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is applied to the country itself, meaning, however, the inhabitantsCortius has qui.... agebant, which seems harsh after Africa.

credo, "I suppose,"

XC.-1. Consul, subject of exornat below: used parenthetically, and not affecting the construction of the rest of the sentence: frumenti inopia tentabatur, “he was brought into difficulty by the want of corn:" pabulo pecoris, &c., care more for the pasturage of their cattle, than for tillage." 2. Quodcunque natum foret, "Whatever had been produced from the fields," i. e., "any crop there was:" æstatis extremum, "the end of summer." 3. Pro rei copia, "Considering all circumstances:" (exercitum), "supplies his army." 4. Agendum, "To be driven away:" se prædabundum, "that he, after having made a predatory excursion.”

exornat

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XCI. 1.-Turmas. The complement of cavalry belonging to each legion was 300. These were divided into ten turma, or troops, each containing thirty men. See Lat. Gr. App. V.: æqualiter, "equally," i. e., in proportion to their numbers. tles made of skins." § 128, Obs. 2: designs):"

2. Ex coriis utres, "Botignaris, "ignorant (of his

5. Ipse neque, res tre

maxima vis, “a very great quantity." 3. Cibum capere, atque paratos esse. 4. Noctem-acc. of time how long; with proxima and tertia, supply nocte, abl. of time when: duum millium (scil., passuum), "of two miles." § 24, 5. intentus propere sequi, "He himself was careful to follow :" "and not." 6. Quæ, "These things." § 99, Obs. 8: pida, "their dangerous condition." 7. Id facinus, "This deed." Sallust here endeavors, but in vain, to palliate the cruel and unjustifiable conduct of Marius towards the people of this town, which had surrendered at discretion, by the peculiarity of his situation, and the faithlessness of the Numidian character: admissum, "committed:" genus hominum, referring to the Numidians generally

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XCII.-1. Omnia, non bene consulta, &c., "All his operations, even those not well considered, were ascribed to his great military talents :" locupletes, scil., præda : —— cuncta portendi, "that every thing was revealed to him." 2. Ea res = id, namely, the destruction of Capsa: · igni corrumpit, "he destroys by fire." 3. Exercitu incruento, "Without loss:" non eadem asperitate qua Capsensium, "not of the same perilous nature as that of the Capsians." Cap

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and design."

sensium depends on res erat understood, lit., "as was the affair of,” &c. - 4. Inter ceteram planitiem, “In the midst of the plain.” The meaning is, that except this single mountain, all the rest (ceteram) was a plain : satis patens, "large enough" (scil., on the top): omnia, scil., loca, "in all parts," i. e., every where omnibus locis. § 128, Exc.: velut opere atque consulto, as if (made so) by art 5. Forte, quam consilio melius gesta, "Was effected more by chance than good management." 6. Nam castello, lit., "For there was to the fort,” i. e., “the fort had (or contained).” § 112, R. ii. : aggeribus.... locus importunus, “the place was unfit for mounds," i. e., the methods of attacking towns usually employed by the Romans (Ch. XXXVII., 4, ad fin., and Ch. XXI., 5.) were of no avail here: iter castellanorum, "the road of those inhabiting the fortress," i. e., the way up to the fort. 7. Milites neque consistere, scil., poterant, "The soldiers could neither stand:" pro opere, "in front of the work," i. e., of the vineæ: iniquitatem loci, lit., “the unevenness of the place," i. e., 'the steepness of the ascent:" inter vineas = intra vineas, "within (under cover of) the vineæ:" administrare, "labor."

