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cts, or than he is prepared to meet, to repel, tively tolerated, or apologised for with bated

to overcome. A certain degree of sym- breath. To acknowledge an identity of opinion thy has already been evinced in SouTHWELL'S would be an effort quite beyond their courage, se, but a trifling demonstration when com- The people, with the little sympathies and red with what might be brought to bear by narrow henevolences cannot afford it; "it is fidel strength and resources if fairly put not the season,” as the boys say with the pegito Much is due to partial effervessence, tops. Whence comes this? Is it from the it it must not be calculated, from the past antagonisms of their language ? No, for odicum of support, that the agitation will hostility far more aggravated in the organs of

followed up by proportionable future con- despotism is viewed with dove-like tenderness. ibutions in pence, labor, and energy. This Is it from the fierceness of their attacks? Balm of Gilead to the godists; there is gall No, for nothing can be more disgustingly unw wormwood for them, nevertheless. They scrupulous than the onslaughts of the bigot innot bave the sweet without the bitter, and press, which is passed over with scarcely a endly bitter will it be for them; a bitter, disapproval. What, then, are the obstacles ? owever, which will sweeten the labors of the The opinions themselves! And why the opinvilers. The sweet is the beholding of the ions?' Because other people are afraid of uth-martyrs, after a temporary ebullition, in them. What would Mrs. Grundy say? what de clutches of the law; vituperated, neg- would become of us, if we lost Mrs. Grundy led, or unassisted by their own party. The for a customer? How should we inake, both itter is the finding the vehicle of the objec- ends meet, my dear, if Mrs. Grundy were to ionable and dangerous opinions still careering leave us ? Consider our wives and families. h; still continuing to furnish mental food 10 Consider my parliamentary duties, says an be thinking ; still beating down old errors; M.P. in sending a very polite refusal to attend till exposing all sorts of crafts, priestcraft, at a Radical hob-nob. Why a wife and family endecraft, godcraft, and devilcraft, all which are as good as a little annuity to one of your vill

, in their proper places, come in for con cautious tribe. A widow's cap can scarcely ideration, as essential departments in the do- compete with a wife and family. And what dain of Reason. The “ bonds of society," an irresistible reason for sitting slippered in ur “ noble institutions,” our “admirable the arm-chair before the fire, reading with aws," our venerable church," our "holy re- complacency or becoming indifference about igion ;" all this stiltification must be laid other people's strugglings; and what an in

For the bonds of society we will read fallible excuse for buttoning up the breeches hains of society; for our noble institutions pocket. Besides, a wife and family begets -crafty devices; for admirable laws-sanc- sympathy; and sympathy begets custom, you fioned trickeries ; venerable church — anti- know, and being a “nation of shopkeepers,” qunted pander; for holy religion-mystical we must look to the “ main chance,” and all humbug. “ Truth without mystery, or fear that. Yes, the main chance, et preterea nihil, of man” we will proclaim, and as little “mix- and nothing else. What do the poor do with ture of error," as may be.

their wives and families, who lose more by But to return to the hob-nobers, and sham- sacrificing their miserable pence, than these exmfidels, there are among them, as among all cusers do in deducting their pounds ? The fact orher men and parties, those who give their is that three-fourths of the so-called Infidels are mqualified sanction, their approval to all worshippers. They worship the till, the profits, prost efforts for reform ; so much so as to leave and the percentages; they have, equally with no reserve for present toils, trials, and trou- the religious world, a god, as operative, as bles in the same cause. They can admire the influential, as controlling in their every thought, Socrates, and Wickliffes, and Huses, and Lu- word, and action. This god, and the godists' theps, &c. &c., in the moral and religious god is the god mammon. In him, as one of rv fornes, and the Gracchi, and the Tells, and the noted “ Jew Book” writers has it, “ they the Hampdens in political reforms. These live, and move, and have their being." can be admired at a distance, and distance, Vainly do the firm hearts that stand in the with this class of people, confers respectability foreground, and strike the first blow against and lends enchantment to the view. The tyranny, vainly do they look for support; they day of these reformers is gone by, and they who cast away the mental bandages, who Taguire but the passive, fruitless sympathy think for themselves, who see for themselves, of actionless approval. The O'Briens, o‘Con- who use not the tongue nor pen of others, dors, Frosts, Lovetts, Hetheringtons, the but boldly put forth their independent thoughts, Carliles, Watsons, the Southwells, living are suffered to fall unaided, or faintly and inben, their actions fresh in our recollection, effectively helped, the victims of force and and above all, it being so unfashionable to fraud. Man, man!” says the New Ecce

such our sympathy, and so un- | Homo, “I begin to be ashamed of thy name ! pofitable to grant them support, must be A brother comes to thee, and says, “Farewell, repudiated, or cautiously screened, or fur- brother, I go to prison !' and thou sleepest !

