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Predicate adjectives used adverbially.

prospera evenissent, p. 94, l. 19. For objective genitives. consularibus aliis inpedimentis, p. 139, 1. 8; dictatoria

invidia, p. 171, 1. 18.


Fondness for the ending -im.

gravatim, p. 4, 1. 31; pedetemptim, p. 101, 1. 36. Adverbs with adjective significance. omnium circa populorum, p. 72, 1. 26; quadraginta deinde

annos, p. 20, l. 16. Peculiar use of certain adverbs ; e. g., circa for time as well as place; ceterum = sed; iuxta = pariter; adhuc for past time; unde, ibi, inde, referring to persons; admodum, with numerals.


Affection for iteratives or intensives, often precisely with the meaning of the simple verbs.

Imperitabat, p. 27, 1. 8. Simple verbs for compound.

in maius vero ferri, p. 105, 1. 23; scriberet, p. 153, 1. 15. Fui and fueram as auxiliaries instead of sum and eram. Forem as the equivalent of essem.

Frequent appearance of present and perfect subjunctive in dependent clauses of oratio obliqua, where rule of sequence would require the imperfect or pluperfect;1

e. g. Tarquin's speech, p. 62, 11. 17, sqq. Active and passive with middle sense. pandi, p. 146, 1. 9; demissa, p. 44, l. 15; perfunderis,

p. 56, l. 2. Neuter verbs in compound tenses of the passive. perventum (est), p. 107, l. 21 ; est cessatum, p. 195, 1. 27;

tumultuatum (erat), p. 89, 1. 7. 1 See Article on the Latin Aorist Subjunctive in Classical Review, Oct., 1890.


Ablative absolute without substantive.

inaugurato, p. 46, 1. 20; inexplorato, p. 146, 1. 7. Past passive participle for verbal abstract noun.

degeneratum in aliis, p. 64, l. 3. Of deponent verbs in passive sense.

expertus, p. 44, 1. 33. Hypothetical.

invicta . . . si . . . dimicaretur, p. 78, l. 20. Omitted. aqua ex opaco specu profluens), p. 26, 1. 13; pugna ad

Trebiam (commissa), p. 88, 1. 20.
In comparative and superlative degrees.

occultiores, p. 105, 1. 30; extentissima valle, p. 106, 1. 3. Gerundive in instrumental ablative or ablative absolute.

Quibus oppugnandis, p. 77, l. 26; quaerendis vadis, p. 101,

1. 36.



Romulus, rex, regia, p. 14, 1. 27. Anaphora.

Hic terminum dedit, hic mercedem dabit, p. 117, I. 5. Anastrophe of prepositions.

Faesulas inter Arretiumque, p. 144, 1. 16. Brachylogy.

ad fidem promissorum, p. 107, 1. 28. Chiasmus.

Rebus perpetratis vocataque multitudine, p. II, l. 17. Constructio per synesim.

Magna pars raptae (i. e. virgines), p. 13, I. 15.
At enim, e. g. p. 91, l. 5; Tantum ne, p. 92, 1. 6;

errarent, p. 64, l. 26; ni intervenissent, p. 60, 1. 1.


Inversion of familiar phrases.

bello domique, p. 44, 1. 33 ; Vere primo, p. 94, l. 15. Paronomasia. consilio auxilioque, p. 66, l. 17; hostis pro hospite, p.

71, l. 9. Pleonasm. longe ante alios acceptissimus, p. 20, l. 18; Itaque ergo,

p. 30, l. 25; nova de integro, p. 147, 1. 12.


The text of the first decade comes to us through recensions by Victorianus (fourth century) and two Nicomachi (fifth century). The best mss. representing them are the Codex Mediceus (M) at Florence (eleventh century) and the Codex Parisinus (P) at Paris, No. 5725 in the Bibliothèque Nationale (tenth century). Earlier MSS. once known to scholars have disappeared.

For the third decade the chief source of the text is the Puteanus (P) Ms. of Paris, No. 5730 (sixth century). As several leaves at the beginning are missing, we are reduced, for the first two thirds of Book XXI., to two Mss. derived from the Puteanus, the Colbertinus at Paris, No. 5731 (C) (tenth or eleventh century), and the Mediceus at Florence (M) (eleventh century).

The text of Livy was first printed at Rome in 1469. The first great critical edition was that of Gronovius, Leyden, 1644, which remained the standard for nearly two centuries. A number of excellent editions have appeared since 1830, and the first rank to-day is held by those of Madvig (Copenhagen), and Weissenborn (Berlin).


Among recent editions with notes of Books I., XXI., and XXII., the following are worthy of recommendation :

Weissenborn, annotated edition (cura H. J. Müller), Weidmann, Berlin. Bk. I., 8th ed., 1885; XXI., 8th ed., 1888; XXII., 8th ed., 1891.

The whole of Livy is constantly appearing in parts. Moritz Müller, Bk. I. Teubner, Leipzig, 1888. Heynacher, Bk. I. Perthes, Gotha, 1885. Seeley, Bk. I. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1881.

Valuable Introduction.

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Greenough, Bks. I., II. Ginn, Boston, 1891.
Wölffin, Bk. XXI. Teubner, Leipzig, 1891.
Wölffin, Bk. XXII. Teubner, Leipzig, 1891.
Luterbacher, Bk. XXI. Perthes, Gotha, 1894.
Luterbacher, Bk. XXII. Perthes, Gotha, 1894.
Riemann et Benoist, Bks. XXI., XXII. Hachette, Paris, 1888.
Harant, Bks. XXI., XXII. Belin, Paris, 1886.
Capes, Bks. XXI., XXII. Macmillan, London, 1889.
Dowdall, Bk. XXI. Deighton, Bell, & Co., Cambridge, 1885.
Dowdall, Bk. XXII. Deighton, Bell, & Co., Cambridge, 1888.
Greenough and Peck, Bks. XXI., XXII. Ginn, Boston, 1893.

Among other books interesting to students of Livy may be mentioned :

Ancient Classics for English Readers. Livy, by Rev. L. W. Collins : Macmillan, London ; Lippincott, Philadelphia.

The Remains of Ancient Rome. J. H. Middleton. Black, Edinburgh, 1892.

Hannibal. T. A. Dodge. Houghton, Boston, 1893.

Die Phraseologie des Livius. E. Ballas. Jolowicz, Posen, 1885.

Études sur la Langue et Grammaire de Tite-Live. 0. Riemann. Thorin, Paris, 1885.

It has to a great extent superseded the earlier work of Kühnast, Die Haupt. punkte der Livianischen Syntax.


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Historisch-Kritische Untersuchungen zur zten Dekade des Livius. H. Hesselbarth. Waisenhaus, Halle, 1889.

Lexicon Livianum. F. Fügner. Teubner, Leipzig. Fasciculi 1.-VI. 1889-1893.

An important and valuable work, to appear in parts. Livius, XXI.-XXIII., grammatisch untersucht.

F. Fügner. Weidmann, Berlin, 1888.

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