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Successful operations against the Æquans, and Volscians, and Prænestines.

Four new tribes added. Marcus Manlius, who defended the Capitol, being convicted of aspiring to regal power, is thrown from the Tarpeian rock. A law, proposed by two plebeian tribunes, that consuls might be chosen from among the commons, causes a long and violent contest, during which, for five years, the same set of plebeian tribunes are the only magistrates in the state : is at length passed : and Lucius Sextus, one of the proposers, made the first plebeian consul. A law passed, that no person shall possess more than five hundred acres of land.

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I. IN the five preceding books, I have exhibited a view of the affairs of the Romans, from the building of

Y.R.365. the city of Rome, until its capture ; under the gov- B.C.387. ernment, first, of kings; then of consuls and dictators, decemvirs, and consular tribunes ; their foreign wars, and domestic dissensions : matters involved in obscurity, not only by reason of their great antiquity, like objects placed at such a distance as to be scarcely discernible by the eye ; but also because that, in those times, the use of letters, the only faithful guardian of the memory of events, was very rare. And besides, what.

VOL. II-B

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nformation might have been contained in the commenof the pontiffs, and other public or private records, it most entirely lost in the burning of the city. Henceed, from the second origin of Rome, from whence, as ts root, receiving new life, it sprung up with redoubled and vigour, I shall be able to give the relation of its both civil and military, with more clearness and cer

Now, after its restoration, it leaned still, for princisport, on the same instrument which had raised it from Tarcus Furius Camillus. Nor did the people suffer lay aside the dictatorship before the end of that year. judged improper that the tribunes, during whose adation the city had been taken, should preside at the is for the year ensuing, and an interregnum was reon. While the public were kept diligently employed ring the city, Quintus Fabius, as soon as he went out e, had a prosecution instituted against him by Caius s, a tribune of the commons, for having, while in the er of ambassador, contrary to the law of nations, acted against the Gauls, with whom he had been sent as a to negotiate : he escaped standing his trial, by a opportune, that most people believed it voluntary. rregnum commenced. Publius Cornelius Scipio was inand, after him, Marcus Furius Camillus a second time.

He elected military tribunes, with consular power, Lucius Valerius Poplicola a second time, Lucius

Virginius, Publius Cornelius, Aulus Manlius, Luilius, and Lucius Postumius. These, enteringon office, tely on the conclusion of the interregnum, consulted e on no other business previous to that which related on. They ordered, in the first place, that a collection e made of the treaties and laws which could be found. r consisted of the twelve tables, and some laws enacted

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by the kings. Some of these were publicly promulgated ; but such as related to religious matters were kept secret, chiefly through means of the pontiffs, that they might hold the minds of the multitude in bondage. They next turned their deliberations to those days, which were to be accounted displeasing to the gods; and the fifteenth day of the calends of August was distinguished by an order, that on that unfortunate day no public or private business whatever should be transacted : it was deemed doubly unfortunate : for, on that day, the Fabii were slain at Cremera ; and, afterwards, on the same day, the fatal battle of Allia, which effected the destruction of the city, was fought: from the latter disaster, it was denominated the Allian day. Some are of opinion, that, because, on the day following the ides of July, Sulpicius, when military tribune, had neglected to perform the rites of the augury; and, without being assured of the favour of the gods, had, on the third day after, exposed the Roman army to the senemy, it was ordained, that the days following the calends, and the nones, should also be accounted equally inauspicious.

II. But it was not long allowed them to consult, in quiet, on the means of raising up the city, after such a grievous fall. On one side, their old enemy, the Volscians, had taken arms, resolved to extinguish the Roman name ; and, on the other, according to intelligence received from certain traders, a conspiracy of the leading men, from all the several states of Etruria, had been formed at the temple of Voltumna, for the purpose of commencing hostilities. To which was added a new cause of apprehension, by the defection of the Latines and Hernicians, who, ever since the battle fought at the lake Regillus, during the course of near an hundred years, had continued in friendship with the Roman people without ever giving reason to doubt their fidelity. Wherefore, when such alarms started up on every side, and all men plainly perceived,

ormation might have been contained in the commenthe pontiffs, and other public or private records, it ost entirely lost in the burning of the city. Hencefrom the second origin of Rome, from whence, as root, receiving new life, it sprung up with redoubled d vigour, I shall be able to give the relation of its oth civil and military, with more clearness and cerNow, after its restoration, it leaned still, for princiort, on the same instrument which had raised it from rcus Furius Camillus. Nor did the people suffer y aside the dictatorship before the end of that year. ndged improper that the tribunes, during whose adon the city had been taken, should preside at the for the year ensuing, and an interregnum was re• While the public were kept diligently employed ng the city, Quintus Fabius, as soon as he went out had a prosecution instituted against him by Caius a tribune of the commons, for having, while in the of ambassador, contrary to the law of nations, acted gainst the Gauls, with whom he had been sent as a o negotiate : he escaped standing his trial, by a pportune, that most people believed it voluntary. egnum commenced. Publius Cornelius Scipio was in1, after him, Marcus Furius Camillus a second time. He elected military tribunes, with consular power, Lucius Valerius Poplicola a second time, Lucius Virginius, Publius Cornelius, Aulus Manlius, Luus, and Lucius Postumius. These, entering on office, y on the conclusion of the interregnum, consulted on no other business previous to that which related

They ordered, in the first place, that a collection ade of the treaties and laws which could be found. onsisted of the twelve tables, and some laws enacted

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