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Another says, "Farewell, brother, I go to the modification of bis belief or unbelief, and in scaffold !' and thou sleepest! Another says, accordance with its special applicability. Farewell, brother, avenge my death!' and The Infidel from whim and the Infidel from thou sleepest ! Man! man! man! I will still disgust, and the Infidel from anger, and the exclaim until thou wakest."

sbam-Infidel, and the semi-Infidel, or any bu The same ferocity, for it is still ferocity, the Infidel from examination and conviction whether gratified or not, whether barbarous or may shake their crotchetty heads " and loos refined, is still displayed in the judicial sen- repudiative," or may even wax indignant, com tence of the fine and imprisonment. And contemptuous, or dignified, or in some shap shall this most monstrous and unjust power or way cast off from themselves any identif be permitted to be exercised, sball its objects cation with the real supporters of complete be gained by stopping the free current of latitude in the expression of opinion. TO thought? They shall not stifle the free voice, honest Infidel, the honest man of all beliefs 01 they shall not coquet with the press or with no beliefs, will always upbold right and prin human knowledge,” they shall not upraise one ciple. The little phalanx linked together for portion of the press and trample on the other; the upholding of right, the assertion of prin either they must crush the press, as the priest ciple, and the practical carrying out of it truly said, or the press will crush them. Is objects through the pages of the Oracle, as the hunger and thirst after blasphemers’ liberty banded by ties not belonging to personal friend and life to be allayed by a single sacrifice ? ship alone, nor those of the till, or the counter No! he “still must have more blood !" His ap- They hardly know each other but by reputs: petite is whetted by the taste. The human tiger tion, or mutually seeing or interchanging prowls about from conventicle to conventicle, thoughts on paper. They are banded by prie from “missionary” meeting to " bible” meet- ciple. Holding, with scarcely an exception ing, from “anti-popery” meeting to “church-prominent and influential positions in the extension” meeting, the most brutalising of society, which is attracting a larger share o the human passions being wrought upon and public attention to its operations, both from brought into full play by the doctrines and the cabinet and the people, than any other ex incendiary addresses of the M-Neiles, Stowells, tant, and which is about to commence “prau M'Ghees, et id genus homne. The stream tical measures,” on the grandest scale of co-ope proceeding from a polluted and sanguinary rative association ; thus situated, as I said, i source must necessarily partake of its foulness this society, the contributors to, and pledge --blood! blood! is their theme. Blood for supportors of, this periodical are determine the old Jew-god! blood for the young Christ- to abolish, or set at defiance, all interferenn god! blood at the Jew massacres! blood at with mind, whether in high or low places. the Christian massacres! blood at the Tonga SOUTHWELL'S bark shall never sail withog Islands ! and blood at Rathcormac! Finally, an helmsman, they would have blood at Bristol gaol, were

M, Q, R. their murderous intentions not frustrated by a more generally diffused opinion in favour of milder criminal laws; diffused, let it be borne in mind, not by religion, as Bentham could THE EVIDENCES OF CHRISTIANITI attest, but by Infidel philosophy.

DISPLAYED; Stay! before you return to the day-book or the ledger, view this portrait, it is drawn fron the life, and by a faithful artist : " See, at

(Concluded from page 88.) yonder high-place, a figure moving towards Wriu a simplicity only to be pardoned, as Mt you with a crucifix in his hand! See, he Owen would say, or the sense of “ inexperi moves his lips ? His lips are as black, and ence," we bave felt it a kind of duty to believ hang as frightfully over his chin, as the lips of that Christians were sincere in their profession the horror of the night. Words fall from his of belief in their dogmas and creeds, and har lips—his words—hark, hark! • You are within, ascribed the reality of their faith to stupidit leaning on the creaking stools, you adored the rather than deception ; deeming it more chari god of the ocean-drop, you were heretics, you able to set them down for fools than to estinat have been broken, you have been rent and cast them as knaves. But our conciliating logic i away-hallelujah ! You who stand outside for ever knocked on the head by the impruden the door, you were Jews, your hearts have disclosures of the learned gentleman who con been burned-hallelujah! And future here- ducted the prosecution. Government, whic tics and Jews shall be broken, and rent, and now means little else than robbing and start cast

away, and burned—hallelujah! halle-ing people in the name of her majesty, hinge lujah !""

