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cts, or than he is prepared to meet, to repel, to overcome. A certain degree of symthy has already been evinced in SoUTHWELL'S se, but a trifling demonstration when comred with what might be brought to bear by fidel strength and resources if fairly put (t. Much is due to partial effervessence, it it must not be calculated, from the past odicum of support, that the agitation will followed up by proportionable future conibutions in pence, labor, and energy. This Balm of Gilead to the godists; there is gall d wormwood for them, nevertheless. They innot have the sweet without the bitter, and adly bitter will it be for them; a bitter, owever, which will sweeten the labors of the ilers. The sweet is the beholding of the uth-martyrs, after a temporary ebullition, in e clutches of the law; vituperated, neg-would become of us, if we lost Mrs. Grundy sted, or unassisted by their own party. The for a customer? How should we make, both itter is the finding the vehicle of the objec- ends meet, my dear, if Mrs. Grundy were to ionable and dangerous opinions still careering leave us? Consider our wives and families. n; still continuing to furnish mental food to Consider my parliamentary duties, says an be thinking; still beating down old errors; M.P. in sending a very polite refusal to attend Gill exposing all sorts of crafts, priestcraft, at a Radical hob-nob. Why a wife and family radecraft, godcraft, and devilcraft, all which are as good as a little annuity to one of your vill, in their proper places, come in for con- cautious tribe. A widow's cap can scarcely ideration, as essential departments in the do- compete with a wife and family. And what aain of REASON. The "bonds of society," an irresistible reason for sitting slippered in "noble institutions," our "admirable the arm-chair before the fire, reading with aws," our venerable church," our "holy re- complacency or becoming indifference about igion;" all this stiltification must be laid other people's strugglings; and what an inow. For the bonds of society we will read fallible excuse for buttoning up the breeches thains of society; for our noble institutions pocket. Besides, a wife and family begets -crafty devices; for admirable laws-sanc- sympathy; and sympathy begets custom, you fioned trickeries; venerable church-anti- know, and being a "nation of shopkeepers," quated pander; for holy religion-mystical we must look to the "main chance," and all humbug. “Truth without mystery, or fear that. Yes, the main chance, et preterea nihil, of man" we will proclaim, and as little "mix- and nothing else. What do the poor do with ture of error," as may be. their wives and families, who lose more by But to return to the hob-nobers, and sham-sacrificing their miserable pence, than these exinfidels, there are among them, as among all cusers do in deducting their pounds? The fact other men and parties, those who give their is,that three-fourths of the so-called Infidels are unqualified sanction, their approval to all worshippers. They worship the till, the profits, past efforts for reform; so much so as to leave and the percentages; they have, equally with no reserve for present toils, trials, and trou- the religious world, a god, as operative, as bles in the same cause. They can admire the influential, as controlling in their every thought, Socrates, and Wickliffes, and Huses, and Lu-word, and action. This god, and the godists' thers, &c. &c., in the moral and religious reforms, and the Gracchi, and the Tells, and the Hampdens in political reforms. These can be admired at a distance, and distance, with this class of people, confers respectability and lends enchantment to the view. The day of these reformers is gone by, and they require but the passive, fruitless sympathy of actionless approval. The O'Briens, O'ConBors, Frosts, Lovetts, Hetheringtons, the Carliles, Watsons, the Southwells, living Ben, their actions fresh in our recollection, d above all, it being so unfashionable to concede to such our sympathy, and so unPofitable to grant them support, must be repudiated, or cautiously screened, or fur

tively tolerated, or apologised for with bated breath. To acknowledge an identity of opinion would be an effort quite beyond their courage. The people, with the little sympathies and narrow benevolences cannot afford it; "it is not the season," as the boys say with the pegtops. Whence comes this? Is it from the antagonisms of their language? No, for hostility far more aggravated in the organs of despotism is viewed with dove-like tenderness. Is it from the fierceness of their attacks? No, for nothing can be more disgustingly unscrupulous than the onslaughts of the bigot press, which is passed over with scarcely a disapproval. What, then, are the obstacles? The opinions themselves! And why the opinions? Because other people are afraid of them. What would Mrs. Grundy say? what

god is the god mammon. In him, as one of the noted "Jew Book" writers has it, "they live, and move, and have their being."