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XCIII.-1. Anxius trahere, “Anxiously considered." § 98, Obs. 10. 2. Estuans, "In great perplexity," lit., "boiling with vexation:" Ligus, “Ligurian”—one belonging to the country of Liguria in the north of Italy, of which Genoa was the capital. Of these there were four cohorts among the Roman auxiliaries (Ch. LXXVII.), and being accustomed at home to the life of mountaineers, the exploit here mentioned is the more plausible. 3. Aquatum, "To get water". the supine. § 148, 1: quod aversum præliantibus, “which was turned away from (was not seen from) where they were fighting:" animum advertit = animadvertit: cochleas, "snails." These were held in high repute among the ancients as an article of food: egressus est, "he got up.". - 4. Solitudinem intellexit, "He perceived the solitude,” i. e., that there were none on that side of the mountain to see him, the attention of all having been drawn to the scene of conflict on the opposite side of the fortress: cupido difficilia, &c., "the desire of performing difficult exploits changed his mind," viz., from the occupation of gathering snails to examine the interior of the fort. 5. Modo prona, "Only sloping down" (at first): dein flexa, &c., "then having bent and grown upwards:" nature inclines all plants;" gignentium, subs.

quo cuncta, &c., "as governed by cuncta.

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§ 106, Obs. 8:

modo-modo, "at one time-at another:"

cas

telli planitiem perscribit, “he reconnoitres the area of the fortress," lit., "makes a plan of." 6. Non temere, uti escenderat, "Not carelessly, as he had gone up:" tentans, "exploring." 7. Hortatur.... tentet. § 140, Obs. 5. 8. Promissa ejus cognitum, "To test his promises." Note 3, above. After misit supply quosdam. Paulum arrectus, "Was a little excited:" parum arrectus, would mean "little excited;" paulum is positive, "a little”—parum is negative, "little.". ·10. Præsidio qui forent, "To be a guard." § 141,Obs. 2, 4th.

9.

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XCIV.-1. Pergit, i. e., Ligus pergit. 2. Uti prospectus, &c., "That the view before them, and their climbing over the rocks :" verum ea Numidica, &c., "but these were Numidian shields made of hides:" offensa, "when struck" (against the rocks). 3. Saxa ... laqueis vinciebat, "Fastened ropes round projecting stones:" et (radices arborum) si quæ vetustate radices eminebant, "and the roots of trees, if any roots projected owing to their age:" quibus allevati, "assisted by which:" levare manu, "he assisted them with his hand," hist. inf.- —so mittere, sequi, tentare, addere: quæ dubia nisu (for nisui, § 16, Exc. 2.) videbantur, potissimus tentare, "places which seemed dangerous to attempt, he first tried." 4. Desertum ab ea parte, "Deserted (left defenceless) on that side.". 5. Intentos prælio Numidas habuerat, "He had kept the Numidians intent on the battle," scil., in order to withdraw their attention from the proceedings of the Ligurian and his company. 6. Testudine acta, "Forming a testudo." The testudo was formed by the soldiers standing close together and holding their shields over their heads, so that one overlapped another, like the scales of a tortoise (whence the name testudo). By this means the missiles thrown from above glanced off from the shields without injuring those protected by them. 7. Agitare, "Walked about:" ac Mario vecordiam objectare, “and upbraided Marius with madness:" · militibus nostris, &c., "threatened to make our soldiers slaves to Jugurtha," lit., "the slavery of Jugurtha to our soldiers." 8. Signa canere (tibicines), "The trumpeters sounded the signals (of attack):". visum processerat, "had gone out to see (the battle):" - cuncti, &c., scil., fugere : —— neque præda morari, “nor did the booty detain." 9. Sic forte, &c., "Thus the rashness of Marius, being corrected by fortune, procured him glory from a blunder;" meaning, his inconsiderate rashness in attempting to reduce a fortress hitherto deemed impregnable.

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XCV.-1. Quos uti .... cogeret, "To collect whom," scil., equites, the antecedent of quos, implied in equitatu. § 99, Obs. 2: res, "the subject,” i. e., the present narrative: nos tanti viri admonuit. § 122, R. xxvii. 2. L. Sisenna, an early cotemporary of Cicero. He wrote a history of the civil war between Marius and Sulla; but, being himself a partizan of Sulla, he was thought to be not quite unbiassed in his judgment: after persecutus, supply Sullæ naturam cultumque : ・parum libero "with too little freedom." 3. Majorum ignavia, "In consequence of the inactivity of his ancestors," scil., of the gens Cornelia-extincta refers to the loss of political power and influence, rather than to physical decay:

