITS MOXARCH, GOD; ITS MINISTERS, TUE PRIESTS;

ITS SLAVES, THE PEOPLE.

No. 11.)

EDITED FOR CHARLES SOUTHWELL, DURING HIS IMPRISONMENT,

BY G. JACOB HOLYOAKE.

[Price 1d.

LETTER V.

POLICY versus PRINCIPLE.

exactly what I feel and think with regard to
your party-unlike Milton, of whom it was

said, that such was the majesty of his genius, TO THE SOCIALISTS OF ENGLAND. that the English language sunk under him.

I invariably find that I sink under the lan-
Honesty IS the best Policy.”

guage. In writing to you upon matter so cal

culated, however carefully dealt with, to perFRIENDS, Is the Times of Monday, the 7th instant, there a little Scotch friend of mine, secretary to a de

plex and irritate, my condition reminds me of are some remarks worthy of attention; the bating society, of which I was a member, who writer, in alluding to a pamphlet lately print would sometimes attempt to make a speech, but ed at Paris, by General Cass, which treats of after sundry miscarriages he at length canthe question now pending between this country, didly said, tbat getting up in the midst of so and America, respecting “ the right of search," observes, “Of course a political writer is quite out of his head, but he added very naively,

many friends literally frightened the ideas at liberty, in plain but measured terms, to "could I only say what I think, when I am impute to his opponents such motives as sometimes crossing the road, I could make a he considers their actions clearly evidence. Whether he does so in a spirit of truth, it is speech with the best of you.” The weakness

which I do not feel when combatting the for others to judge, not for him to proclaim; common enemy, I attribute to the excessive and they will not be prejudiced in his favour, anxiety I feel not to be mistaken, but to con, by seeing that before, and whilst making his accusation, he does not manfully take up such wey to your minds the simple naked truth and incidium as attaches to his position, but tries no more; and I candidly confess, that could I to shelter himself by a disclaimer from the re- careless about the good or bad opinions of any

entirely succeed in this particular, I should be sponsibility of a suggestion by which he yet individuals or parties.

No one can think plainly intends to preoccupy the mind of the

more lightly or even contemptuously of vulreader.”

gar applause, but few are more ambitious or I was forcibly struck with the above spirit- would make larger sacrifices to obtain the aped

passage, which in my present somewhat probation of wise men. I value fame as a delicate position came completely home to my means to an end, not to the end itself, knowfeelings. Though I cannot allow myself to ing, to use the words of a modern writer, that be called an “opponent” of your party, I “ It is not so much action that stamps the know that in taking my present course it is character, as character that stamps the acscarce possible I should escape such a charge. tion." But I am far less anxious to ward off such a charge than to do you justice. Either in at- “accusations” against the policy of your party,

I am by no means desirous, while making tacking or defending parties it is difficult to to sbrink from the invidium which may attach keep strictly to the line of moderation. Could to such conduct, at the same time it is but fair I convey to you all, and exactly what I think, that I should provide against mistakes, and I am persuaded that no sane man among you" speak by the card, lest equivocation should would take offence, but to conceive is one undo me.” I know the folly of attempting, thing, to execute another.

or rather expecting, to please all men; those Lacedemonian Chilo thus profest,

who are over solicitous to do so much, will Nothing too much, a mean in all is best,

probably succeed in doing very little, and like which was admirable advice of the Grecian ihe poor old man with his ass, receive no sage, but advice few indeed know how to act other reward than scorn and derision. Havupon. No one can deny that “the mean in ing therefore determined to take the strictly all is best,” but who can safely determine honest course, I am prepared “manfully to what is the mean, the neither too much nor take up such invidium as attaches to my potoo little which should be said or done. For sition," nor will I attempt to "shelter myself myself, whenever I attempt 10 put on paper by any disclaimers from the responsibility of

any suggestion by which I plainly intend to pernicious character : and I must insist, that preoccupy your minds."