Vainly do the firm hearts that stand in the foreground, and strike the first blow against tyranny, vainly do they look for support; they who cast away the mental bandages, who think for themselves, who see for themselves, who use not the tongue nor pen of others, but boldly put forth their independent thoughts, are suffered to fall unaided, or faintly and ineffectively helped, the victims of force and fraud. Man, man!" says the New Ecce Homo, "I begin to be ashamed of thy name! A brother comes to thee, and says, ' Farewell, brother, I go to prison and thou sleepest !.

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Another says, Farewell, brother, I go to the scaffold!' and thou sleepest! Another says, 'Farewell, brother, avenge my death!' and thou sleepest! Man! man! man! I will still exclaim until thou wakest."

modification of his belief or unbelief, and in accordance with its special applicability.

T

The Infidel from whim and the Infidel from disgust, and the Infidel from anger, and the sham-Infidel, and the semi-Infidel, or any hu The same ferocity, for it is still ferocity, the Infidel from examination and conviction whether gratified or not, whether barbarous or may shake their crotchetty heads " and loo refined, is still displayed in the judicial sen-repudiative," or may even wax indignant, co tence of the fine and imprisonment. And contemptuous, or dignified, or in some shap shall this most monstrous and unjust power or way cast off from themselves any identifi be permitted to be exercised, shall its objects cation with the real supporters of complete be gained by stopping the free current of latitude in the expression of opinion. thought? They shall not stifle the free voice, honest Infidel, the honest man of all beliefs o they shall not " coquet with the press or with no beliefs, will always uphold right and prin human knowledge," they shall not upraise one ciple. The little phalanx linked together fo portion of the press and trample on the other; the upholding of right, the assertion of prin either they must crush the press, as the priest ciple, and the practical carrying out of it truly said, or the press will crush them. Is objects through the pages of the Oracle, an the hunger and thirst after blasphemers' liberty banded by ties not belonging to personal friend and life to be allayed by a single sacrifice? ship alone, nor those of the till, or the counter No! he "still must have more blood!" His ap- They hardly know each other but by reputs petite is whetted by the taste. The human tiger tion, or mutually seeing or interchangin prowls about from conventicle to conventicle, thoughts on paper. They are banded by prie from "missionary" meeting to " bible" meet- ciple. Holding, with scarcely an exception ing, from "anti-popery" meeting to "church-prominent and influential positions in th extension" meeting, the most brutalising of the human passions being wrought upon and brought into full play by the doctrines and incendiary addresses of the M'Neiles, Stowells, M'Ghees, et id genus homne. The stream proceeding from a polluted and sanguinary source must necessarily partake of its foulness -blood! blood! is their theme. Blood for the old Jew-god! blood for the young Christgod! blood at the Jew massacres! blood at the Christian massacres! blood at the Tonga Islands! and blood at Rathcormac! Finally, they would have blood at Bristol gaol, were their murderous intentions not frustrated by a more generally diffused opinion in favour of milder criminal laws; diffused, let it be borne in mind, not by religion, as Bentham could attest, but by Infidel philosophy.

Stay! before you return to the day-book or the ledger, view this portrait, it is drawn from the life, and by a faithful artist: "See, at yonder high-place, a figure moving towards you with a crucifix in his hand! See, he moves his lips? His lips are as black, and hang as frightfully over his chin, as the lips of the horror of the night. Words fall from his lips-his words-hark, bark! You are within, leaning on the creaking stools, you adored the god of the ocean-drop, you were heretics, you have been broken, you have been rent and cast away-hallelujah! You who stand outside the door, you were Jews, your hearts have been burned-hallelujah! And future heretics and Jews shall be broken, and rent, and cast away, and burned-hallelujah! hallelujah!""

These remarks may be fitted by each shade or grade of believer or unbeliever to himself, according to the particular complexion or

society, which is attracting a larger share o public attention to its operations, both from the cabinet and the people, than any other ex tant, and which is about to commence "prac tical measures," on the grandest scale of co-ope rative association; thus situated, as I said, n this society, the contributors to, and pledge supportors of, this periodical are determine to abolish, or set at defiance, all interferenc with mind, whether in high or low places. SOUTHWELL'S bark shall never sail withou an helmsman.

M. Q. R.

THE EVIDENCES OF CHRISTIANITY
DISPLAYED;

OR THE PENALTY OF HONESTY IN THE NINETEENT

CENTURY.

(Concluded from page 88.)

