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from it. Yet this alone would not be sufficient: for evil spirits see these objects, and are aware of the consequences of their conduct; "they believe "and tremble," yet continue to hate and rebel. In this respect we have no adequate illustration: but, when God " gives a new heart and a right "spirit," then we love what we before hated, and hate what we before loved; then we willingly choose, and earnestly long for, and diligently labour with fear and trembling to secure, those very objects which we before despised and hated. Again, when the proud rebellious heart, " the "heart of stone," is taken away, and "a heart of "flesh" given, we "submit to God;" we say with Saul, "Lord, what wouldest thou have me to do?" The proud, stout, independent spirit, which scorned subjection, is subdued: the grace of God " casts "down imaginations," (or reasonings,) "and every "high thing that exalteth itself against the know"ledge of God; and brings every thought into "captivity to the obedience of Christ."l All is done by a divine, yea omnipotent, energy; yet nothing by compulsion: and not much by direct terror: but the Lord draws us with the cords of a "man, with bands of love."2 "The Comforter "convinces concerning sin, concerning righteous"ness, and concerning a judgment" to come. "He glorifies Christ, and receives of the things "of Christ, and shows them to us;" 3 and then we most willingly come to him, trust him, love him, count all things but loss for him, obey him, imi- 1 2 Cor. x. 4, 5. * Hos. xi. 3, 4.
'John xvi. 8—13.
tate him: and only grieve that we love, obey, and imitate him, no more and no better.
SECTION VIII. On Co-operation
The term co-operation is not, strictly speaking, scriptural, in respect of this entire subject; and many have objected to the use of it, as liable to mislead the minds of the unestablished. But, when employed according to the clear intention of our Article, it may be considered as capable of a very safe and instructive meaning. It is, therefore, only in respect of that beginning, by which man is rendered willing, the To 6i\ety, that we would exclude it; and this, in order that God may have the glory which he demands, and " that no flesh "should glory in his presence." "Of him (Jgoiura) "are ye in Christ Jesus; who of God is made "unto us, wisdom, and righteousness, and sancti"fication, and redemption: that, according as it is "written, He that glorieth, let him glory in the "Lord."1
'" The Spirit helpeth our infirmities, for we 'know not what we should pray for as we ought:" 'the spirit helps, but does not compel us; it sup'plies the deficiency of our natural strength, by 'suggesting what is right, and by assisting our 'weakness in performing it. The Greek word 'ovvarriteftSavi-rai expresses the co-operation forwhich 'we contend, more clearly than the English word '" helpeth." It literally expresses, says Doddridge, 'the action of one who helps another to bear a 'burden, by taking hold of it on one side, and 'lifting or bearing it with him ; and so it seems 'to intimate the obligation on us to exert our 'little strength, feeble as it is, in concurrence with 'his almighty aid.'1
1 1 Cor.i. 29—31. VOL. VII L
The apostle is here speaking, not of the sinner's conversion, but of himself and his fellow Christians, especially in respect of prayer. They had been "without strength:" 2 but by the grace of God they had now some strength, yet attended with infirmities :3 but the Spirit so "helped along with "them," that they were not overcome by these infirmities. In particular he taught and enabled them to pray "with groanings which could not "be uttered." This, beyond doubt, is widely different from "the old man" co-operating in his own crucifixion. The meaning of Doddridge, will more clearly appear, by some additional quotations from him on the same scripture.—' We 'are surrounded with so much ignorance and pre- * judice, that in many instances " we do not know 'what to pray for as we ought," because we know 'not on the whole what may be best for us. But
*the Spirit itself manages these affairs for us, 'guiding our minds to suitable petitions, and ex'citing in them correspondent affections; and 'sometimes inspiring us with that intense ardour
*of holy desire which no words can express, but 'must therefore vent themselves in unutterable 'groanings.' 'For ever adored be the divine 'goodness, in sending down his Spirit on such 'sinful creatures, to help our infirmities, to im'plant and excite graces in our hearts, to be a 'source of present delight, and of eternal happi'ness.'1—May the author again be permitted to adduce his own observations on the same text? 'Though their infirmities are many and great,
1 Ref. 40,41. 'Rom. v. 6. aV&yeif. 'dvSrtnuas.
*and they would soon be overpowered, if left to 'themselves; yet the Spirit of God so helps and
*supports them, and so powerfully aids their stre'nuous exertions, that they are not entirely over'come.—2wayh**ii.Givereu. (Luke x. 40.) He takes
*hold together with us, as one helps another to 'take up and carry a load, which he is too weak 'to carry alone.'2
'The same apostle prays for the communion of 'the Holy Ghost; and both the Greek and English * words imply the most intimate co-operation, and 'signify that the graces and virtues, on which sal
*vation depends, are the joint or common opera'tion of the supernatural power of the Holy
* Ghost, and of the natural power of man; that 'the Holy Ghost acts with men, in such manner,
*that their separate or respective parts cannot be 'perceived or distinguished.'3
It is here admitted that a supernatural power co-operates at least, in ' the graces and virtues on
*which salvation depends;' and no doubt faith is one of them.4
1 Doddridge. * Commentary, note, Rom. viii. 24—27.
'Ref. 42. 4 Ref. 18. See Section on Supernatural.
The word xotvwla, here rendered communion, signifies partnership, joint communication, joint participation, mutual intercourse; and the other words from the same root, have uniformly the same meaning; as, indeed, it sufficiently appears by the translation given of them in our Bibles. 'Kuvwna, ( a Xoivoj,) Communio, communi'tas, consortium, societas, communicatio, parti'cipatio.—Officium charitatis. (Hederic.) Acts ii. '42, 1 Cor. i. 9, Gal. ii. 9, Phil. i. 5. ii. 1, iii. 10, '1 John i. 3, 6, 7, it is translated fellowship; 'Rom. xv. 26, contribution; Heb.xiii. 16, to com'municate.—Koivwvos, Cui est communitas, socius,
*particeps. (Hederic.) Luke v. 7,10, 2 Cor. viii. '23, Philem. 17, partner or partners; Matt, xxiii. '30, 1 Cor. x. 18, 2 Cor. i. 7, Phil. i. 7, 1 Pet. 'v. 1, 2 Pet. i. 4, partaker, or partakers; Phi'lem. 6, communication; Heb. x. 33, companions. '—Kwtuvlta, In commune venio, commune aliquid
*habeo, particeps sum, communico: consentio 'cum aliquo: sacrce ccence particeps Jio. (He'deric.) Rom. xii. 13, Gal. vi. 6, Phil. iv. 15, 'Communicate; Rom. xv. 27, made partakers; '1 Tim. v. 22, be partaker; Heb. ii. 14, 1 Pet. iv. '13, are partakers; 2 John 11, is partaker.— 'Tvyxovwros, Rom. xi. 17, partakest; 1 Cor. ix. 23, 'Phil. i. 7, Rev. i. 9, partakers.—XvyKotvwyiw, Rev. 'xviii. 4, be partakers; Eph. v. 11, have fellow- 'ship.—Koivunixbs, 1 Tim. vi. 18, willing to commu
'nicate.'—The apostle, however, was not speaking of any thing in which co-operation was required. He was not calling on his brethren to perform any duty, in which the Holy Spirit might co-operate with them, or they with him ; but he simply prayed