Ås all inuendos, Mr. Owen puts forth clainis to being a “prac. parables, or dark sayings of any kind, savour rical man,” and the only rational one; which of servitude, and would never be used by the is neither warranted by his conduct or abili. really free, such modes of expression will ties. Mr. Owen has been called by enthusihere be avoided, so that no man sball have astic admirers," the greatest luminary that the power to say, I wished indirectly to con- ever rose above the political horizon," which vey that which I dared not openly proclaim. if we admit, I see no reason why men should And here I may allude to a sentence in a fall down and worship him. But I do not former letter, with a view to guard against admit anything of the kind, and am clearly of misapprehension. I there state, that in all opinion that Mr. Owen, though well qualified that relates to thought I call no man master;" to point the way to a new and superior state but standing as it does, it is calculated to con- of society, has no notion how to build up : vey a false idea, an idea it was never intended science of morals. He sees few truths, and to convey. It is true, that in all that relates only a few, and mistaking them for all truth, to thought “I call no man master," but it he sets to work with a perseverance which should have been added, that I accept thou- does him honor. As a friend once said to me, sands as friends and instructors. I am op- “A duck's leg is not a duck; and he who posed to mastership and discipleship, but no would expect it to lay eggs would be disapless opposed to arrogance and presumption. pointed;" just so with Mr. Owen, he has got

I have long been an ardent admirer of Mr. a duck's leg which he mistakes for a duck, and Owen, and to the best of my ability have de- is always on the look out for eggs. If Mr. fended him from the coarse, assassin-like at- Owen were content to moderate bis pretentacks of priests and their emissaries, but my sions, they would not be so often challenged; admiration never degenerated into idolatry, but the most friendly cannot stille disgust at and I hope that I shall never so far dishonor offensive displays of excessive egotism. Bemyself as to prostrate reason before any bu- sides, as my object is to infuse fresh blood into man idol. Not a few of your party are mere your party, and make you acquainted with Owenites, who puff Mr. Owen up as an the true state of your affairs, it is essential that oracle of wisdom as well as of reason, and you should be undeceived with regard to have instituted a species of man-worship. It Mr. Owen. I wish to show you that be is has long been my opinion that the worship but a man like yourselves, and not a demieither of god's or men is a pollution of our god, as some would seem to think him. Mr. humanity. Mr. Owen exercises great influ- Owen says that he is the only sane man in the ence in your party; and as regards the attain-country, all others are grossly irrational; now ment of certain inferior objects, perhaps a I only go one step further, and say that we salutary one, but if you would march towards are all mad together. We may safely lay it the largest measure of freedom, he is a down as a rule without exception, that all are stumbling block in your way. I do not hesi- mad a little. tate to affirm that Mr, Owen's connexion with When at Congress, I was positively ashamed your party is fatal to its progress in just ideas to hear some of the delegates pour forth their and the noblest practices. It is usual to flatter flattery. These big babies were everlastingly Mr. Owen, but I have other objects than that talking about "our dear father” doing this, of pleasing individuals. There are few men and “our dear father" saying that; in fact, who can resist the poison of flattery, and Mr. their conduct was preposterous, and better Owen is certainly not of the number. Flattery suited to the eunuchs of an eastern harem, almost always acts injuriously upon public than the members of a rational congress. Í men, but specially so upon such susceptible have heard of a monarch, who, being unnatures as Mr. Owen's, who, with rare bene- fortunate enough to have a crooked neck, not volence and most astonishing perseverance in a single courtier could be found with his neck the cause of suffering man, is seemingly with straight. Another suddenly determined upon out his own knowledge, lustful of power, and taking snuff, when all his courtiers at once strongly, I may add fatally, inclines

became snuff-takers, and nothing was heard

but sneezing about the palace; and I verily To give his little senate laws And sit attentive to his own applause.

believe that Mr. Owen, had he put his neck

awry, or begun to sneeze, would have found This opinion is not set forth in spite, but in his courtiers at the Congress equally comduty; for, as regards Mr. Owen, personally, plaisant. I have no quarrel. I think that no man of Mr, Owen was by no means averse to the the present generation is at all comparable to "popish trickof calling him dear father, but him, in the essentials of a truly great and listened to that and the most fulsome aduln. good man; but he is not infallible, nay, of tions with great complacency and unmised late, he has manifested weakness, and dis- delight. His whole manner strongly replayed inconsistencies of a most glaring and minded me of a certain French quack who

90

WITH A FLW HINTS TO MEN OF PRINCIPLE.

tised to parade the streets of Paris, preceded | son,” said Soame Jenyns, " is to destroy it;" by a little boy, with pills and other cures undoubtedly, and it is not less certain that a "for all diseases." The boy ran before his religion proved to be true, would lose its remaster, crying, “My master cures all diseases, ligious character and take rank among the and sometimes death itself, for the small sciences. Belief is the essence of religion ; charge of six sous ;" the master contenting knowledge is the essence of philosophy. Mr. himself by every now and then pointing to Owen should have avoided the rock on the boy and saying with great gravity, The which so many great reformers have split. lad speaks true.'