WITH a simplicity only to be pardoned, as Mi Owen would say, or the sense of "inexper ence," we have felt it a kind of duty to believ that Christians were sincere in their profession of belief in their dogmas and creeds, and hav ascribed the reality of their faith to stupidit rather than deception; deeming it more charit able to set them down for fools than to estimat them as knaves. But our conciliating logic i for ever knocked on the head by the impruden disclosures of the learned gentleman who con ducted the prosecution. Government, whic now means little else than robbing and starr ing people in the name of her majesty, hinge on the terrors of religion, which is but machine to support injustice, and frighten, b bugaboos, its victims into submission. Christians themselves could not better defen

Ani

eir craft than by making the confession. In >ing so Mr. Smith must have been inspired 7 Mr. SOUTHWELL with some of his zeal in cause of truth.

While I respect his honesty I am alarmed r his temerity, for was it not his interest to ⚫ religious on these occasions, strong glimpses the truth like those to which he is evidently bjected, joined to his rashness, would soon move him from the bench and place him in e bar. From being the opponent in truth he ould become SOUTHWELL'S "companion in onds," as St. Paul would say.

The Unitarian contends that god is love and oodness, and he discards the idea of hell as rutalising, revoltingly cruel, and degrading o the nature of a god; then the Unitarian obs the world of the supposed salutary fear of everlasting punishment, said to be the main tay of government. The Atheist does no nore. If then the Atheist is to be strung to gallows, the Unitarian should swing on a ibbet likewise. So much for Mr. Smith's lefence of hell: the right arm and sceptre f superstition and prop of all iniquity, the peretual pivot on which the defence of all inustice is made to turn.

Men are happy, says Rosseau, in proportion to their virtue, and next in proportion to their independence. With equal truth it may be affirmed, that men are just in proportion to their knowledge of their relationships to their fellow-creatures, and honest in proportion to their liberty of speaking the truth. Then in order to secure justice and virtue, it is only necessary that men bave sound education, and freedom from pernicious restraints. He who is honest through fear will be criminal from the same cause.

Not another word need be employed in demonstrating the absurdity, folly, and wickedness of endeavouring to govern men by slavish terrors. It is slavery and disgusting sycophancy in those who bow to it, and despicable tyranny in him who attempts it, be he a god or a king, or an attorney-general.

The most striking and potent argument of the whole speech was the concluding one, an argument which is even the climax of all theological reasoning-we mean the call he made on the jury to put down Mr. Southwell's principles and teaching, by the strong arm of the law, plainly acknowledging that they were Lot otherwise answerable.

the time will come, when the defendant's own conscience will approve and confirm that verdict. Gentlemen, with the fullest confidence that there can be no other result than the verdict I have anticipated, I leave the question for your decision."*

When christianity came to the bar-whose lofty form we are all told has walked in triumph through the world for eighteen centuries; who in England has monopolised all office, all power, all respectability, all colleges and education; who, besides earthly appliances, has heavenly means to boot; a god's grace, holy spirits, ghosts, and prayers of the faithful by cargoes to aid it-poor Human Reason it might fairly be expected would be infallibly and for ever sent to that place "where the wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are at rest," and that the full blaze of light would strike the disputer down, as pious Paul did Elymas. All she advanced, stripped of fallacy and assumption, appears very unlikely to rob any of her apologists of their customary characteristics, presenting, if any difference, fresh claims to the description of Gifford :

The abortive progeny of pride
And dulness, gentle pair, for aye allied;
Begotten without thought, born without pains,
The ropy drivel of rheumatic brains.

With an hypocrisy in perfect keeping with the "pleasant day, sir," of Jack Ketch, as he slipped the noose around the neck of his victim, Mr. Smith pretended to hope Mr. SOUTHWELL could be sent back to his comfortable home, though he had "the fullest confidence" in a verdict of guilty. But this, he subjoined, is impossible-and the publication of his opinions be prevented. Oh, yes, it might be done Mr. Smith well knew. The publication of any opinions can be prevented by their refutation; and it was a virtual admission that the sword of the law is the only argument of the priests.

