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out of heaven from God" (verse 9, 10). That by a bride and wife is meant the church, when the Lord is understood to be the bridegroom and husband, is well known. The church is a bride, when she is desirous to receive the Lord, and a wife, when she actually does receive him. That the Lord is here understood to be the husband, is evident from its being said, the BRIDE, THE LAMB's WIFE.

64. The reason why by Jerusalem, in the Word, is meant the church in respect to doctrine, is, because at Jerusalem in the land of Canaan, and in no other place, were the temple and the altar, the offering of sacrifices, and the whole celebration of divine worship: there also the three yearly festivals were kept at which every male in the whole land was required to be present. It is on this account that by Jerusalem is signified the church as to worship, and consequently also as to doctrine; for worship is prescribed in doctrine, and performed according to it. An additional reason is, because the Lord came to Jerusalem, and taught in his temple, and afterwards there glorified his Human. Moreover, by a city in general, when mentioned in the Word, doctrine is signified in the spiritual sense : hence by the holy city is signified the doctrine of divine truth from the Lord.* That by Jerusalem is meant the church as to doctrine, is also evident from other passages in the Word, such as the following, in Isaiah : “For Zion's sake I will not hold my peace, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until the righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, and the salvation thereof as a lamp that burneth. And the Gentiles shall see thy righteousness and all kings thy glory. And thou shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of Jehovah shall name. Thou shalt also be a crown of glory in the hand of Jehovah, and a royal diadem in the hand of thy God :-for Jehovah delighteth in thee, and thy land shall be married.-Behold, thy salvation cometh,-his reward is with him. And they shall call them the holy people, the redeemed of Jehovah. And thou shalt be called, Sought out, a city not forsaken” (lxii. 1-4, 11, 12). The whole of this chapter treats of the coming of the Lord, and of the new church that was to be established by him : this new church is what is here signified by Jerusalem, which, it is said, shall be called by a new name, which the mouth of Jehovah shall name, and shall be a crown of glory in the hand of Jehovah, and a royal diadem in the hand of God; in which Jehovah shall delight, and which shall be called a city sought out and not forsaken. This description is not at all applicable to the city of Jerusalem inhabited by the Jews, when the Lord came into the world, for this was entirely of a contrary character, and ought rather to have been called Sodom, as it is also called in the Rev. xi. See Isa. iii. 9 ; Jer. xxiii. 14; Ezek. xvi. 46, 48. Again, in Isaiah : “Behold, I create new heavens and a new earth, and the former shall not be remembered.—Be ye glad and rejoice for ever in that which I create : for behold I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy: and I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people.The wolf and the lamb shall feed together:—they shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain” (lxv. 17—19, 25). This chapter also treats of the coming of the Lord, and of the church that was to be established by him; which was not established with those who dwelt in the natural Jerusalem, but with such as were without it: it is this church which is signified by the Jerusalem that should be a rejoicing to the Lord, and whose people should be to him a joy; where, also, the wolf and the lamb should feed together, and where they should do no hurt. Here also it is said, as in the Revelation, that the Lord would create a new heaven and a new earth; which expressions have, in both places, a similar meaning: it is also said, that he would create Jerusalem. Again: “Awake, awake! put on thy strength, o Zion; put on thy beautiful garments, o Jerusalem, the holy city: for henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised, and the unclean. Shake thyself from the dust; arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem.—My people shall know my name in that day,—that I am he that doth speak, Behold it is İ. -Jehovah hath comforted his people, he hath redeemed Jerusalem” (lii. 1, 2, 6, 9). This chapter also treats of the coming of the Lord, and of the church to be established by him : wherefore, by that Jerusalem into which the uncircumcised and unclean should no more enter, and which the Lord should redeem, is signified the church; and by Jerusalem the holy city, the church as to doctrine from the Lord. So in Zephaniah : “Sing, O daughter of Zion ;-rejoice with all the heart, O daughter of Jerusalem : —the king of Israel-is in the midst of thee. Thou shalt not see evil any more.—Jehovah thy God—will rejoice over thee with joy: he will rest in his love, he will joy over thee with singing.— I will make you a name and a praise among all people of the earth” (iii. 14, 15, 17, 20). Here likewise the subject is the Lord, and the church to be founded by him; over which the King of Israel, who is the Lord, will rejoice with joy, and exult with singing; in whose love he will rest, and which he will make a name and a praise among all the people of the earth. So in Isaiah: “Thus saith Jehovah thy Redeemer and he that formed thee,--to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited; and to the cities of Judah, Ye shall be built” (xliv. 24, 26). And in Daniel : “Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem, unto the Messiah the Prince, shall be seven weeks” (ix. 25). That by Jerusalem is here also meant the church, is evident, because this was restored and established by the Lord, but not so Jerusalem, the metropolis of the Jews. By Jerusalem is signified the church from the Lord also in the following passages : in Zechariah: “Thus saith Jehovah, I am returned unto Zion, and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem : and Jerusalem shall be called the City of truth; and the mountain of Jehovah of hosts, the Holy Mountain" (viii. 3, and 20—23). In Joel : “ So shall ye know that I am Jehovah your God, dwelling in Zion, my holy mountain. Then shall Jerusalem be holy.-And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk ;-and Jerusalem [shall dwell] from generation to generation” (iii. 17, 18, 20). In Isaiah: “In that day shall the branch of Jehovah be beautiful and glorious.—And it shall come to pass, that he that is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called holy; even every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem” (iv. 2, 3). In Micah : “In the last days it shall come to pass, that the mountain of the house of Jehovah shall be established in the top of the mountains :—for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the Word of Jehovah from Jerusalem.Unto thee shall it come, even the first dominion, the kingdom shall come to the daughter of Jerusalem" (iv. 1, 2, 8). In Jeremiah: “At that time they shall call Jerusalem the throne of Jehovah, and all nations shall be gathered—to the name of Jehovah to Jerusalem : neither shall they walk any more after the imagination of their evil heart” (iii. 17). In Isaiah : “Look upon Zion the city of our solemnities. Thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation, a tabernacle that shall not be taken down; not one of the stakes thereof shall ever be removed, neither shall any of the cords thereof be broken” (xxxiii. 20). Not to mention many other places; as in Isaiah xxiv. 23 ; xxxvii. 32 ; lxvi. 10–14; in Zech. xii. 3, 6, 8, 9, 10; xiv. 8, 11, 12, 21; in Malachi iii. 1, 4; in David, Psalm cxxii. 1–7; Psalm cxxxvii. 5, 6. That by Jerusalem, in these places, is meant the church which was to be, and which became established, by the Lord, and not the Jerusalem inhabited by the Jews in the Land of Canaan, may also appear from those passages in the Word, where it is said of the latter, that it would be wholly ruined, and that it would be destroyed; as Jeremiah v. l; vi. 6, 7; vii. 17, 20, &c.; viii. 5—7, &c; ix. 11, 13, &c.; xiii. 9, 10, 14; xiv. 16; Lam. i. 8, 9, 15, 17; Ezek. iv. 1 to the end ; v. 9 to the end ; xii. 18, 19; xv. 6–8; xvi. I to the end ; xxiii. 139; and 37, 39; Luke xix. 41–44; xxi. 20, 21, 22; xxiii. 28 --30: and in many other places.

