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Romans into four watches, the beginning of each of which was announced by sounding the buccina or horn. This customary announce. ment was on the present occasion ordered to be omitted: omnes simul, "all at once." 3. Nullo subveniente, "No one coming to their assistance:" formido quasi vecordia, "terror like a frenzy." Formido is a stronger term than timor, and expresses the highest degree of fear: terrore, "from the fright."

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C.-1. Quadrato agmine, "With his army in column." This does not mean that it was formed in a square having equal sides; but in the form of a parallelogram or quadrilateral rectangular figure, whose opposite sides are equal, but the length of which is greater than the breadth. 2. Apud dextimos curabat, "Commanded on the extreme right." Curabat, in this clause, is absolute or intransitive; so also in the next: but in the last it is transitive and governs cohortes. § 38, Obs. 5:

· primos et extremos.... tribunos locaverat, "he (Marius) had placed the tribunes in the van and rear," lit., "first and last." 3. Perfuga, "Deserters," viz., from the Numidian army, Ch. LVI., 2; these are said to be minime cari, persons "very little valued." 4. Quasi nullo imposito, “As if no one had been placed in command.”

5. Item milites cogebat, "And obliged the soldiers to be so too," i. e., to be armed and on their guard: neque secus, &c. Arrange, neque munire castra secus atque facere iter, "nor did he fortify his camp otherwise (i. e., with less care) than he performed his march:" secus atque. § 149, Obs. 6. 6. Excubitum (supine), "To keep watch," to be supplied again with equites auxiliarios : - non tam diffidentia futurum, quæ imperavisset, “not so much from want of confidence that those things which he had ordered would be done." Here the subject of futurum (esse) is ea understood which would regularly require futura (esse). This is the only instance known in the classics in which futurum is used in the future infinitive as indeclinable; but Gellius shows that this was not uncommon in the early writers. The Bipont edition has futura: quam uti, &c., "as that the labor, being equally shared by the commander, might be more agreeable to (i. e., might be more cheerfully endured by) the soldiers." For this construction see Ch. LXXXIV., 5. 7. Belli governed by temporibus: pudore, "by shame," scil., lest they should not equal the labors of their commander: quam malo, quod.... fieri, “that this was done:" per ambitionem, "from a desire of popularity:"

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'than by punishment:"

pars (quod

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Obs. 4:

motive.

fieri aiebant) quod, "others (said that this was done) because:" a pueritia consuetam, "become familiar to him from his boyhood:" voluptati habuisset, "he had considered as a pleasure." § 114, nisi tamen, "still however," i. e., no matter from what

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CI.-1. Citi. § 98, Obs. 10: diversi (speculatores), "different scouts:" alius ab alia parte. § 98, Obs. 11. 2. Jugurtham spes frustrata (est); "Jugurtha's expectation disappointed him," lit., "his expectation disappointed Jugurtha:" æque, "equally," i. e., event: any attigerant, "had come up to:" turmatim, &c., "in separate troops, and with their horses in as close order as possible.” 3. Bocchus cum peditibus.... invadunt. § 102, Obs. 2: neque.. affuerant, "and who had not been present." 4. Agebat, "Was engaged:" Numida, i. e., Jugurtha: clam convertit (se) ad pedites, "secretly turned away to some infantry"-most probably Roman infantry, as he is here said to have addressed them in Latin: sua manu, "by his (Jugurtha's) hand:" sanguine oblitum, "covered with blood,”—from oblino. 5. Quod ubi milites "When the soldiers heard this." § 99, Obs. 8. 6. Paulum ab fuga aberant, "Were nearly giving way:" avertitur, "is put to flight." 7. Ab equitibus, "By the (Roman) cavalry:" omnibus occisis, scil., comitibus, “all his attendants being slain:" vitabundus, "with a desperate effort to escape." 8. Auxilio suis. § 114, Obs. 1: quos (subject of pelli), "who." § 145, Obs. 2: sequi, fugere, occidi, capi, "they pursued," &c.,-a beautiful example of Asyndeton. § 150, 1, 1st. 9. Afflicti, "Dashed to the ground:" niti modo (surgere), "one moment they strove to rise:" qua visus erat, 66 as far as the eye could reach," lit., "where there was a view." Visus, a noun.