on the terrors of religion, which is but These remarks may be fitted by each shade machine to support injustice, and frighten, 5 or grade of believer or unbeliever to himself, bugaboos, its victims into submission, Αρι according to the particular complexion or Christians themselves could not better defen

OR THE PENALTY OF HONESTY IN THE NINETEENTI

CENTURY.

eir craft than by making the confession. In the time will come, when the defendant's ow'n

ing so Mr. Smith must have been inspired conscience will approve and confirm that ver: 7 Mr. SorTHWELL with some of his zeal in dict. Gentlemen, with the fullest confidence en cause of truth.

that there can be no other result than the While I respect his honesty I am alarmed verdict I have anticipated, I leave the question r his temerity, for was it not his interest to for your decision."* - religious on these occasions, strong glimpses When christianity came to the bar—whose

the truth like those to which he is evidently lofty form we are all told has walked in triumph bjected, joined to his rashness, would soon through the world for eighteen centuries; who crove him from the bench and place him in in England has monopolised all office, all e bar. From being the opponent in truth he power, all respectability, all colleges and edu

ould become SOUTHWELL'S “companion in cation; who, besides earthly appliances, bas onds," as St. Paul would say.

heavenly means to boot; a god's grace, holy The Unitarian contends that god is love and spirits, ghosts, and prayers of the faithful by oodness, and be discards the idea of hell as cargoes to aid it-poor Human Reason it might rutalising, revoltingly cruel, and degrading fairly be expected would be infallibly and for o the nature of a god; then the Unitarian ever sent to that place where the wicked obs the world of the supposed salutary fear cease from troubling, and the weary are at of everlasting punishment, said to be the main rest," and that the full blaze of light would tay of government, The Atheist does no strike the disputer down, as pious Paul did nore. If then the Atheist is to be strung to Elymas. All she advanced, stripped of

allows, the Unitarian should swing on a fallacy and assumption, appears very unlikely ribbet likewise. So muc for Mr. Smith's to rob any of her apologists of their customary lefence of hell : the right arm and sceptre characteristics, presenting, if any difference, if superstition and prop of all iniquity, the per- fresh claims to the description of Gifford : tual pivot on which the defence of all in

The abortive progeny of pride ustice is made to turn,

And dulness, gentle pair, for aye allied; Men are happy, says Rosseau, in proportion Begotten without thought, born without pains, o their virtue, and next in proportion to their

The ropy drivel of rheumatic brains. independence. With equal truth it may be With an hypocrisy in perfect keeping with aitirmed, that men are just in proportion to the “ pleasant day, sir,” of Jack Ketch, as he their knowledge of their relationships to their slipped the noose around the neck of his victim, fellow-creatures, and honest in proportion to Mr. Smith pretended to hope Mr. SOUTHWELL. their liberty of speaking the truth. Then in could be sent back to his comfortable home, order to secure justice and virtue, it is only though he had “the fullest confidence” in necessary that men bave sound education, and verdict of guilty. But this, he subjoined, is freedom from pernicious restraints. He who impossible--and the publication of his opinions is honest through fear will be criminal from be prevented. Oh, yes, it might be done Mr. the same cause.

Smith well knew. The publication of any Not another word need be employed in opinions can be prevented by their refutation; demonstrating the absurdity, folly, and wicked- and it was a virtual admission that the sword ness of endeavouring to govern men by slavish of the law is the only argument of the lutors. It is slavery and disgusting syco- priests. phancy in those who bow to it, and despi- To confess that Southwell cannot be anKable iyranny in him who attempts it, be be a swered, otherwise than by the jail, is more can. goki or a kivg, or an attorney-general. did than consoling; excepting that it confirmed

The most striking and potent argument of all it was intended to confute. It is to proclaim the whole speech was the concluding one, an that our theologians are imbecile, who cannot argument which is even the climax of all theo- defend their own dogmas; that religion is logical reasoning-we mean the call he made deception; and the bible a cheat. It places on the jury to put down Mr. Southwell's prin- the government of the world in the hands of ciples and teaching, by the strong arm of the an official of state. All government as usually law, plainly acknowledging that they were understood rests upon the belief in a god, and ut otherwise answerable.

the evidence of his existence is in the hands of " Gentlemen of the jury, you will bave to the attorney-general. It is, as a god-believer consider, simply, are these blasphemous libels, might say, tearing the almighty, from his as they are described to be in the indictment, throne in the universe, and sticking a lawyer nd were they published by the defendant? in his place. Verily Christians are indebted to !i 30, there can be but one result; that is, a Mr. Smith ; their case in the hands of their Terdict of guilty; and whatever the defendant opponents is hopeless enough, if it is thus Muhy now say, allow me to say, that not only treated by their friends. wall such a verdict meet with the full approba- A million of false oaths, says Dr. Price, ion of every man competent to form an opinion pon such a subject, but that I think also, that

