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114. (Surgere.) “To blaze up.”

116. Mihi vix latinum videtur solvi a lætitia pro in lætitiam quare ego tristitia præferrem. B. A, here, signifies in consequence of "faint through joy."

121. (Narrantia verba,) h. e., verba narrantis. R., who quotes

Fictaque sacra facit, dicitque precantia verba. Ov. Her. xi. 69.

129. (Suam.) Referring to the legend, that the walls of Troy were the work of Neptune and Apollo.

133. (Turpis,) hoc loco ad mores non ad formam refertur. Ciofanius.

134. (Inachiæ nates.) Inachus, the tutelary god of the stream which bore the same name, and his son Phoroneus were the personages to whom the inhabitants of Argolis considered themselves indebted for a knowledge of the useful arts and the establishment of social order. Hence Inachius became equivalent to Argivus and so to Gracus. The patronymic Inachides is applied by Ovid both to Epaphus whom Io daughter of Inachus bore to Jove, and also to a more remote descendant, the hero Perseus, son of Jupiter and Danae.

135. The common reading is "Sed quid ego revoco," &c., but R. justly remarks, "Aureæ ætatis poetæ ultimam syllabam in ego aut corripiunt aut elidunt, nunquam producunt. Quod argumento est, hunc versum aliquid vitii traxisse. Et multum variant in eius lectione libri veteres." The whole question, with regard to the quantity of ego, is fully discussed in "Elements of Latin Prosody," p. 60.

135. (Omen.) Mali ominis habebatur, abeuntem aliquem ab itinere revocare aut retinere. L. 137. (Troadas invideo.) Heinsius, offended by what appeared to him a solecism, conjectures Troasin the Greek dative plural. Such forms were undoubtedly used by the Latin poets, for we find Dryasin and Hamadryasin in Propertius, Arcasin is recognised by Martianus Capella, and many editors follow Heinsius in reading heroisin, in Ov, T. V. v. 43, and Lemniasin, in Ov. A. A. III. 672.

Moreover, one MS. has Troas invideo, and we may easily account for the in being dropped, since the next word begins with that syllable, The only question is, whether it is necessary to have recourse to any emendation. Such verbs as invideo, noceo, inservio, &c., were construed with the accusative by Attius, Pacuvius, Plautus and other early dramatists, but it may be fairly doubted whether the poets of the Augustan age would allow themselves such a license even as an archaism. In prose it was certainly inadmissible. Cicero adverts to this very point in Tusc. Disp. III, 9. He is defending the use of the

word invidentia, which he had coined to signify envy. "Ab invidendo autem invidentia recte dici potest, ut effugiamus ambiguum nomen invidiæ: quod verbum ductum est a nimis intuendo fortunam alterius, ut est in Melanippa

Quisnam florem liberûm invidit meûm.

Male Latine videtur: sed præclare Attius. Ut enim videre, sic invidere florem rectius quam flori. Nos consuetudine prohibemur: poeta ius suum tenuit et dixit audacius."

For the information of students, we shall take this opportunity of pointing out the different constructions of invideo.

Cicero and the writers of the Augustan age use four different forms. 1. Invidere alicui (person or thing.) 2. Invidere aliquam rem alicui. 3. Invidere virtuti, gloriæ, &c. alicuius. 4. Invidere alicui in aliqua re. 5. The writers of the silver age, especially Pliny, invidere alicui aliqua 6. Lastly, Horace imitating the Greek construction of lover, invidere alicuius rei sc. alicui. Thus,


1. Probus autem invidet nemini.
Illi qui honori inviderunt meo.

2. Ut nobis optimam naturam invidisse videantur, qui, &c. Cic.

Tusc. Disp. III. 2.

Declarasti neminem alterius, qui suæ confideret, virtuti invidere. Cic. Phil. X. 1.


Cic. Frag. Plat. Tim.
Cic. cont. Rull. II. 37.

3. Aliorum laudi atque gloriæ maxime invidere solet. Cic. Or. II. 51.


4. Purpuram affers Tyriam in qua tibi invideo. Cic. pro Flacc. 29. fecissem, inquit, nisi interdum in hoc, Crasso paullum inviderem. Cic. De Orat. II. 56.

5. Quousque et tibi et nobis invidebis? tibi maxima laude; nobis voluptate. Plin. Ep. II. x.

Ac ne læta furens scelerum spectacula perdat,

Invidet igne rogi miseris, cœloque nocenti
Ingerit Emathiam.

Lucan. VII. 797.

Quid multa? neque ille
Sepositi ciceris, nec longæ invidit avenæ.

144. See note on line 50.

Hor. S. II. vi. 83.

143. (Producet,) i. e., honoris causa comitabitur et prosequetur extra domum, ut recte Hubertinus. B. So Val. Flacc. V. 381.

Teque renodatam pharetris ac pace fruentem
Ad sua Caucaseæ producunt flumina Nymphæ.

147. Many MSS. have galeam clypeumque resolvet, but the arrangement which connects resolvet closely with galeam is more appropriate, since the verb applies to the helmet which was fastened on and unfastened again, rather than to the shield.

"We, Grecian wives, who are so far from our

149. (Nos,) i. e. husbands."

152. Hyginus serves as a commentary upon these lines, by narrating the tale to which they refer, with this difference, that the image in the fable is supposed not to have been moulded until after the death of Protesilaus.

