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ut eum motum terræ, qui multarum urbium Italiæ magnas U.C. 537. partes prostravit, avertitque cursu rapidos amnes, mare A.C. 217. Aluminibus invexit, montes lapsu ingenti proruit, nemo pugnantium senserit.

Tres ferme horas pugnatum est, et ubique atrociter. Circa consulem tamen acrior infestiorque' pugna est.

Eum et robora virorum sequebantur, et ipse, quacunque in parte premi ac laborare senserat suos, impigre ferebat opem ; insignemque armis et hostes summa vi petebant, et tuebantur cives: donec Insuber eques (Ducario nomen erat) facie quoque noscitans?, 'Consul, en,' inquit, hic est,' popularibus suis, qui legiones nostras cecidit, agrosque et urbem est

depopulatus. Jam ego hanc victimam Manibus peremptorum fode civium dabo:' subditisque calcaribus equo, per confertissimam hostium turbam impetum facit: obtruncatoque prius armigero, qui se infesto venienti obviam objecerat, consulem lancea transfixit. Spoliare cupientem triarii objectis scutis arcuere. Magnæ partis fuga inde primum coepit: et jamo nec lacus, nec montes obstabant pavori. Per omnia arta præruptaque velut cæci evadunt: armaque et viri super alium alii præcipitantur. Pars magna, ubi locus fugæ deest, per prima vadas paludis in aquam progressi, quoad capitibus humerisque exstare possunt, sese immergunt. Fuere, quos inconsultus pavor nando etiam capessere fugam impulerit. Quæ ubi immensa ac sine spe6 erat, aut deficientibus animis hauriebantur gurgitibus, aut nequicquam fessi vada retro ægerrime repetebant, atque ibi ab ingressis aquam hostium equitibus passim trucidabantur. Sex millia ferme primi agminis, per adversos hostes eruptione impigre facta, ignari omnium, quæ post se agerentur, ex saltu

Et, quum in tumulo quodam constitissent’, cla

evasere.

&c.]

down mountains with a heavy crash, 4. Omnia arta preruptaque.] not one of the combatants felt." “ Every defile and precipice.”

5 Prima vada.]

" The nearest
And such the storm of battle on this day, shallows."
And such the frenzy, whose convulsion blinds
To all save carnage, that, beneath the fray, 6 Quæ ubi immensa ac sine spe
An earthquake reeld unheededly away!

“ And when this proved end-
None felt stern Nature rocking at his feet,
and yawning forth a grave for those who lay less and hopeless, they were either

Upon their bucklers for a winding-sheet: overwhelmed in the water, as their
Such the absorbing hate when warring nations
meet!
Childe Harold, iv. 63.

courage (or strength) failed; or,

after having in vain exhausted them1 Acrior infestiorque.] “ More selves (fessi mid, voice), made their fierce and deadly.”

way back with difficulty to the 2 Insuber-facie-noscitans.] Be- shallows, and there they were cause Flaminius had commanded slaughtered indiscriminately by the against them in his former Consul. enemy's cavalry,” &c. ship.

? Et, quum in tumulo quodam 3 Inde primum-jam.) “ From constitissent.] “ And, though they that moment the rout began, and took up a position on a rising ground, theuceforth,” &c.

as they could only hear the sound of

V. C. 537. morem modo ac sonum armorum audientes, quæ fortuna A. C. 217.

pugnæ esset, neque scire, nec perspicere præ caligine poterant. Inclinata denique re, quum incalescente sole dispulsa nebula aperuisset diem, tum liquida jam luce montes campique perditas res stratamque ostendere føde Romanam aciem. Itaque, ne in conspectos procul immitteretur eques, sublatis raptim signis, quam citatissimo poterant agmine, sese abripuerunt. Postero die, quum super cetera extrema fames etiam instaret, fidem dante Maharbale, qui cum omnibus equestribus copiis nocte consecutus erat, si arma tradidissent, abire cum singulis vestimentis passurum, sese dediderunt. Quæ Punica religione8 servata fides ab

Hannibale est, atque in vincula omnes conjecit. 7. Hæc est nobilis ad Trasimenum pugna, atque inter

paucas memorata populi Romani clades. Quindecim millia9 Romanorum in acie cæsa sunt; decem millia, sparsa fuga per omnem Etruriam, diversis itineribus urbem petiere. Mille quingenti hostium in acie, multi postea utrimque ex vulneribus periere. Multiplex cædes utrimque facta traditur ab aliis. Ego', præterquam quod nihil haustum ex vano velim, quo nimis inclinant ferme scribentium animi, Fabium æqualem temporibus hujusce belli potissimum auctorem habui. Hannibal, captivorum qui Latini nominis essent, sine pretio dimissis, Romanis in vincula datis, segregata ex hostium coacervatorum cumulis corpora suorum quum sepeliri jussisset, Flaminii quoque corpus, funeris causa magna cum cura inquisitum, non invenit.