accepere,

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CII.-1. Post ea loci = postea, "Afterwards." § 135, Obs. 1: profectus intenderat, "when he set out he had directed his march." 2. Post diem quintum quam = die quinto postquam, "On the fifth day after:" duos quam fidissimos.... (ut) mitteret. § Obs. 5. See § 145, Obs. 5, 3d, Note; and above, Ch. XCVII., 1: scil., commodo. 3. Qui quamquam acciti ibant, "Although they went on invitation." It was therefore proper they should wait to hear what Bocchus had to say; but instead of this, they began to speak first, for the reasons here mentioned:

de suo,

aversum, "if disin

clined" (to peace): cujus facundiæ, &c., "to whose eloquence, not to his age, precedence was given by Manlius." 4. Te.... uti aliquando.... malles, "You at length to choose." § 122, Obs. 4: talem virum, and optimum below, are intended as flattery: neu commaculares, "and not to stain:". simul nobis demeres, "at the same time to take from us," i. e., "to relieve us from." The subjunctive thus used (§ 145, Obs. 5.) may often be rendered as the infinitive. 5. Errantem. The conduct of Bocchus he here softens down, by representing him as "erring" merely, as being misled. 6. Rati, scil., Romani, from populo Romano in the preceding clause. in quo, 7. Procul absumus, "We are a great way off:" circumstance in which:" gratia par ac, "our friendship is just the same as:" dein, related to primum above: (from pareo), "subjects," lit., "persons obeying." tempus, "By this time:" humanarum rerum....

parentes 8. Ad hoc

perpessus es, "you have suffered:" ....... pleraque. § 106, R. viii. : cui, scil., fortunæ. 9. Quo facilius, &c., "That by good services you may the more easily compensate for (past) errors." 10. Unde vi Jugurtham expulerit, "From which he (Bocchus) had expelled Jugurtha by force." Bocchus here states what was not true; for he had never driven Jugurtha from any part of Numidia, nor even opposed him in war. His object in this probably was to induce the Romans to think there was no friendly feeling between Jugurtha and him, and for this reason he would be a more desirable ally to the Romans. 11. Repulsum (esse) ab amicitia, "That he had been repelled from their friendship.” See above, Ch. LXXX.: vetera omittere, "that he said nothing of things past." 12. Copia facta, "After permission was granted," scil., to send an embassy to Rome.

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obsessum turrim

CIII.-1. In loca sola, "Into the desert:" regiam, "to besiege fortress of the king." § 148, 1: perfugas, "the deserters," scil., from the Romans to him. See Ch. LVI., 2. These deserters he knew would make a most vigorous defence, well knowing what they would have to suffer if they fell into the hands of the Romans. 2. Venerant for evenerant, "Had happened:" corruptos reliquerat, "had left unbribed." 3. Si placeat, "If it pleased him," scil., Marius: sine core, "without equipage:" pro prætore, "as prætor," i. e., commander-in-chief in his absence. 4. Pro vanis hostibus, "As fickle enemies;" habuit in this clause signifies "to consider," or, "regard,"-in the next by a Zeugma, "to

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accurate, "with attention:"

treat:" of this."

qua re, "in consequence

5. Largitio, "Giving money for bribery:" benignitate habebantur, "were considered as acts of kindness." 6. Regis sui, "Of their king:" benevolentiæ, "fitted to gain good will;"-the dative of the end, § 114, R. xix., supply ei, Obs. 4, scil., regi Boccho.

