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2. (Nomina, &c.) The Quinquatria continued for five days; but Ovid was mistaken in supposing that the festival received its name from this circumstance, because, properly speaking, the first day only was sacred to the goddess, and was called Quinquatrus, because it fell on the fifth day after the Ides, such being the real meaning of the word. In like manner the inhabitants of Tusculum used the forms Triatrus, Sexatrus, Septimatrus, and the Falisci Decimatrus, to denote the third, sixth, seventh, and tenth days respectively, after the Ides of Thus Varro L. L. VI. any month.

Quinquatrus: hic dies unus ab nominis errore observatur proinde ut sint quinque. Dictus, ut ab Tusculanis post diem sextum Idus similiter vocatur Sexatrus, et post diem septimum Septimatrus, sic hic quod erat post diem quintum Idus Quinquatrus.1

3. (Sanguine.) The blood of gladiators.

5. (Altera.) On the second, third, fourth, and fifth days, gladiatorial contests were exhibited in the amphitheatre, the centre of which, the place occupied by the combatants, was strewed with sand. Ovid himself was born on the second day of the Quinquatria, a fact which he records in Trist. IV. x. 13.

Hæc est armiferæ festis de quinque Minervæ,
Quæ fieri pugna prima cruenta solet.

Compare the expression strata arena with Trist. II. 282.

Martia cum durum sternit arena solum.

6. (Bellica...dea.) Minerva might, in her proper capacity, be supposed to take an interest in war, in so far as it was considered an art or science, but the epithets armifera, armipotens, bellica, and the like, could scarcely have been bestowed on her until she was confounded with the Grecian Pallas.

7. (Ornate.) It was the custom to deck the statues of the gods with garlands on a festal day.

7...11. Minerva, as we have seen in the Introduction, was the special patroness of spinning and weaving, and hence the name of the goddess is used by metonomy for the art itself. Thus Virg. Æn. VIII. 407.

Inde, ubi prima quies medio iam noctis abactæ
Curriculo expulerat somnum, cum femina primum,

1 See also Festus in verb. Quinquatrus. Aul. Gell. II. 21. Etrusker," II. 3, 2.

Müller "die

Cui tolerare colo vitam tenuique Minerva
Impositum, cinerem et sopitos suscitat ignes,
Noctem addens operi

and Hor. C. III. xii. 3.

Tibi qualum Cytherea
Puer ales, tibi telas, operosæque Minervæ
Studium aufert, Neobule, Liparæi nitor Hebri.

11. (Stantes...telas.) The threads of the warp (stamen) were suspended vertically, according to the Roman usage, not placed horizontally as among us. Radius is the shuttle which runs through (percurrit) the warp with the threads of the woof, (subtemen.)

12. Pecten is the Lay by which the threads of the woof loose and at a distance from each other (rarum opus) are driven home and compacted. Compare note on Tibull. II. i. 66. p. 186.

Denset. Observe the old form denseo, instead of denso. in Horace also. C. I. xxviii. 19.

Mixta senum ac iuvenum densentur funera;
Sæva caput Proserpina fugit.

Non est lana mihi mendax, nec mutor aheno,
Sic placeant Tyria-me mea texit ovis,

It occurs


13. (Qui maculas, &c.) The Fullones, the scourers or renovators, the importance of whose occupation will be easily understood when we remember that the Romans, until a very late period, wore woollen garments exclusively.

14. (Velleribus quisquis, &c.) The Infectores or Tinctores, the dyers.

and again X. xvi. 7.

Ahenum is the brazen caldron in which the wool was boiled along with the dye. Compare the Epigram of Martial on a cloak made of Andalusian wool, which was naturally of a golden yellow colour. (XIV. 133.)

Quidquid Agenoreo Tyros improba cogit aheno.

in like manner the poets apply the epithets Tyrium, Assyrium, Sidonium, Gætulum, &c. to ahenum, to express a purple dye.

15. (Vincula plantæ.) The vincula, strictly speaking, would be the straps (amenta) which bound on the sandals (solea), or shoes (calcei.)

16. (Tychio.) This is the name given by Homer to the artist who fabricated the seven-fold shield of Ajax, being, it is said, a native of Hyle, and oxuroróμwv öx ägiros “far the first of leather-cutters.”1 Pliny, when enumerating the inventors of the different arts and sciences, says briefly, "Sutrinam Boethius," for which we ought probably to read Bootius, for Hyle was in Boeotia.



17. (Manibus collatus.) Compared in handicraft.”

Epeus constructed the Trojan horse. Ulysses in Odyss. VIII. 492, thus addresses Demodocus:--

Haste then, the structure of the wooden horse
Declare in song, which with Athena's aid
Epeius formed......

and Virgil, enumerating the warriors who issued from its womb, Æn. II. 264.

Et Menelaus et ipse doli fabricator Epeus.

Pliny endeavours to rationalize the tale, and to make out that this contrivance was nothing more than a battering ram, H. N. VII. 56. “Equum, qui nunc Aries appellatur, in muralibus machinis Epeum ad Troiam (sc. invenisse dicunt.")