* See Trial, p. 19.

same

Sworn

are taken 'every year, and they are all ad- hands his evidences are consigned, who, ay ministered in courts of justice, every taker" Publicola" forcibly says, would bave an first kissing the blessed bible. “What be- gued the other side with equal alacrity ha comes of the sanction under which law and the brief fallen into their hands. Surels justice are administered,” quoth Mr. Smith, theology is on its last legs, and its god in without "the solemn appeal to the omnicient despicable condition. Atheism comes like and almighty being, through the medium of balm, a sweet anodyne to the irritated spirit an oath, taken upon the sacred scriptures ?” after the contemplation of such a scene. Aye, what indeed ? What became of this The utility of the course Mr. Southwe

sanction under which law and justice has pursued, this trial abundantly demon are administered” in the case of the quaker strates, except perhaps to the hopelessly pre juryman to whom the pleader found himself judiced. A thousand lectures and argumen obliged to allude? In the very same breath tations would fail to expose the pretension Mr. Consistency Smith observed on the quaker's hollowness, cruelty, and injustice of reli non-taking of the oath, but that “was not gion, so effectually as she bas been driver because he disbelieved in the existence of a to expose herself. The public opinion niom god; but because he has such a profound awakening, the light now cast on her defur reverence for the holy scriptures.” Thus, mities, and the press, her giant enemy eve have but an extra profound reverence for in bonds, publishing her infamies, will 8001 the holy book; and the " sanction,”. the transform her into a suicide. If any viem "solemn appeal,” the “ almighty being,” and taken here should be deemed over painte the “sacred scriptures” themselves, are all and unjust, the answer is, the condemnatio , pitched overboard sans ceremonie. On the Southwell is merciless cruelty, bigotry and one contrary, say you don't believe a word of sion; RELIGION HAS BEEN THE PREPETRATUR it, that it is all knavery or twaddle—and CHRISTIANITY HAS THE SHAM), it is forced down your throat. So much and whatever is cruel and unjust is execrable for the morality of christianity! But see it called by whatever name it may be. Still the further exemplified, in the truly Christian transaction is redolent with satisfaction, fo advocate entreating the jury, who had been considering the fatal and imprudent disclosure

to decide only according to evidence, SOUTHWELL has drawn forth by his trial, on 10 find Mr. Southwell guilty, although no conclusion seems inevitable, that Christian particle of evidence could be adduced in bave more to fear from the arguments of Inti proof of the crime with which he stood dels, than Infidels from the vengeful ant charged. The best reply to all advanced, cowardly punishments of Christians. A fev during the whole speech, on the immorality more exposures like this Bristol conviction of Atheism, was in Mr. Southwell's own will entomb them in contempt; a few mon person. He had sacrificed his fair pros- such victories will ruin them. SOUTHWEL pects, risked his life, subjected himself to has gained more to the territories of reason is the coldness and loss of friends, to the sneers, two days, than they can regain to the domai scoffs, and cruelty of enemies, and then of faith in two centuries. By his suffering stood there to be convicted of an offence they are everlasting losers—a mental Samp which no man did, nor ever can, commit-son-in his fall he has broken the pillars without hope of justice, without chance of the temple, and brought the superstructur mercy, and with the prospect of a long, of Dagon over the heads of his enemies. cruel, and murderous imprisonment. It is

G, J. H. due only to the accident of Mr. Southwell having friends to make his imprisonment toler- NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS. able, that his life may be saved to lay the A. Z. No. lash again upon his bigot foes. And all

MOVING THE TRIAL. The Trial was not more rather than tell a lie, and with the hope of politan jurisdiction ; aud it was not deemed adrisakil

because it could not have been brought within metri bettering the condition of his oppressed and to change the venue to a nсighbouring county. Eser priest-ridden fellow-men.

step was taken by the committee under the best lego The moral sensibility of a lawyer is ana

A SECOND REPORT will shortly appear, with furth logous to that of the butcher, him of the SUBSCRIPTION Lists. red coat as well as the blue apron, both alike having their sympathies blunted by their Subscriptions received on behalf of Mr. Southeroll. training: One might as consistently ask a soldier in the field of blood to sit on

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Per Mr. Clarke coroner's inquest as one of the men of the law to W.J., per ditto decide on a question of morality. Yet these men of dungeons and death, whose footsteps are in the midst of misery, and who live on the ago- Printed by G. J. HOLYOAKE, 179, Broomhall Stree nies of the unfortunates of bumanity, are the

Sheffield; and Published for him by all Libe!

