Alpine Plant Life: Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystems ; with 47 Tables

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Springer Science & Business Media, 14 lug 2003 - 344 pagine
Recent years have seen renewed interest in the fragile alpine biota. The International Year of Mountains in 2002 and numerous international programs and initiatives have contributed to this. Since nearly half of mankind depends on water supplies originating in mountain catchments, the integrity and functional signi?cance of the upland biota is a key to human welfare and will receive even more attention as water becomes an increasingly limited resource. Intact alpine vegetation,as the safeguard of the water towers of the world, is worth being well understood. This new edition of Alpine Plant Life is an update with over 100 new references,new diagrams, revised and extended chapters (particularly 7, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17) and now also offers a geographic index. My thanks go to the many careful readers of the ?rst edition for their most valuable comments, in parti- lar to Vicente I. Deltoro (Valencia) and Johanna Wagner (Innsbruck). Basel,April 2003 Christian Körner Preface to the ?rst edition One of the largest natural biological experiments, perhaps the only one replicated across all latitudes and all climatic regions,is uplift of the la- scape and exposure of organisms to dramatic climatic gradients over a very short distance, otherwise only seen over thousands ofkilometers of poleward traveling. Generations of plant scientists have been fascinated by these natural test areas,and have explored plant and ecosystem responses to alpine life conditions. Alpine Plant Life is an attempt at a synthesis.
 

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Sommario

Plant ecology at high elevations
3
A regional and historical account
5
The challenge of alpine plant research
9
The alpine life zone
11
Global alpine land area
14
Alpine plant diversity
15
Origin of alpine floras
18
Alpine growth forms
20
Nitrogen fixation
160
Mycorrhiza
163
Responses of vegetation to variable nutrient supply
165
Uptake and loss of carbon
171
Photosynthetic responses to the environment
180
Daily carbon gain of leaves
186
C4 and CAM photosynthesis at high altitudes
189
Tissue respiration of alpine plants
190

Alpine climate
23
Regional features of alpine climates
28
The climate plants experience
33
How alpine plants influence their climate
40
The geographic variation of alpine climate
47
Life under snow protection and limitation
49
Solar radiation under snow
50
Gas concentrations under snow
54
Plant responses to snowpack
56
Alpine soils
65
The organic compound
72
The interaction of organic and inorganic compounds
76
Alpine treelines
79
Current altitudinal positions of climatic treelines
80
Treelineclimate relationships
82
Intrazonal variations and pantropical plateauing of alpine treelines
88
Treelines in the past
89
Attempts at a functional explanation of treelines
90
A hypothesis for treeline formation
97
Growth trends near treelines
99
Evidence for sink limitation
101
Climatic stress
103
Survival of low temperature extremes
104
Avoidance and tolerance of low temperature extremes
108
Heat stress in alpine plants
113
Ultraviolet radiation a stress factor?
116
Water relations
123
Soil moisture at high altitudes
126
Plant water relations a brief review of principles
133
Water relations of alpine plants
134
Desiccation stress
143
Water relations of special plant types
145
Mineral nutrition
149
Soil nutrients
150
The nutrient status of alpine plants
152
Nutrient cycling and nutrient budgets
155
Ecosystem carbon balance
196
Carbon investments
201
Lipids and energy content
209
Carbon costs of leaves and roots
211
Whole plant carbon allocation
214
Growth dynamics and phenology
221
Diurnal leaf extension
226
Rates of plant dry matter accumulation
228
Functional duration of leaves and roots
230
Cell division and tissue formation
235
Mitosis and the cell cycle
237
From meristem activity to growth control
243
Plant biomass production
247
Primary productivity of alpine vegetation
248
Plant dry matter pools
253
Biomass losses through herbivores
257
Plant reproduction
259
Seed development and seed size
266
Germination
271
Alpine seed banks and natural recruitment
274
Clonal propagation
279
Alpine plant age
289
Community processes
290
Global change at high elevation
291
The impact of altered atmospheric chemistry
294
Climatic change and alpine ecosystems
296
References with chapter annotation
299
Index
335
Geographical index
339
Subject index
341
Color Plates
Plant life forms
The alpine life zone
Environmental stress
The human dimension
Copyright

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Pagina 323 - Rauh W (1978) Die Wuchs- und Lebensformen der tropischen Hochgebirgsregionen und der Subantarktis, ein Vergleich. In: Troll C, Lauer W (eds) Geoecological relations between the southern temperate zone and the tropical mountains.
Pagina 311 - Douce R. 1996. Photorespiration is essential for the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus of C3 plants against photoinactivation under sunlight.
Pagina 302 - MC (1995). Physiological and production responses of plant growth forms to increases in limiting resources in alpine tundra: Implications for differential community response to environmental change. Oecologia, 101:217-27 Bowman, WD, Schardt JC and Schmidt SK (1996).
Pagina 313 - Johnson, DA and MM Caldwell (1976) Water potential components stomatal function and liquid phase water transport resistances of four Arctic and alpine species in relation to moisture stress. Physiol. Plant. 36 (3) ; 271278.
Pagina 323 - C (1996) A cross-continental comparison of phenology, leaf dynamics and dry matter allocation in arctic and temperate zone herbaceous plants from contrasting altitudes.
Pagina 302 - Bliss, LC 1966. Plant productivity in alpine microenvironments on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire. Ecol. Monogr.
Pagina 323 - Constraints and Policy Options for Sustainable Land Use. MD Young; OT Solbrig (eds.), 1993. 13. Tropical Forests, People and Food: Biocultural Interactions and Applications to Development. CM Hladik; A. Hladik; OF Linares; H. Pagezy; A. Semple; M. Hadley (eds.), 1993. 14. Mountain Research in Europe: An Overview of MAB Research from the Pyrenees to Siberia. MF Price, 1995.
Pagina 313 - Effects of soil temperature on the nitrogen economy and growth of mountain birch seedlings near its presumed low temperature distribution limit...
Pagina 313 - Schroeter, B. (1995) Carbon acquisition and water relations of lichens in polar regions - Potentials and limitations, Lichenologist 27, 531-545.

Informazioni sull'autore (2003)

Christian Körner was born 1949 in Salzburg, Austria. He studied in Innsbruck, where he received his Ph.D. and lectured until his appointment as Professor of Botany at the University of Basel (Switzerland) in 1989.

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