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Research and Development

Prior discussion in this report has emphasized the essential role and importance of R&D to enable the U.S. paper machinery industry to lead in International competition. The U.S. industry must compete not only in the arena of new technological ideas and products but must also compete against substantial foreign R&D resources often managed by powerful alliances between foreign industries and their governments.

The U.S. Government recognizes the significance of the R&D competition abroad and has taken steps to allow U.S. firms to participate more effectively in R&D efforts. The idea of joint R&D among firms and with academia has been proposed at industry trade association meetings and elsewhere for sometime. It appears to have particular validity for smaller companies and for development of specialized but broadly applicable component parts. As noted, R&D in this industry is dominated by large firms.

OPTIONS:

o Firms in the paper machinery industry could join
together on basic research under the aegis of the
National Research Act (P.L. 98-462), which was passed
unanimously by the U.S. Congress on October 11, 1984.
The act, which covers R&D activities up to the
prototype stage, eases corporate antitrust fears, by
removing much of the incentive for third-party suits.
Although such an organization in the paper machinery
industry would obviously involve fewer firms, one such
organization consists of 21 firms which formed the
Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation.
Another example is the Semiconductor Research
Consortium consisting of 35 firms that contracted all
research with academia. Such R&D organizations MAY
also include Federal agencies as partner investors not
exceeding a 49 percent interest. However, it is
necessary for industry to form the R&D cooperatives and
set the research agenda.

o The National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly the National Bureau of Standards) also offers alternative research arrangements with both small and large firms. Examples of potential research projects that May interest the paper machinery industry include work in corrosion, metallurgy, robotics, and materials.

o The Federal Government could provide additional incentives to permit easier and more rapid commercialization of research developed at the Forest Products Laboratory.

Fairness in Product Liability Laws

For much of the decade, the U.S. paper machinery industry has been concerned about the cost of product liability insurance as an impediment to competitiveness. The U.S. competitiveness disadvantage is rooted in the contrast between the tort laws abroad, which severely limit the potential liability exposure of original equipment manufacturers, and the less constraining U.S. laws which allow greater exposure of U.S.-based producers to product liability litigation in U.S. courts. These laws imposed additional costs on U.S. manufacturers, primarily for liability insurance, not faced by foreign-based competitors. Product liability suits are most likely to arise in connection with older equipment, some of which have been in Mills for more than 50 years. Even though this equipment has generally been substantially rebuilt since first installation, the manufacturer is potentially liable for damages attributed to machinery which May no longer meet currently accepted industry operating standards. This exposes paper machinery manufacturers to a "long tail" resulting from the long life of the equipment. In order to reduce this exposure, the paper machinery industry has sought, at both State and Federal levels, 25-year statutes of repose, which would limit the liability of manufacturers for old machinery bearing the firm's nameplate.

OPTIONS:

o The U. S. Government could carefully monitor, along with the U.S. paper machinery industry, the machine tool industry, and other machinery producers, efforts at both State and Federal levels to bring about legislative enactment of statutes of repose which would bar damage awards arising from machinery more than 25-years old, unless required safety equipment was not provided.

Increase Usefulness of U.S. the Bureau of Census Statistics

The availability of timely, accurate data on domestic shipments, employment, capital expenditures, and trade is essential to maintain the industry's competitiveness. Detailed shipments data are now available at 5-year intervals . in the years ending in 2 and 7 and is shown according to various types of paper machinery under the Standard Industrial Classification code 3554. Shipments data are shown by "industry" (includes items other than paper machinery produced by firms in the industry) and "product" (includes all paper machinery production). Corollary data such as employment now correspond to the less precise industry definition.

