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TABLE 37

WORLDWIDE BRAZILIAN
PAPER MACHINERY TRADE

1981-86
Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
Exports $69.5 34. 2 27. 5 26.9 61. 7 52 ... O
Imports $36. 1 13. 4 7.7 8. 8 12. 3 13. 4

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade
Administration internal documents.
TABLE 38

U. S. - BRAZIL. PAPER MACHINERY TRADE : 1981-87
($ million)

Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987
Exports $ 7.7 4.4 3 - 0 3. 3 4 - O 3.2 10. 6
Imports $ 0.3 1. 9 0.3 4. 3 41.6 16.8 42.8
Balance $ 7.4 2 - 5 2. 7 -1. O -37. 6 -13. 4 -32 - 2

* Imports include some closely related items.

Source: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce internal documents

Table 38 shows trends in U.S.-Brazil paper machinery trade for 1981-87. The majority of U.S. paper machinery imports from Brazil have been parts, accounting for 58 percent, or $24 million, of the 1985 import total. Specialty items such as stock treatment parts and gearboxes for paper machines added about $1 million each to the Brazilian totals. Nearly all of these Brazilian exports to the United States entered under the Generalized Schedule of Preferences (GSP) system.

In addition to the use of GSP, Brazil has achieved export success through a variety of financing mechanisms. The availability of generous financing has been the leading incentive for the established producers to source paper machinery from Brazilian plants. Two Brazilian entities provide this financing: BNDES (National Economic Development Bank) and, far more significantly, FINAME (Financing Fund for the Acquisition of Industrial Machinery and Equipment), which operates as an arm of the Finance Ministry.

FINAME has provided financing for several recent paper machinery

projects in the United States, at rates more attractive than May be offered by domestically available financing sources. Recently,

Brazil provided financing for parts of the rebuild of a paper machine at the Garden State Paper Company in New Jersey and the Greenfield mill project recently completed by Lake Superior Paper Industries at Duluth, Minnesota. In the Canadian market, Voith, sourcing from Brazil, recently provided a 313-inch trim twin-wire for the Finley Forest Industries mill in Mackenzie, British Columbia.

While encouraging exports, Brazil protects its domestic market for paper machinery. Two national trade associations, ABDID (Brazilian Association for Capital Goods Industry Development) and ABIMAQ (Brazilian Machine and Equipment Industry Association) work closely with the government to limit capital goods imports and increase Brazilian domestic content in machine production.

Prior to the 1987 recession in Brazil, Brazilian papermakers had announced planned capital spending of $2.8 billion on new and rebuilt mill projects between 1986 and 1990. More than half these projects were to be financially assisted by BNDES. Expansions of pulp capacity amounted to 1,477 mtpy, with increased paper and paperboard capacity slated to reach 1, 180 mtpy. While the recession did not produce an immediate cutback in the announced expansion plans, many of the projects are scheduled for completion late in the 5-year period and could be affected by changed economic conditions.

Asian Markets: Regional Highlights. Production-related data for pulp, paper and paperboard indicate market potential for paper machinery in Asia. Asian markets for pulp, paper, and board showed sharp increases in production during 1987. Output of pulp rose 6.4 percent to a record 20 mmt, while production of paper and paperboard rose 9.8 percent to a record 45 mmt. Excluding China, there were l, 339 paper and paperboard Mills and 249 pulp Mills in the region in 1987.

Japan is the leading producer with about one-half of the region's production capacity and output in paper-paperboard and pulp. China is a substantial second place producer. Though China leads Japan in the number of paper-board Mills (1,600), these Mills are much smaller than those in Japan. The contrast in average size of the small Chinese paper-paperboard Mills and the larger Japanese Mills is highlighted by the fact that the Japanese with less than one-third (489) the number of Chinese Mills more than double Chinese capacity and output. Among pulp Mills, Chinese capacity and output are about two-thirds of those in Japan.

Although several newly industrializing countries such as India, Indonesia, South Korea, and Thailand boast significant numbers of Mills, most Mills in the region are small, single machine operations producing limited tonnage for local markets (Table 39).

Japan. As with so many other commodities, Japan is playing a more active role as a producer of paper machinery. Trade with the United States and foreign countries is growing, in both directions, and

TABLE 39

PULP AND PAPER MILLS IN ASIA: NUMBER, CAPACITY,
AND PRODUCTION FOR SELECTED COUNTRIES, 1986
(000 Metric Tons)

Country Number of Mills Capacity 1986 Production
P&B Pulp P&B Pulp P&B Pulp
Bangladesh 8 9 127 126 115 83
India 300 100 2,760 1, 450 1,886 1,050
Indonesia 36 16 980 4.42 775 27 O
Israel 5 O 17 O O 174 O
Japan 489 61 25, 286 12, 57.1 22, 537 9, 733
Korea, Rep. 150 5 3, 421 427 3, 163 315
Malaysia 13 l 220 92 7 O 10
Pakistan 15 3 160 100 98 75
People's Rep. 1, 600e N/A 12, 500e 9,000e 11, 4 ll 7, 204
of China
Philippines 23 3 515 208 308 146
Taiwan 152 3 3, 170 500 2,737 4 16
Thailand 33 5 720 150 4.32 50
Turkey 39 17 1, 100 550 73 O 450
Other 76 26 89.4 468 653 309
Total Asia 2,939 249 52, 023 26,084 45,089 20, 111

P & B - Paper & Board e = estimated

Source: ibid., pp. 54.