* That by a city, when spoken of in the Word, is signified the doctrine of the church and of religion, may be seen in the Arcana Colestia, at n. 402, 2451, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493. That by the gate of a city is signified, in the same sense, a doctrine by which there is an entrance into the church, n. 2943, 4447, 4478. And that therefore the elders sat in the gates of the city, and judged, ibid. That to go out at the gate is to recede from doctrine, n. 4492, 4493. That cities and palaces are represented in heaven, when the angels converse on matters of doctrine,. n. 3216.

65. When it is said in the Revelation, “I saw a new heaven and a new earth;" and afterwards, Behold, I make all things new ;nothing else is meant than that in the church now to be established by the Lord, there will be new doctrine, which did not exist in the former church. The reason why this doctrine was not discerned before, is, because if it had been seen, it would not have been received : for the last judgment was not as yet accomplished, prior to which the power of hell prevailed over the power of heaven, as was observed above; wherefore, if the doctrine had been before delivered, even from the mouth of the Lord, it would not have remained with man: nor indeed will it now remain with any but those, who in worship approach the Lord alone, and acknowledge him as the God of heaven and earth.* This same doctrine was indeed before delivered in the Word; but as the church, not long after its first establishment was turned into Babylon,t and since then, among others, into Philistia, that doctrine could not be seen from the Word; for the church always looks at the Word from its own religious principles and doctrines.

The new things which are discovered in this little work, are in general these. I. God is One in Person and in Essence; and the Lord is that God. II. The whole Sacred Scripture treats of him alone. III. He came into the world to subdue the hells, and to glorify his Human; and he accomplished both by admitting temptations to assail him, and fully by the last of them, which was the passion of the cross : by this he became a Saviour and Redeemer; and again by this, merit and righteousness belong to him alone. IV. When it is said that he fulfilled the whole of the law, the meaning is that he fulfilled the whole of the Word. V. He did not take away the sins of mankind by the passion of the cross, but he bore them, in his character of prophet; that is, he suffered a representation of the church to be made in himself, in respect to the manner in which it had maltreated the Word. VI. The imputation of his merit is a phrase without meaning, unless it be understood to denote the remission of sins after repentance. These are contained in this little work; in the treatises on the Sacred Scripture, the Doctrine of Life, the Doctrine of Faith, and on the Divine Love and Divine Wisdom still more new truths will be shewn.

* See above, n. 61.

+ By Babylon, or Babel, as the author has shewn in other parts of his works, is spiritually signified corrupt worship, in which self-love and the love of the world have dominion. By Philistia, or the Philistines, is signified the doctrine of faith separate from charity.

END OF THE DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE LORD.

NINE QUESTIONS,

CHIEFLY RELATING TO

THE LORD, THE TRINITY, AND THE HOLY SPIRIT,

PROPOSED BY THE

REV. T. HARTLEY, A. M.,

Late Rector of Winwick in Northamptonshire,

TO

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG:

WITH HIS ANSWERS.

Question 1. In what sense did the Lord call himself the Son of Man, if he only took flesh from his mother, and not a rational soul ? Had the human sonship respect only to the human flesh ?

Answer. The Lord called himself the Son of Man because he was the Word, or Divine Truth, even as to his Human; for the title “Son of Man,” in the spiritual sense, signifies the truth of the church derived from the Word. The same was signified by the term

“prophet,” because the prophets taught truths derived from the Word : wherefore the Lord, who in a supereminent degree was THE PROPHET, and also THE WORD, and thence Divine Truth, called himself, as to his Human, the Son of Man. Hence it is that, throughout the prophets, and also in David, where the subject is the devastation of truth in the church, it is said that the son of man doth not abide there : and hence also it is, that the prophets themselves were likewise called sons of man, as Ezek. (ii. 1, 3, 6, 8; iii. 1, 3, 4, 10, 17, 25: and very frequently in the succeeding chapters) ; so also was Daniel. This is shewn by the quotation of many passages in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord.

Question II. Had the Lord his rational soul from Jehovah the Father, to which was united the Divine Esse, whence he became very God and very Man ?

Answer. The Lord from eternity, or Jehovah, was Divine Love and Divine Wisdom; and he then had a Divine Celestial and a Divine Spiritual Principle, but not a Divine Natural before he assumed the Human; and as the rational principle is only predicated of the celestial-and-spiritual-natural, therefore

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