He should not have made religion part and I confess that my admiration of Mr. Owen, parcel of his system, but boldly drawing which at one period was almost unbounded, the line between conjecture and knowledge, las much cooled of late. Close contact with said to the people, I will show you the way him bas cured me of my enthusiasm, and to peace, wealth, and happiness in this world; given new value to the remark of Dr. John- but as to the next, JE NE LE CONNAIS PAS, so i son, that men talk like angels and act like leave all to find that for themselves. men, His conduct upon one particular sub

Your well wisher, ject has given me great offence: I allude to

C. S. his attempt to teach bis “ disciples” what he is pleased to term a " Rational Religion.”

I shall take the liberty to consider Mr. A BROADSIDE FOR CANT AND Owen's personal merits or demerits, in other

QUACKERY; papers, my object now being merely to shake your faith in Mr. Owen's infallibility, and to protest against the idea of Rational Reli- MR. EDITOR-I've been to a hob-nob, a public gion, as most absurd in itself, and if not hob-nob; you know what a hob-nob is, don't exposed will speedily prove most disastrous in you? So many legs under a table, so many its consequences.

It matters little whether heads over a table, so many hands clenching Mr. Owen's opinions and conduct, with regard so many glasses, so many tongues wagging in to this, or indeed any other question, result concert, so many voices a-shouting, and so from what is called policy or sheer ignorance; many throttles a-gulping. I have but just left for whether error proceed from folly or left- one of these hob-nobs, a very superior thing handed wisdom, it is always destructive to the of its kind, I assure you. Everybody acknowmorals and happiness of society. The over- ledged the rights of everybody else, decried throw of superstition has been for ages the the “ vile and selfish oligarchy;" the “upgrand aim of wise men, and as to the cant, start aristocracy;" the “ landed monopolists;" for it is nought else, about all religions being the “dominant priesthood;" everybody said destroyed, except the true and rational one, it that everything that was said was the best unfortunately bappens for Rational Religion- thing of the kind that ever anybody did say ; ists that philosophers consider all religions and everybody vociferated for freedom of equally rational. They deal with them most thought, freedom of speech, and freedom of liberally, placing all exactly upon the same the press ; liberty and equality for ever! hip, footing. As to what form it may assume, it hip, hip; hurrah! hurrah! hurrah! Gorging may be truly said,

and sympathising must go together ; for how For forms of religion let fools contest,

can we express a fine sentiment, except in a

fine toast; or how could a shilling be coaxed there being a settled conviction in men of out of our pocket, except through the medium sense, that whether it assume the Presbyterian, of our stomach ? A sixpenny subscription per Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, or Pagan forms, quarter for active co-operation, is a mighty or whatever may be its object, crescent or call on our resources; a couple of pounds cross, one or a thousand gods, it is always a per annum would be next to ruin ; there are so dead weight upon human intellect. Mr. Owen many calls on our benevolence. But a feed, oh, has lately discovered that religion is a most that's quite another thing--any range, from a excellent tbing, if it be of the right quality. couple of shillings to a couple of guineas : He abhors superstition, but Rational Religion, "Oh yes, Sir ; I'll take a ticket for the sake of the religion of charity, as he sometimes calls it, the cause !" cannot be dispensed with. As the parsons say Of a verity we are a dinner-loving people, of prayer, it is as needful for the body as for and an after-dinner speech-making people, and the soul. Mr. Owen never seems to have we love to greet our favorite talker with vocithought deeply upon the subject, if we are ferous shouts ; it reflects credit, as it were, on permitted to judge of his latest writings. He our own taste and judgment; and besides, talks about Rational Religion as though en- needing something or some one to idolise, tirely ignorant that a religion, like a revela- whom better than a political pet ? But then, the tion, if proved by reason, would be destroyed reckoning! Oh, never mind the reckoning till by the proof.