To confess that SOUTHWELL cannot be answered, otherwise than by the jail, is more candid than consoling; excepting that it confirmed all it was intended to confute. It is to proclaim that our theologians are imbecile, who cannot defend their own dogmas; that religion is deception; and the bible a cheat. It places the government of the world in the hands of an official of state. All government as usually understood rests upon the belief in a god, and the evidence of his existence is in the hands of "Gentlemen of the jury, you will have to the attorney-general. It is, as a god-believer consider, simply, are these blasphemous libels, might say, tearing the almighty from his as they are described to be in the indictment, throne in the universe, and sticking a lawyer and were they published by the defendant? in his place. Verily Christians are indebted to If so, there can be but one result; that is, a Mr. Smith; their case in the hands of their verdict of guilty; and whatever the defendant opponents is hopeless enough, if it is thus ay now say, allow me to say, that not only treated by their friends. will such a verdict meet with the full approbaion of every man competent to form an opinion pon such a subject, but that I think also, that

A million of false oaths, says Dr. Price,

See Trial, p. 19.

are taken every year, and they are all ad- hands his evidences are consigned, who, a ministered in courts of justice, every taker" Publicola" forcibly says, would have an first kissing the blessed bible. "What be- gued the other side with equal alacrity ha comes of the sanction under which law and the brief fallen into their hands. Surely justice are administered," quoth Mr. Smith, theology is on its last legs, and its god in 1 without "the solemn appeal to the omnicient despicable condition. Atheism comes like and almighty being, through the medium of balm, a sweet anodyne to the irritated spirit an oath, taken upon the sacred scriptures?" after the contemplation of such a scene. Aye, what indeed? What became of this The utility of the course Mr. Southwel same "sanction under which law and justice has pursued, this trial abundantly demon are administered" in the case of the quaker strates, except perhaps to the hopelessly pre juryman to whom the pleader found himself judiced. A thousand lectures and argumen obliged to allude? In the very same breath tations would fail to expose the pretension Mr. Consistency Smith observed on the quaker's hollowness, cruelty, and injustice of reli non-taking of the oath, but that "was not gion, so effectually as she has been driver because he disbelieved in the existence of a to expose herself. The public opinion now god; but because he has such a profound awakening, the light now cast on her defor reverence for the holy scriptures." Thus, mities, and the press, her giant enemy eve have but an extra profound reverence for in bonds, publishing her infamies, will soo the holy book; and the "sanction," the transform her into a suicide. If any vien "solemn appeal," the "almighty being," and taken here should be deemed over painte the "sacred scriptures" themselves, are all and unjust, the answer is, the condemnation 4 pitched overboard sans ceremonie. On the Southwell is merciless cruelty, bigotry and oppre contrary, say you don't believe a word of sion; RELIGION HAS BEEN THE PREPETRATOR it, that it is all knavery or twaddle-and CHRISTIANITY HAS THE SHAME it is forced down your throat. So much and whatever is cruel and unjust is execrable for the morality of christianity! But see it called by whatever name it may be. Still th further exemplified, in the truly Christian transaction is redolent with satisfaction, fo advocate entreating the jury, who had been considering the fatal and imprudent disclosure sworn to decide only according to evidence, SOUTHWELL has drawn forth by his trial, on to find Mr. Southwell guilty, although no conclusion seems inevitable, that Christian particle of evidence could be adduced in have more to fear from the arguments of Infl proof of the crime with which he stood dels, than Infidels from the vengeful ant charged. The best reply to all advanced, cowardly punishments of Christians. during the whole speech, on the immorality more exposures like this Bristol conviction of Atheism, was in Mr. Southwell's own will entomb them in contempt; a few mor person. He had sacrificed his fair pros- such victories will ruin them. SOUTHWEL pects, risked his life, subjected himself to has gained more to the territories of reason u the coldness and loss of friends, to the sneers, two days, than they can regain to the domai scoffs, and cruelty of enemies, and then of faith in two centuries. By his suffering stood there to be convicted of an offence they are everlasting losers-a mental Samp which no man did, nor ever can, commit- son-in his fall he has broken the pillars without hope of justice, without chance of the temple, and brought the superstructur mercy, and with the prospect of a long, of Dagon over the heads of his enemies. cruel, and murderous imprisonment. due only to the accident of Mr. Southwell having friends to make his imprisonment tolerable, that his life may be saved to lay the lash again upon his bigot foes. And all rather than tell a lie, and with the hope of bettering the condition of his oppressed and priest-ridden fellow-men.

It is

a

The moral sensibility of a lawyer is analogous to that of the butcher, him of the red coat as well as the blue apron, both alike having their sympathies blunted by their training. One might as consistently ask a soldier in the field of blood to sit on coroner's inquest as one of the men of the law to decide on a question of morality. Yet these men of dungeons and death, whose footsteps are in the midst of misery, and who live on the agonies of the unfortunates of humanity, are the vicegerents of a god, his defenders, to whose

A fer

G. J. H.

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS.
A. Z. No.

