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REFERENCES TO KÜHNER'S AND
ANDREWS AND STODDARD'S LATIN
BY J. H. HANSON, A. M.,
PRINCIPAL OF THE HIGH SCHOOL FOR BOYS, PORTLAND, ME.
CROSBY AND NICHOLS,
MARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861, by
J. H. HANSON,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.
University Press, Cambridge:
Electrotyped and Printed by Welch, Bigelow, & Co.
THE preparation of this volume was commenced some years since in the belief that the Latin preparatory course for college, both in the variety and arrangement of the materials composing it and in the materials themselves, could be improved; and that, by comprising in a single volume what is usually obtained from three or four, the expenses of the young student could be very considerably lessened. A desire to awaken a deeper interest in classical studies as well as to promote thoroughness in their pursuit, and to contribute something towards placing the advantages of a liberal education within the reach of all, is my apology, therefore, for adding another to the already numerous list of school-books.
The idea which I have endeavored to keep constantly before me, is that of a drill-book; and, in strict accordance with this idea, nothing has been introduced, whether by way of grammatical references, synonyms, notes, history, or geography, which it is not deemed important that the student should make himself acquainted with.
The references at the foot of the page are made to the Revised Edition of Andrews and Stoddard's and to Kühner's Latin Grammars. The former of these works is too widely known and too extensively used to need any commendation of mine of the latter I would say, as the result of some ten years' trial and almost daily reference, that it is not so widely known nor so extensively used as it deserves to be; and if the result of my humble effort shall be to call attention to its merits and give it a wider circulation, I shall be highly gratified. Besides giving teachers a choice in the use of grammars, it is
believed that no inconsiderable advantage may be derived from consulting two so different in many respects as are these, which could not be gained from the use of one. They will be found constantly to explain and illustrate each other, and thus, by throwing light upon the classic page, to afford both teacher and pupil that kind of help which they most need.
The introduction of synonyms, to any considerable extent, into a work so elementary as this, is a feature almost, if not wholly new; and it is hoped that it may not prove unacceptable to those of my fellow-teachers especially, who are engaged in preparing young men for college. The practice of discriminating between words whose general meanings are the same, or similar, cannot fail to have a most salutary influence upon mental development and accurate scholarship. Nearly all of this portion of the notes has been taken, without material alteration, from Döderlein's Hand-Book of Latin Synonyms. Questions on these extracts have been introduced among the references to intimate that they should be learned and recited by the pupil; and to facilitate reviewing, and thereby secure thoroughness here, these questions are repeated throughout the work.
In the preparation of the notes, my aim has been to do neither too much nor too little; to render such assistance, and such only, as seemed to be necessary to enable the pupil, by the full exercise of his own powers, to master his task. I have not hesitated to translate, where translation was really needed, but have, in general, relied more upon the various other means of elucidating the meaning of the text, than upon this. In cases of a free translation of idiomatic expressions, a strictly literal, or more literal translation is usually added.
The vocabulary, which has been compiled chiefly from Kaltschmidt's Latin Dictionary, has been prepared with much care, and with special reference to that numerous class of scholars who wish to acquire some knowledge of Latin, but do not intend to go to college. Such are thus enabled to accomplish their object without the necessity of incurring the expense of a lexicon. But the editor is fully of the opinion that it is better for those, who contemplate a more extended classical course, to become early accustomed to the use of a complete lexicon; for this
reason, he has thought it best, in making up the vocabulary, to omit entirely the orations. For all the rest of the text, it is hoped that it will be found amply sufficient.
In regard to the text, my purpose has been to follow the latest and best recensions: the Caesar is chiefly that of Koch; the Sallust, that of Dietsch; the Cicero, that of the second edition of Orelli. Other excellent editions of these classics have been constantly consulted, and, in some cases, followed. The orthography is, for the most part, that of the editions of Caesar, Sallust, and Cicero, from which the text has been chiefly taken. This will account for the want of uniformity in the spelling of a few words.
As to the quantity of Latin prose necessary for entering college, there is, and will, doubtless, continue to be, some difference of opinion. Our colleges are not all uniform in their requirements. The end aimed at by all is, however, very much the same; viz., a sufficient knowledge of the Latin language to enable the student to pursue with ease and profit the college classical course. The experience of some twenty years in this department of teaching and the preparation of some hundreds of young men for college, have convinced me that this end can be most successfully accomplished by taking the pupil over so much surface only as can be thoroughly studied. Any other course has a tendency not only to defeat this particular end, but also, by inducing loose and superficial habits of thought and study, to unfit the mind for success in all the other departments of a college course. These are substantially the views by which I have been governed in determining the quantity of text in the present volume. I think it will be found not only ample in itself, but all that can possibly be read in the time usually given to preparation for college, if the constant use of the grammar and the general thoroughness which the plan of the book supposes, shall be strictly carried into practice.
Fewer of Cicero's orations have been introduced than are usually contained in the school editions of his Select Orations, but it is believed that more than an equivalent will be found in the thirty-five letters which have been substituted for them. These cover a period of twenty years, commencing with the