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Successful operations against the Carthaginians, in Spain, under Silanus,

Scipio's lieutenant, and L. Scipio, his brother; of Sulpicius and Attalus, against Philip King of Macedonia. Scipio finally vanquishes the Carthaginians in Spain, and reduces that whole country ; passes over into Af. rica; forms an alliance with Syphax King of Numidia ; represses and punishes a mutiny of a part of his army; concludes a treaty of friendship with Masinissa ; returns to Rome, and is elected consul; solicits Africa for his province, which is opposed by Quintus Fabius Maximus; is appointed governor of Sicily, with permission to pass over into Africa.

I. AT the time when, in consequence of Hasdrubal's removing his forces, Spain seemed to be relieved of

Y.R.545. so much of the burden of the war as had been

B.C.207. thrown upon Italy, hostilities suddenly revived there with the same violence as before. The possessions of the Romans and Carthaginians in Spain, at that time, were thus situated : Hasdrubal, son of Gisgo, had withdrawn quite to the ocean and Gades; the coast of our sea, and almost all that part of Spain which lies to the eastward, was under the power of Scipio, and the dominion of the Romans, Hanno,


the new general, who had come over from Africa with a new army, in the room of Hasdrubal Barcas, and joined Mago, having quickly armed a great number of men in Celtiberia (an inland province, equidistant from both seas), Scipio, to oppose him, sent Marcus Silanus with only ten thousand foot and five hundred horse. Silanus proceeded with all possible expedition ; and though his march was impeded by the ruggedness of the roads, and by defiles surrounded with thick woods, which are met with in most parts of Spain, yet, taking for guides some of the natives, who had deserted from Celtiberia, he came up with the Carthaginians before any messenger, or even any report of his approach, had reached them. From deserters he also received information, when he was about ten miles distant from the enemy, that they had two camps, one on each side of the road in which he was marching ; that the Celtiberians, who were newly-raised forces, amounting to more than nine thousand men, formed the camp on the left, the Carthaginians that on the right ; that the latter was strong, and secured by outposts, watches, and every regular military guard : the other disorderly, and negligently guarded, being composed of barbarians, who were but lately enlisted, and were under the less apprehension because they were in their own country. Silanus, resolving to charge this division first, ordered their troops to direct their course a great way to the left, so as not to come within view of the posts of the Carthaginians; and having despatched scouts before him, he advanced in a brisk march to attack the enemy.

II. He had arrived within about three miles, and not one of the enemy had yet descried him ; craggy rocks, interspersed with thick bushes, covered the hills. Here, in a valley so deep as to be out of the way of observation, he ordered his men to halt, and take refreshment: the scouts in the mean time arrived, confirming the intelligence given by the deserters. On this the Romans, collecting the baggage into

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