MOVING THE TRIAL. The Trial was not move because it could not have been brought within metr

politan jurisdiction; and it was not deemed advisabl to change the venue to a neighbouring county. Ever step was taken by the committee under the best leg A SECOND REPORT will shortly appear,

advice.

SUBSCRIPTION LISTS.

with furthe

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ORACLE OF REASONH

Or, Philosophy Vindicated.

"FAITH'S EMPIRE IS THE WORLD; ITS MONARCH, GOD; ITS MINISTERS,
""
ITS SLAVES, THE PEOPLE.'

9. 12.]

EDINBURGH

PRIE

ULAR UNION

EDITED FOR CHARLES SOUTHWELL, DURING HIS IMPRISONMENT,
BY G. JACOB HOLYOAKE.

MR. OWEN'S THIRTEENTH AND FIFTEENTH ADDRESSES

TO HIS DISCIPLES.

We shall be the last to limit inquiry in any direction which man may desire to explore; all we wish is, that all investigations in search of truths, known or hidden, should be commenced and continued in good faith and in good humour."-ROBERT OWEN's Thirteenth Address to the Disciples of the Rational System of Society.-New Moral World, January 15, 1842.

o the dictations of philanthropy and the teachgs of age, more than ordinary deference is me; and when the well-earned reputation of Ir. Owen for sound philosophy is taken into onsideration, to question the correctness of ny of his conclusions will sound in many ears ike unpardonable presumption. But if we see ufficient reason to do so, we trust any remarks gade will be set down to the proper motive; ot to vanity and conceit, but to anxiety to be ight. Though not more prudent, we deem more honourable, to walk in the paths of eason, than to blindly tread in the footsteps f authority. Truth owns no man's name, but stands like a tower upon a hill, and the rrows of criticism fall harmlessly at her feet. Error, like Jonah, requires a gourd, flies to overs, deprecates searching, and fears attack because conscious of mortality. This observation, which is more trite than newly born, is not without its application. Men, even the most rational, are too apt to grow in love with their opinions, and tremble to see them questioned; which is in reality to raise a prejudice against them, and to treat them as errors while proclaiming them as truths. This may not be true of Mr. Owen, but probably somewhat correct of many of his friends.

On the day on which Mr. SoUTHWELL'S Trial terminated in Bristol, Mr. Owen's Address, from which the quotation at the head of this article is taken, was published. It contains, if we understand it rightly, some very incorrect remarks on Mr. SOUTHWELL'S characbrand principles: and as he is prevented from defending himself, a few observations on his behalf are due to justice if not to genezosity.

Mr. Owen lives in a world of his own. Images and visions of a bright future ever flit before his eyes. Abstracted from the stern

[PRICE 1d.

realities of life, he sometimes fails to judge as justly of other men, as perhaps consistently he ought, when their notions of right and wrong clash with his own. Probably their disagreement perturbs his contemplations, and induces a severity belonging rather to his years than to his nature, and foreign both to his philosophy and to his heart.

We do not speak to disparage but to defend. In Mr. Owen's strictures on Mr. SOUTHWELL'S character we think he errs, and as he does not lay claim to infallibility, perhaps we shall be pardoned for saying so. By Mr. Owen we readily shall. Men whose claims to deference are beyond dispute seldom rigorously exact it; those only of questionable pretensions are uneasy under scrutiny. For the especial comfort of such, we beg to say all our remarks shall be made in " good faith," and we trust that our "good humour" will never forsake us.

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For the edification of those shrewd spirits who will conclude we are attacking windmills, we direct attention to a portion of that New Moral World to which we have alluded, wherein correspondents on Mr. SOUTHWELL's case are referred to Mr. Owen's Address, from which we shall now quote the following passage :— Many parties, young and inexperienced, or possessing by nature strong, and violent, and overbearing energy of wild and uncultivated power, greatly desire, before they have acquired any sound practical knowledge or experience, beyond a very narrow circle in society, to take a prominent lead in its management, while they imagine that the Rational System which they profess to adopt consists only of the most vulgar democracy, or stark staring violent Atheism, of neither of which do these parties appear to have any rational conception."

"Youth and strength," if brought forth as charges must be respectfully pleaded guilty to. They are faults of time, if faults at all, sins to be borne patiently and forgiven. It should not be forgotten that youth is often found to undertake those duties, necessary to be performed, from which maturity shrinks and age is shielded. Ancient Rome owed its arts of eloquence to the Roman youths. Ascetics, cynics, and churls in the senate, bad banished all rhetori cians and philosophers. But Carneades, Crito

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