"To prove revelation by rea- 1 settling day. The nation didn't mind the war till it had to pay the debt; and it never thinks course, and unfalteringly pursue it. Let it buys its whistle too dearly, till the bill the foes of superstition never forget what comes in. Do we know why we are allowed they are here told, and they will either at once to get up our hob-nobs ? Because it gets rid halt in their course, or proceed, strengthened of our 'sulks. The national safety-valve is by just, and not preposterous expectations, turned, and the national steam is let off; the The opposition or secret machinations of the pressure is lowered. It is with public dinner religious world are not all, we repeat, against meetings, and such like displays, as it is with which they must expect to contend. Not the Protestant-åsserted right of private judg- listlessness and apathy alone will be found on ment. Freeborn Englishmen shall talk as the part of the quasi-infidels

. There will be they like, as long as they like, and as loud shrugging of the shoulders and forebodings as they like, provided their talking and their and foretellings, and exclamations of “injudi. thinking result not in something “dangerous cious," and " self-willed,” and “headstrong," to the authorities," that is, serviceable to the and "imprudent,” and "indecorous," and people; or " hostile to the church, that is, “unsuitable,” &c. For position's-sake, and favorable to philosophy; or “ subversive of the caste's-sake, and connection's-sake, and the interests of society,” that is, destructive of the sake of anything and everything but truth ; slave bonds and class interests. Talk plainly, and because each free-Briton is afraid of every searchingly, without circumlocution ; expose other free-Briton, the real friends of free inany great political or religious cheat—no more quiry must expect to hear open disavowals and hob-nobings, no more impunity. You are denunciations. And to scrape still further fascowled down by the slaries, and put down vour with the orthodox and respectable, these by the law. You have done what is un- worthies may occasionally be heard even fashionable, and unfashionable and illegal are exulting at the punishment of the blasphemer. convertible terms. There is fashion, not only An instance of disgusting sycophancy and in the cut of a gown, or the sit of a coat, but time-serving apostacy was actually displayed in the expression of an opinion. There is by one of these gentry, a few brief days since. fashion in belief and unbelief; nothing so bad This admirer of Volney, and Paine, and Vol. as unfashionable Infidelity ; fidelity and In- taire, and Spinosa, and everybody afar off in fidelity being determined by the knaves and time or space, positively enunciated the truly simpletons ; the former few making the latter pious wish, that the next that followed in Soutsimany do their bidding in crushing all attempts WELL's footsteps, may be doubly and trebly at general enlightenment. “ If I may give a punished. Think of ihis my neophites of the short hint to an impartial writer,” says De Oracle ; think of this my priests in expectancy, Foe, “it would be to tell him his fate. If he and having once determined, after carefully resolves to venture upon the dangerous pre- weighing all contingencies, and having fully cipice of telling unbiassed truths, let him pro- envisaged” all the possible difficulties, you claim war with mankindà la mode le pais de will be thoroughly prepared for the arduous Pole-neither to give nor to take quarter. If struggle, in which you will have to bear the he tells the crimes of great men, they fall brunt of the battle. Having thus deliberately upon him with the iron hands of the law; if decided, you will act promptly, energetically, be tells their virtues, when they have any, firmly, and undauntedly; and unlike Cæsar, then the mob attacks him with slander. But who with the memorable exclamation, “ Et if he regards truth, let him expect martyrdom Brute,” fell vanquished, more by his own on both sides, and then he may go on fear- broken spirit than by the daggers of his asless.” Let this sink deeply into the minds of sassins; you will, knowing the hollowness of those who regard truth above all things, and the many, engendered by the rottenness of who would proclaim it. The history of the our social system, bear up undismayed through lovers of truth, and of their species, is not all indifference or through all attacks. Siread in the recital of the favor of the great, lence will not retard your progress, and oppothe support of a party, or the acclamations of sition will give increased celerity to your the multitude. The fury of a mob, neglect of movements.' party, the loss of connection, rejection of The writer, one of the pledged band, ready friends, and disunion of family, with the fine, to take bis stand at the post of danger the the gibbet, or the rack, have chronicled in moment his turn comes, has had “ extensive misery and blood and anguish, the actions of experience,” as the venerable and respected the friends of man. And not till death has founder of the “Universal Community Sosatiated the vengeance of their assailants, and ciety of Rational Religionists," would say, in their bones have mouldered in the grave, or these matters. He is made, as friend SOUTIEthe cross-road, have their merits been disco. WELL bas it, of tougher stuff than that of vered, their virtues extolled, and their me, which he is composed, who would lie down mories revered. Such was De Foe's ex- and die on witnessing the treachery of so. perience. Such is the experience of all called friends of the cause. Ile will receive who... mark out for themselves a similar no more of repulse or opposition than he ex

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