Booksellers. vicegerents of a god, his defenders, to whose

Saturday, March 5, 1842. 96

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DRACLE OF REASONISH

Or, Philosophy Vindicated

EDINBURGH

“FAITH'S EMPIRE IS THE WORLD; ITS MONARCH, GOD; ITS MINISTERS, BUÉ PRIESTS;

ITS SLAVES, THE PEOPLE.

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EDITED FOR CHARLES SOUTHWELL, DURING HIS IMPRISONMENT,

BY G. JACOB HOLYOAKE.

[Price 1d.

TO HIS DISCIPLES.

that our

realities of life, he sometimes fails to judge as
MR. OWEN'S THIRTEENTH AND
FIFTEENTH ADDRESSES

justly of other men, as perhaps consistently he
ought, when their notions of right and wrong

clash with his own. 'Probably their disagree-
We shall be the last to limit inquiry in any direction ment perturbs his contemplations, and induces
which man may desire to explore; all we wish is, a severity belonging rather to his years than
That all investigations in search of truths, known or to his nature, and foreign both to his philoso-
rood faith and in good humour." —Robert Owen's phy and to his heart.
Thirteenth Address to the Disciples of the Rational We do not speak to disparage but to defend.
System of Society -New Moral World, January 15, In Mr. Owen's strictures on Mr. SOUTHWELL'S

character we think he errs, and as he does not o the dictations of philanthropy and the teach- lay claim to infallibility, perhaps we shall be igs of age, more than ordinary deference is pardoned for saying so. By Mr. Owen we ne; and when the well-earned reputation of readily shall. Men whose claims to deference Ir. Owen for sound philosophy is taken into are beyond dispute seldom rigorously exact onsideration, to question the correctness of it; those only of questionable pretensions are py of his conclusions will sound in many ears uneasy under scrutiny. For the especial comke unpardonable presumption. But if we see fort of such, we beg to say all our remarks fufficient reason to do so, we trust any remarks shall be made in “good faith,” and we trust aade will be set down to the proper motive;

good humour” will never forsake lot to vanity and conceit, but to anxiety to be us. ight. Though not more prudent, we deem For the edification of those shrewd spirits

more honourable, to walk in the paths of who will conclude we are attacking windmills, eason, than to blindly tread in the footsteps we direct attention to a portion of that New of authority. Truth owns no man's name, Moral World to which we have alluded, wherebut stands like a tower upon a hill, and the in correspondents on Mr. SOUTHWELL’s case are trows of criticism fall harmlessly at her feet. referred to Mr. Owen's Address, from which Error, like Jonah, requires a gourd, flies to we shall now quote the following passage : overs, deprecates searching, and fears attack “Many parties, young and inexperienced, because conscious of mortality. This obser- or possessing by nature strong, and violent, Pation, which is more trite than newly born, and overbearing energy of wild and uncultiis not without its application. Men, even the vated power, greatly desire, before they have most rational, are too apt to grow in love with acquired any sound practical knowledge or their opinions, and tremble to see them ques- experience, beyond a very narrow circle in tioned; which is in reality to raise a prejudice society, to take a prominent lead in its man. against them, and to treat them as errors agement, while they imagine that the Rational while proclaiming them as truths. This may System which they profess to adopt consists taot be true of Mr. Owen, but probably somé- only of the most vulgar democracy, or stark what correct of many of his friends.

staring violent Atheism, of neither of which do Ou the day on which Mr. SOUTHWELL'S these parties appear to have any rational conTrial terminated in Bristol, Mr. Owen's Ad- ception.” dress, from wbich the quotation at the head of " Youth and strength,” if brought forth as this article is taken, was published. It con- charges must be respectfully pleaded guilty to. tains, if we understand it rightly, some very They are faults of time, if faults at all, sins to incorrect remarks on Mr. SouTuwell's charac- be borne patiently and forgiven. It should not be and principles : and as he is prevented be forgotten that youth is often found to un. from defending himself, a few observations on dertake those duties, necessary to be performed, his behalf are due to justice if not to gene- from which maturity shrinks and age is shield tosity,

ed. Ancient Rome owed its arts of eloquence Mr. Owen lives in a world of his own. to the Roman youths. Ascetics, cynics, and Images and visions of a bright future ever fit churls in the senate, bad banished all rhetori"before bis eyes. Abstracted from the stern cians and philosophers. But Carneades, Crito

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