19. Phœ Medicine. Apollo with the epithet Paon, (i. e. soother, assuager,) was the patron of the healing art, and the father of Esculapius. In Homer Pæon (Пawv) is the physician of the gods, Esculapius (Aσxληπós) a mortal skilled in medicine, but they have no connection with each other, nor with Apollo.



De vestris sc. muneribus. A portion of the gifts you receive. It will be seen from the various readings that the text of this ¡ine is doubtful. Under any form it will allude to the inadequate remuneration received by the Roman schoolmasters, a theme upon which Juvenal enlarges with great bitterness in his seventh satire. Minerva being the patroness of learning, the fee for instruction was called Minerval, and it appears from Macrobius (S. I. 11.) that it was paid during this month.

22. (Discipulos attrahit illa novos.) Compare Juv. S. X. 114.

Eloquium et famam Demosthenis aut Ciceronis
Incipit optare et totis Quinquatribus optat,
Quisquis adhuc uno partam colit asse Minervam,
Quem sequitur custos angustæ vernula capsæ.

23. (Moves cælum.) This expression admits of a double interpretation, according to the meaning which we assign to cœlum. If we sup

1 11. VII. 221. Strabo IX. § 20. H. N. VII. 56.

pose it to signify the heaven, then movere cœlum will refer to the artificial spheres employed by astronomers. If, on the other hand, we suppose it to signify a burin, or engraver's tool, (more commonly written cælum, whence calare, cœlator, cœlatura,) then the persons addressed will be workers in gems and the precious metals, who would be appropriately classed along with painters and sculptors.

24. (Tabulam coloribus uris.) Painters in Encaustic, an art now lost. The locii classici are in Plin. H. N. XXXV. 11.

"Ceris pingere ac picturam inurere qui primus excogitaverit non constat. Quidam Aristidis inventum putant, postea consummatum a Praxitele. Sed aliquanto vetustiores encaustæ picturæ exstitere, ut Polygnoti et Nicanoris et Arcesilai Pariorum. Lysippus quoque Æginæ picturæ suæ inscripsit évéxavoεv, quod profecto non fecisset nis encaustica inventa,"


"Encausto pingendi duo fuisse antiquitus genera constat, cera, et in ebore, cestro, id est, viriculo, donec classes pingi cœpere. Hoc tertium accessit, resolutis igni ceris penicillo utendi, quæ pictura in navibus nec sole, nec sale, nec vento corrumpitur."

24. (Mollia saxa.) Compare Virg. Æ. VI. 849.

Excudent alii spirantia mollius æra

Credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore voltus.



In order that this extract may be more easily understood, we shall offer some preliminary illustrations.

I. In the first place it will be useful to give the genealogy of the Trojan line, according to Apollodorus III. 12, 1.

Iasion and DARDANUS were born of Jove and Electra, daughter of Atlas. Iasion having insolently attempted to gain the love of Demeter, was struck dead by lightning for his presumption, upon which Dardanus left Samothrace in sorrow, and passed over to the opposite continent, which was ruled by Teucrus, son of the river Scamander and

an Idæan nymph. Dardanus being hospitably received by the king, who gave him his daughter Bateia in marriage, founded the city Dardanus, on the skirts of Ida, and after the death of Teucrus, called the whole country Dardania.

Ilus and ERICTHONIUS were the sons of Dardanus and Bateia, of whom the former died childless, but Erichthonius having wedded Asyoche, daughter of the river Simois, became the father of

TROS, who called the country after himself Troia, and having married Kallirrhoe, daughter of Scamander, had by her three sons,

ILUS, ASSARACUS, GANYMEDES, and a daughter, Cleopatra. Of these, Ganymedes was borne to heaven by the eagle of Zeus to be the celestial cup-bearer. Assaracus, by Hieromneme, daughter of Simois, was the father of Capys, and Capys by Themis, daughter of Ilus, was father of Anchises, the favoured lover of Aphrodite, who bore him Eneas and Lyrus, of whom the latter died childless.

ILUS founded Ilium lower down in the plain than the city of Dardanus, and married Eurydice, daughter of Adrastus. By her he had

LAOMEDON, who married Strymo, daughter of Scamander, or, according to others, Plakia, daughter of Atreus (or Leucippus.) His children were

Tithonus, Lampon, Klytius, Hiketaon, and Podarkes, otherwise called PRIAMOs, while his daughters were Hesione, Killa, and Astyoche. By the nymph Kalybe he had Boukolion.

This genealogy is nearly the same as that given in the Iliad, (XX. 215-240,) but Homer omits the females entirely, does not mention Teucrus, never applies the appellation Teucri to the Trojans, and takes no notice of Dardanus having passed over from Samothrace. There are numerous additions and variations in other writers, which are of no importance for our present purpose. The student may consult Ov. Fast. IV. 31.; Dionys. Hal. I. 62.; Heyne Excursus VI. on Virg. Æn. III. To exhibit the whole at one view, according to Homer. we have












Tithonus, Priamus, Lampon, Klytion, Hicetaon, Anchises,

Hector, &c.



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