Japanese-made equipment is winning greater acceptance in world markets. According to OECD data, Japan advanced from eigth place as an exporter in 1982 to third place in 1984 (9.4 percent of world export market) and dropped back to fourth place in 1985 (7.7 percent).

The Japanese paper machinery industry embraces approximately 365 companies. Four large firms dominate the industry with another half dozen firms recognized as leading producers of paper converting machinery. The large producers emerged as new firms after World War II while many small producers began as repair shops for paper machinery. Geographically the industry is dispersed through such urban centers as Tokyo, Osaka, Fuji City, and Shizuoka, the latter a major paper mill center. The leading producers are all large industrial combines for which paper machinery accounts for only 5 percent of annual turnover.

The leading Japanese producers of paper machinery include, in order

of importance, (1) Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. : (2) Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.; (3) Sumitomo Heavy

Industries Ltd. ; and (4) Hitachi Zosen Corporation. In the paper converting machinery sector, the top six suppliers accounted for about 24 percent of shipments in 1985. These suppliers are (1) Shibuya Kogyo Co., Ltd.; (2) Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.; (3) Fuji Machinery Co., Ltd. ; (4) Tokyo Shokuhin Kikai Co., Ltd.; (5) Omori Kikai Kogyo Co., Ltd. ; and (6) Tokyo Jido Kikai Seisakusho Ltd. None of the Japanese producers maintain direct factory operations in the United States. However, Mitsubishi has been a licensee of Beloit Corporation since 1953. In November 1986, Beloit's parent Company, Harnischfeger Corporation, announced it had sold a 20 percent interest in Beloit to Mitsubishi for $60 million. Coming on the heels of an apparently unsuccessful attempt by Mitsubishi to purchase Beloit when it was up for sale in early 1986, this investment marks the first major Japanese entry into the North American papermaking machinery market. In other arrangements, Sumitomo is a licensee of Valmet and Ishikawajima-Harima holds licenses from both Black Clawson and Voith.

TABLE 40

JAPANESE PAPER MACHINERY INDUSTRY, 1981–85
($ millions)

Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985

Pulp & Paper Machinery

Shipments 381 - O 350 - O 355 - 5 415 - 1 542. 3 Imports 15. 4 8. 8 15. 3 30.2 37. 9 Exports 80 ... 2 41. 3 39 - 1 93.2 83. 4 Consumption 3.07 - 2 3.17. 3 331 - 7 352. 1 465. 2 Paper Converting Machinery

Shipments 154. 1 140. 9 197. 6 272.4 305.5 Imports 26 - 7 22.6 24 - 7 32 - 5 53. 4 Exports 57 - 2 62. 9 61. 9 94 - 1 103. 6 Consumption 123. 6 100. 6 16O.4 210. 9 255. 3 Paper Machinery Total

Shipments 535 - 2 49 O. 7 553 - 1 687. 5 847. 8 Imports 42.1 31. 5 40. 00 62. 7 91.3 Exports 146. 5 104.3 100. 9 187.2 187. O Consumption 43 O. 8 417. 8 492. 1 562. 3 752 - 2

Source: Japan Society for the Promotion of Machine Industry.

Japanese shipments of papermaking machinery and paper converting

machinery rose rapidly during 1983-86 period after slow growth during the worldwide slowdown in demand for paper machinery in 1982 (Table 40).

TABLE 41
JAPANESE PAPER MACHINERY TRADE TRENDS
1981-85
($ million)

Imports of Papermaking Machinery by Japan:

Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985
Sweden O. 6 --- 2. 3 10. 7 4. 1
Finland l. 3 O. 9 0.4 2.2 4. 6
West Germany 8 . 6 2. 3 5.9 9. 6 17. T
United States l. 2 2.2 3. 3 1. 6 2.5

Imports of Paper Converting Machinery by Japan:

Sweden O. 7 1.2 0.3 2.0 l. 4
West Germany 11.9 9. 8 9. 4 13. 6 14.6
United States 7. 6 8. 0 6.8 9 - 2 27. O
Exports of Papermaking Machinery from Japan:

Korea 9. 1 2 - 7 l. 9 17. 6 14.6
Taiwan 3. 9 2.5 5. 1 14.6 15. 8
United States 8 . 6 4.4 11.5 3. 9 4. 0
Canada 6. 6 2.5 1.8 3 - 7 12. 6
China O.2 3 ... O l. O 4 - 5 8 . 9
Indonesia 12.4 1. 7 1. 9 28. 1 1 - 1
Exports of Paper Converting Machinery from Japan:

Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985
Korea 2.8 7. 1 7. 8 1O.8 12.8
Taiwan 3. 6 4. 1 2. 7 5. 8 5. 6
United States 5. 3 9. 4 13. 8 23. 1 8. 1
China 5.5 1. 6 3 - 5 10. 1 24. 7
Indonesia 4 - 2 5. 2 8. 1 3.9 2. 1
EC 8 . O 3.2 5. 3 8.5 1O.8
Communist 8. l. 2.2 3. 6 16.8 31. 1

Note: There are discrepancies between total exports and total exports of papermaking machinery and paper converting machinery by major countries because plant exports are not included in this table.

Source: Japan Society for the Promotion of Machine Industry.

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