CIV.-1. Marius postquam, confecto negotio quo intenderat (iter), Cirtam redit, "As soon as Marius returns to Cirta, after he had finished the business (in the place) whither he had directed his course.' The readings in this clause are so various and unsettled, that it is difficult to know with certainty what Sallust did write. Of the reading in the text, it can be said only that it is as likely to be correct as any of the others: cognoscit, "he takes into consideration." 2. Ea, These things," referring to potestas eundi and induciæ. § 98, Obs. 3: ferocius, "more harshly:" in adversa, "for the worse.' 3. Stipendium, "Money to pay the army: quum-tum maxime, "not only-but especially:" libens accepit, "heard with great pleasure. 4. Postquam errasse regem, &c., "After they apologized (by acknowledging) that the king had committed an error, and had been misled by the wicked artifices of Jugurtha." 5. Delicti gratiam facit, "They pardon the offence."

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CV.-1. Cujus arbitratu, "By whose intervention:" consuleretur, used impersonally. § 85, 3. 2. Funditorum Balearium, “Of Balearian slingers." The inhabitants of the Balearian isles (Majorca, Minorca, Ivica) were celebrated in antiquity as slingers. Their weapon was a leathern sling, by which leaden bullets were thrown, 3. with great skill and accuracy, a distance of 500 paces. Cohors Peligna. The Pelignians were a people of central Italy near the Adriatic: velitaribus armis, "with arms used by the velites;" scil., a round shield, a short sword, seven javelins with slender points, and a light helmet. 4. Cum mille non amplius equitibus, "With not more than a thousand cavalry." § 120, Obs. 3: et numerum ampliorem.... efficiebant, "both caused the number to appear greater, and excited," &c. Here there is a Zeugma in efficiebant, i. e., it has a different meaning in each of the two clauses to which it belongs. § 150, 1, 2d. 5. Se quisque expedire, &c., "Each got himself ready (for the fight)-made trial of his arms and javelins-presented them against (towards) the enemy:" timor

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aliquantus, scil., illis fuit: quippe victoribus, "because victors." Victoribus is in the dative agreeing with illis: uti erat, "as really was the case."

pass.

CVI.-1. Et præsidio, "And to be their guard." § 114, Obs. 4. 2. Incerto vultu, "With a troubled look." 3. Animo feroci, "With stern resolution:" credere; with this infinitive, and mansurum potius (esse), supply dicit or dicens: mansurum potius quam, &c., “that he would stand his ground rather than, betraying his men whom he led, by base flight save a life uncertain (at the best), and perhaps soon to perish by disease." Instead of parceret, the regular construction would require parsurum, being connected by quam with mansurum. This may be accounted for by supposing an ellipsis; thus, mansurum potius, quam (commissurum ut) parceret. The indicative shows that quos ducebat is not the language of Sulla, but is thrown in by Sallust to explain (militibus) proditis. § 141, Obs. 5, 1st. 4. Cœnatos esse, “To dispatch supper," lit., "to have supped." The perfect infinitive, instead of the present, to express eagerness and haste: ante eos, “before them," scil., on the road by which they had to 5. Fuere, qui dicerent, "Some said." § 141, Obs. 1.

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CVII.-1. Quanto sibi.... minus pepercissent, "The less they spared themselves:" nudum et cæcum corpus ad hostes vertere, "to turn towards the enemy that part of the body which was unprotected and without eyes," scil., to see and avoid approaching danger.

credere,

2. Ille, scil., Volux: — orare ne ea crederet (dicens) nihil dolo factum (esse). § 145, Obs. 5, 3d, Note. 3. Cui, "By whom." § 126, R. xxxiii. 4. Neque haberet, "He (Jugurtha), did not have:" ex suo patre, "on his (Volux's) father:" i. e., Bocchus: "he (Volux) thought:" illum, "that he" (Jugurtha). 5. Quare optimum factu videri, “Wherefore he (Volux) thought it best," lit., "the thing best to be done seemed to him to be:" media ejus castra, "through the midst of his (Jugurtha's) camp,"-perhaps made in two divisions, or in a very scattered manner: sese, "that

per

he himself" (Volux). 6. Ut in tali negotio, "As the matter stood " -intimating that, in other circumstances, so hazardous a course would not have been adopted. 7. Acciderant, "They had come upon him."

CVIII.-1. Multum et familiariter agebat, "Was holding much and friendly intercourse :" orator et subdole, &c., 66 as an ambas

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