ore,

atque doctissime, "and that very profoundly:" otio luxurioso; with this and animo ingenti, just before, supply homo in the predicate nominative. § 106, R. vii. 4. Nisi quod, &c., "Except that he might have acted more honorably in respect to his wife." Sulla, it ́is said, was five times married, and in every case was highly censurable for his infidelity and debauchery: - consuli is used impersonally, and imparts this character to potuit before it. § 113, Obs. 1: facilis, "pleasing in his friendship." § 128, R. xxxii. 5. Super industriam, "Greater than his activity:" fortior, i. e., num fortior, or fortiorne, § 140, 5; Note: so (num) pudeat. This has reference to the excesses committed by Sulla after his victory over Marius in the civil war. See Cat., Ch. IV., 6.

amicitia

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XCVI.-1. In paucis tempestatibus, "In a short time." The use of tempestates in the plural in this sense seems to be peculiar to Sallust. 2. Per se ipse (as if se ipsum, § 98, Exc. 5.), “ Of his own accord :” invitus, “unwillingly," § 98, Obs. 10; so multus with adesse, below; with accipere and repetere, supply beneficia : æs mutuum, "borrowed money." 3. Magis id laborare, "This rather he endeavored;" id refers to the following clause, § 97, Obs. 7: illi = sibi, "to him," scil., Sulla. praved ambition is wont to do:" referring to the following clause, consulis, &c. : nire, "he excelled the most."

4. Quod prava ambitio solet, "As dequod =id quod, "and this," plerosque anteve

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XCVII.—1. Quam primum copias adduceret, i. e., qui diceret ut quam primum, &c., "To tell him to bring his forces as soon as possible." § 145, Obs. 5, 3d Note. 2. Quem ubi accepit, "When he heard that he." § 99, Obs. 8: dubium belli, &c., "at a loss was weighing

deliberately the advantages of peace and war:" proximos, "his particular friends:" ipsique Mauro, scil., Boccho: suis finibus, "his (Jugurtha's) territories." 3. Die, genitive for diei. § 17, Exc.: nullo (obsolete for nulli, § 20, Note 2.) impedimento, scil., sibi fore. § 114, R. xix.: contra, "on the other hand:" utrumque casum, "that either event," scil., victory or defeat. Exercitus (namely of Marius), subject of quivit—a word of less power than potuit: signum, a signal" usually given by the trumpet: catervatim, "in separate latrocinio, "an cædere, "they

4.

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Mauri, Gatuli, both adjectives: bands." 5. Ascendere, ire, fieri, hist. inf.: encounter with robbers:" signis, "standards:" cut down"-"slew:"

obtruncare, "mutilated:"

tegere, scil.,

nostros. 6. Romani veteres novique (mixti), &c., "The Roman veterans and the new soldiers (who had been mingled with them), and for that reason skilled in warfare:" orbes facere, "formed themselves into circles," viz., so as to present a front to the enemy all round. Some editions leave out novique, and so confine what is here said to veteres; in that case ob ea would refer to the fact of their being veterans.

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XCVIII.-1. Tam aspero negotio, "So fierce a conflict:" manu consulere militibus, "assisted

misso animo. § 106, R. vii.: his soldiers by fighting."

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2. Nihil remittere, "Did not leave off:" pro se, "favorable to them:" rati agrees with barbari.

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3. Ex copia rerum consilium trahit, "Adopts measures according to his circumstances:" propinquos inter se, near each other." § 28, Obs. 5: parum amplo, "too small;" quærebat, "required," "needed:" neque = et non, or nequidem: pleno gradu, "in full step," i. e., "at a quick pace." 4. Effusi consedere, "Encamped in a scattered manner," "without any regular order." 5. Strepere vocibus, "Shouted," "yelled:"

et ipsi duces feroces, "and the leaders themselves (Jugurtha and Bocchus) highly elated:" ut pro victoribus, as if they were conquerors."

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XCIX.-1. Imperitia hostium, "By the unskilful conduct of the enemy," viz., as described in the close of the preceding chapter. 2. Ne signa.... canere, "That not even the signals should be sounded.” Canere is sometimes transitive, and has signum or signa for its object, as below; sometimes intransitive, with signum or signa for its subject, as here: uti per vigilias solebant. The night was divided by the

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