OPTIONS:

o The U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census could collect detailed statistics on this industry at more frequent intervals than the 5-year time frame of the Census of Manufactures.

o Census could issue a new Current Industrial Report
(CIR) based on collection of data for SIC 3554. A CIR
is an annual report which would provide more timely
data essential to competitiveness decisions by paper
machinery industry executives. Such a new Current
Industrial Report was recently begun for the robotics
industry. Logistical support and financial assistance
for this undertaking could be provided, in part, by the
paper machinery industry in accordance with the
precedents set on other Current Industrial Reports.

o Employment and other corollary data could be collected which corresponds to "product" shipments rather than the less precise "industry" shipments.

Insure Adequate National Security Manufacturing Base

Paper products contribute in almost countless ways to the communication, educational, and personal needs of U.S. citizens in both peace and war. During a war period, paper products continue to be essential to the military effort and its civilian support. In both World Wars, paper machinery plants were substantially converted to production of defense goods. The rural location and physical configuration of key plants in this industry continues to make such facilities suitable for wartime conversion. A highly skilled labor force, heavy with scientists, engineers, and machinists, also makes this industry a prime candidate for defense retooling in wartime. A sufficient domestically-based paper machinery sector could meet national needs in times of emergency.

OPTION: o The U.S. Government and leaders of the U.S. paper machinery industry could jointly evaluate existing or

potential problems in meeting national emergency
contingencies.

APPENDIX A

COMPANY NAMES AND ADDRESSES
BY COUNTRY

BRAZIL

Arnold Diesendruck Representacoes Industrials S/C Ltda Rua General Jardim, 770 0.1223 Sao Paulo, SP

Beloit-Rauma Industrial Ltda.
Caixa Postal 1858
13.001 Campinas, SP

C-E Brasil Comercio E Industria Av. Eng. Luiz Carlos Berrini, 801 04571 Sao Paulo, SP

Comercio E Ind. De Papel Santo Amaro
Rua Sao Bento, 200
01010 Sao Paulo, SP

Companhia Federal De Fundicao
Av. Cel. Phidias Tavora, 321
Pavuna
21530 Rio De Janeiro, RJ

Industria Mecanica Cavallari S/A
Rua Prof. Alves Pedroso, 452
O3721 Sao Paulo, SP

Johnson do Brasil Metalurgia, Ltda.
P. O. Box Caixa Postal N-66511
O5389 Indianopolis, SP

Kamyr Do Brasil
R. Bt-11 - C. P. 14046
80.000 Curitiba, PR

Maquinas Ikemori
Rua Antonio Lindoro Da Silva, 408
Vl. Aricanduva
0.3506 Sao Paulo, SP

Pilao S/A
Rua Cadiriri, 1300
PQ. Da Mooca
03109 Sao Paulo, SP

(APPENDIX A CONT.)

Stein Surface Combustion Fornos E Equipamentos
Industriais Ltda.

Rua Prof. Artur Ramos, 183

Itaim

01454 Sao Paulo, SP

Sund-Emba-Bhs Ind. De Maquinas Ltda.
Rua Constantino Falcao, 102
80.000 Curitiba, PR

Talamac S/A. Maquinas Industrials
Rua Florencio De Abreu 367
01029 Sao Paulo, SP

Voith S/A. Maquinas E. Equipamentos
Rua Friedrich Van Voith, 825
Jaragua

O2995 Sao Paulo, SP

WEST GERMANY

Bielomatik Leuze GmbH & Co.
Max Planck Str. 15
Postfach 49

74 42 Neuffen

Folio cutters

Billhofer Maschinenfabrik GmbH
Markgrafenstrasse 20
8500 Nurnberg
Calenders, sheeters.

O. Dorries GmbH

Valdener Str. 52

Postfach 5 85

5160. Duren
Board machines, dryer sections, suction rolls.

Jagenberg AG

Kennedydamm 15-17

Postfach 11 23

4000 Dusseldorf 30 On-machine and off-machine coaters, winders and unwinders

Kleinewefers GmbH
Kleineweferstr. 25
Postfach 15 60
4150 Krefeld 1
Calenders, Supercalenders

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