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therefore, is, The Pleiades set in the morning on the second of April. But it will be seen from the table given above, that the Pleiades really set in the morning on the 9th of November. They set in the evening, however, on the 8th of April, which comes tolerably near to the date fixed, and is clearly the phenomenon the poet intended to record, but he blundered between the morning setting and the evening setting, which are six months apart. Again, in Fast. V. 599.

Pleiades adspicies omnes, totumque sororum
Agmen, ubi ante Idus nox erit una super.
Tum mihi non dubiis auctoribus incipit æstas:
Et tepidi finem tempora veris habent.

The meaning here, although not very clearly expressed, is, The Pleiades rise in the morning (heliacally) on the 14th of May, marking the end of spring and the beginning of summer.

But it will be seen by the table, that at the time when Ovid wrote, the Pleiades did not rise heliacally at Rome until the 28th of May, but they did rise heliacally at Athens on the 16th, in the age of Meton. Hence this notice was manifestly copied from a Grecian Calendar computed for the fifth century, B.C.

We have already (p. 361) adverted to an error with regard to the rising of Sirius, which Ovid assigns to the last of April, the very day on which, according to Columella, who is here perfectly correct, it sets heliacally.

In the same passage (see extracts, p. 90.) we are told that the constellation Aries sets on the 30th of April. Here again, we have a mistake. The Occasus vespertinus apparens must be indicated, but it is placed more than five weeks too late, since it actually took place on the 20th of March, even the Occasus matutinus verus was on the 5th of April.

We have seen, p. 360, that Ovid fixes upon V. Id. Feb. (9th February) as the commencement of spring, and on VII. Kal. Mai. (25th April) as the middle point.

He departs here from the arrangement of Cæsar, who divided the year into eight portions according to the following scheme.'

Bruma,

Veris initium,
Equinoctium vernum,

statis initium,

Solstitium,
Auctumni initium,
Equinoctium auctumni,
Hyemis initium,

VIII. Cal. Jan.
VII. Id. Feb.
VIII. Cal. Apr.
VII. Cal. Mai.
VIII. Cal. Jul.
1II. Id. Aug.
VIII. Cal. Oct.
III. Id. Nov.

25 Dec.

7 Feb.

25 March,
9 May,
24 June,
11 August,
24 Sept.
11 Nov.

Favonii spirare incipiunt.

SVergillarum Ortus
Matutinus.

SFidiculæ occasus
Matutinus.

SVergiliarum occa-
sus Matutinus.

1 Compare Varro R. R. 1. 28. Plin. H. N. XVIII. 25. Columell. R. R. IX. 14.

The commencement of spring was marked by no celestial phenomenon, but announced by the soft breathings of Favonius, the beginning of summer was connected with the morning rising of the Pleiades, which, however, took place, the true on the 16th of April, the apparent on the 28th of May. The true evening setting of the Lyre was on the 14th of August, the apparent on the 24th. The true morning setting of the Pleiades on the 29th of October, the apparent on the 9th of November.

It may be a matter of surprise that Julius Cæsar did not begin his year with the winter solstice, which happened B. C. 46, at Rome on 24th December, Oh 9' A. M. He was probably induced to neglect this natural arrangement by a superstitious desire to make the beginning of the reformed calendar correspond with a New Moon. According to the calculation of Ideler, the mean New Moon fell upon the first of January, B. C. 45, at 16 minutes past six in the evening, the true New Moon on the second of January, at 34 minutes past one in the morning.

It seems highly probable that Macrobius alludes to this fact, when he observes,

Annum civilem Cæsar habitis ad lunam dimensionibus constitutum edicto palam posito publicavit ;

for in no other way could the Julian Year be said to have any connection with the course of the Moon.

In this Appendix the excellent work of Ideler, entitled "Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chronologie," has been closely followed. The principal authorities with regard to the sidereal astronomy of the ancients are "Joannis F. Pfaff, Commentatio de Ortibus et Occasibus siderum apud auctores classicos commemoratos." Gotting. 1786-a paper by Ideler, "Ueber den astronomischen Theil der Fasti des Ovid," in the Berlin Transactions for 1822-1823; and "Symbolæ Observationum in Ovidii Fastos," by F. H. Gesenius, printed at Altona in 1806.

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INDEX.

410

309-312

234-237

251

445

363

342

341

128

233

262

278

395

333

136-177

255

272

236

263

221

252

431

400-402

430

389

324

234

341

221

416

196

206

180

356

279

341

130

233

309-312

383

392

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392

272

251

373

230

447

339

168

192

192-233

379

216

163

304 308

164

248

295

296

194

272

418

221

332

186

321

180

246

147

392

148

163

230

136-177

412

275

384

279

242

434

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Ausonia,
Auspex,
Axis,

Bacchæ,

Bacchus, The Theban,
Bacchus, worship of
Bacchus and Ariadne,
Baiæ,

Βαιτυλος,

Balbus,

Barbers in Rome,

Bassus,

Baths of Etruria,

Battiades,

Berecynthus,
Bessi,

Bicorniger,
Bird-catchers,

415-420-435

Brazen age,
Briareus,

Brontes,
Buccina,

Burning the dead,

Burranica potio,

Bustum,

Cacus,

Cadmus,

Cæcubum,

257

270

447

216

247

404

442

237

279

Birth-day song of the Fates, 162

Blæsus,

256

Blandus,

211

Bombi,

271

Bona Dea,

217-398

200

193

194

239

329

370

344

Cælum, Cælare, &c.

Cæsar Germanicus,
Cæstus,

Calabræ Pierides,

Calamus,

Calcatorium,

Calcei,

Calenum,

Callimachus,

Callisto,

Calvus Licinius,

Camella,

Canis, Canicula,
Canistra, Canistri,

Capillatus,

Capys,

Carenum,

Carmenta,
Carmentalia,

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284

436

275

400

274

272

216

410

304

297

184

390

281-283

323

250

279

130

389

184

247

438

264

369

141-361

355

270

392

130-369

294

308

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Faba nigra,

Fabii,

Fabii, legend of the 300,
Fallere,

Falernum,

Falisca herba,

Fatua,

Fatuus,

Fauna,

Faunalia,

Faunus,

Faustulus,
Februarius,

Februum,

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Fenus,

Feralia,

Ferales dies,

Festa domestica,

Fetus,

Fibra,

Fingere lingua,
Five ages,

Flamen Dialis,

Flamines,

Flaminica,

Four ages,
Fowlers,

Fucus,
Fullones,

Fumarium,

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263

321

295-316-422

309-312

339

339-365

277

-347

340

282

Flora,

Floralia,

Flos vini,
Fordæ boves,
Fordicidia,

Fornacalia, Fornax,
Fortune-telling,

Founding of cities accord-

305

213

263

397

275

412

412

158

330

294

254

351

317

425

315

184

286

317

317

317

319

326

183 358

326

201

339

323

339

381

381

385

365

365

306

148

327

200

279

293

389

130

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