Laodamia, Acasti filia, amisso coniuge cum tres horas consumsisset, quas a diis peterat, fletum et dolorem pati non potuit. Itaque fecit simulacrum æreum simile Protesilai coniugis, et in thalamis posuit, sub simulatione sacrorum, et eum colere cœpit. Fab. CIV.

155. She imagines some mysterious connection or sympathy to exist between Protesilaus and this waxen image.

162. Tò ipse, non vacat hic, quia virorum qui bello ceciderunt, cadavera in patriam ab aliis solebant referri; ut notissimum: Laodamia vero vovet, ut ipse salvus referat caput. B.

164. (Sive...quod heu timeo,) άToσ1ŵτnois aptissima, ne ex mortis mentione infaustum omen fiat. B. Perperam. Est hæc ȧπ001ŵπN015 vehementioris expressio doloris, quæ loci rationi aptissima, at verba sive superstes eris æque poterant esse ominosa. L.


1. (Livor.) The proper signification of this word, as defined by Pliny,' is a bluish black colour, such as is produced on the body by a bruise. Figuratively it indicates malice, envy, and, in familiar language, we still talk of men "looking black." Such expressions seem to have originated in the peculiar hue which the complexion assumes in persons of a certain temperament when under the influence of violent passion.

1 H. N. XX. 22.

5. (Verbosas leges ediscere.) Ediscere signifies "to learn thoroughly," or "to learn off by heart," and hence, many suppose that Ovid here refers to the laws of the twelve tables which, for several ages, the Roman youth were obliged to commit to memory. Thus Cic. de Legg. II. 23. "Discebamus enim pueri XII. ut carmen necessarium: quas nemo iam discit."

In that case verbosas must be understood to imply that the code required a lengthened exposition, or gave rise to lengthened pleadings, since we know that the laws themselves were expressed with great brevity. It is better, however, to assign to verbosas its natural meaning and translate "to study deeply the wordy records of the laws," since, in later times, the framers of the Roman statutes indulged in the same tedious circumlocutions which characterise our own.

6. (Prostituisse.) The proper signification of this verb is "to place in front;" hence, as here, "to make an exhibition of any thing," and so "to expose for sale or hire."

9. (Mæonides.) Homer. An opinion prevailed very generally among the ancients that the father of Greek poetry was a native of Mæonia, or, as it was afterwards called,' Lydia. Of the seven illustrious cities which disputed the honor of having given him birth.

Smyrna, Chios, Colophon, Salamis, Rhodos, Argos, Athenæ two were in Mæonia, and one in an island on its coast.

(Tenedos.) An island off the Troad, a little to the south of the Sigean promontory. To this, according to the authorities followed by Virgil, the Greeks retired and lay in ambush, while the wooden horse was received within the walls of the fated city. Æ. II. 21.

Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama

Insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant,
Nunc tantum sinus, et statio male fida carinis;
Huc se provecti deserto in litore condunt.

(Ide... Simois.) Ida is the general name given to the mountain range which sweeps round the plain of Troy. The highest peak, which by Homer is called Gargarus, rises to an elevation of more than five thousand feet. The Simois and Scamander were the two principal streams which watered the district, and between them lay the city. Modern geographers have found much difficulty in adjusting the localities of the Iliad, but the great natural features remain unchanged.

11. (Ascræus.) Hesiod, so called from Ascra2, a small town of

1 Herod. I. 7. VII. 74. 2 Ascra is identified by Clarke with the modern Zagora. Other topographers assign different sites.

Boeotia, on Mount Helicon, where his father took up his abode, having migrated from Cyme in Æolis. The poet speaks of his paternal home as a miserable village-bad in winter, oppressive in summer, and agreeable at no season. To this description, Ovid refers in E. P. IV. xiv. 31.

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The works bearing the name of Hesiod, which have descended to modern times, are

1. "Egya nai 'Huégal, Works and Days, a didactic poem, containing precepts for the husbandman, interspersed with numerous maxims relating to education, domestic economy, and morals in general. Virgil acknowledges the obligations he owed to this piece, when he declares in his Georgics (II. 176.)

Ascræumque cano Romana per oppida carmen.

2. Oroyovía, or Generation of the Gods, a poem of great importance in the history of Grecian Mythology.

3. 'AoT's 'Hganλéovs, the Shield of Hercules, containing, among other things, the history of the birth of the hero, and of his combat with Cycnus, together with a description of his shield.

Of the above, the first is generally received as the composition of Hesiod; doubts were entertained with regard to the authenticity of the second, as early as the time of Pausanias; the third is considered by critics to be a mere collection of fragments, by different hands, many of them of late date.

13. (Battiades.) Callimachus. He was a native of Cyrene, and established himself at Alexandria, where he enjoyed the favour of Ptolemy Philadelphus. (B. C. 256.) A voluminous author both in prose and verse, he was chiefly celebrated as a writer of elegies, and was the model which Catullus and Propertius proposed to themselves in that species of composition. Some idea of his style may be formed from the little poem "De Coma Berenices," which is believed to be a very close imitation, if not a translation, of a piece by Callimachus bearing that title. The "Diræ in Ibin," usually attributed to Ovid, (see his life p. 44,) were copied from the me source as we learn from the couplet. (Ib. 55.)

Nunc, quo Battiades inimicum devovet Ibin,
Hoc ego devoveo teque tuosque modo.

10. et D. 257. VIII. 18. IX. 31. 3 Catull. LXVI.

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