Romæ, ad primum nuntium cladis ejus, cum ingenti terrore ac tumultu concursus in forum populi est factus. Matronæ vagæ per vias?, quæ repens clades allata, quæve voices and clash of arms, they were It is in the delineation of such scenes unable in the darkness to ascertain or as Rome must have presented on this see what was the turn of the battle.” occasion of terror, suspense, and

Quæ Punica religione &c.] despair, that Livy always exhibits “But this promise was kept by his power of description to most Hannibal with Punic sincerity,” &c. advantage. The lines and shadows

9 Quindecim millia &c.] The of the following passage are calculation given here by Livy, on skilfully touched and so artistically the authority of Fabius, shews a true, that it seems entitled to some proportion of ten deaths to one against attempt to present it in English: the Romans. The proportion of sc.

« The matrons, wandering deaths at Thermopylæ was about through the streets, enquired of all 100 to one against the Persians, the who met them what sudden calamity largest on record.

had been announced, or, what was The position of the the fate of the army. As the pronoun requires a very emphatic multitude, like a crowded assembly, translation: we must say, “I, for my looking to the comitium and the part, in addition to my objection to senate-house, were calling on the any thing drawn from imagination,” magistrates; M. Pomponius the &c.

Prætor, after some delay and a 2 Matrone vage per vias, &c.] short time before sunset, proclaimed,

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fortuna exercitus esset, obvios percunctantur. Et quum U.C. 537. frequentis concionis modo turba in comitium et curiam A. C. 217. versa magistratus vocaret; tandem haud multo ante solis occasum M. Pomponius prætor, Pugna,' inquit, magna 'victi sumus:' et, quanquam nihil certius ex eo auditum est, tamen alius ab alio impleti rumoribus domos referunt, 'consulem cum magna parte copiarum cæsum: superesse paucos, aut fuga passim per Etruriam sparsos, aut captos ab hoste.' Quot casus exercitus victi fuerant, tot in curas dispertiti eorum animi erant, quorum propinqui sub C. Flaminio consule meruerant, ignorantium, quæ cujusque suorum fortuna esset: nec quisquam satis certum habet, quid aut speret aut timeat. Postero, ac deinceps aliquot diebus, ad portas major prope mulierum, quam virorum, multitudo stetit, aut suorum aliquem, aut nuntios de his opperiens : circumfundebanturque obviis sciscitantes ; neque avelli, utique ab notis, prius, quam ordine omnia inquisissent, poterant. Inde varios vultus digredientium ab nuntiis cerneres, ut cuique aut læta aut tristia nuntiabantur: gratulantesque aut consolantes redeuntibus domos circumfusos. Feminarum præcipue et gaudia insignia erant, et luctus. Unam in ipsa porta, sospiti filio repente oblatam, in conspectu ejus exspirasse ferunt; alteram, cui mors filii

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we have been defeated in a great fore they had exhausted their whole battle.' And although nothing series of questions. Then might more explicit had been heard from be observed the various expressions him: still, full of the news com- of countenance as they turned away municated from one to another, from their informants, and the groups they severally brought home the of congratulating or condoling friends intelligence that the consul and a who accompanied them on their reconsiderable portion of the army turn home. Among the women espewere slain; and that a few were cially, joy and sorrow both were still alive, either dispersed in flight strongly marked. One woman, just through Etruria, or prisoners of at the gate, suddenly meeting her the enemy.' As many as had been son coming back in safety, dropped the disasters of the defeated army,

it is said, before his eyes; were the various forms of anxiety another, to whom her son's death into which their minds were thrown had been erroneously reported, while whose friends had been serving waiting in despair at home, exunder C. Flaminius, not knowing pired under the overpowering joy what might be the fate of their of the first sight of his return. The several relatives; for none had any Prætors kept the senate in the house thing definite either to hope or for several days from day-break to fear. On the next and several suc- sun-set, deliberating under what ceeding days, a eruwd, consisting commander, or by what forces, the more of women than men, stood at victorious Carthaginians could be the gates, expecting either some of checked.” A very similar descriptheir relatives, or some intelligence tion is given of the aspect of the city about them: and they pressed around after the defeat at the Furcæ Cauall who came, with anxious inquiries, dine; with the difference that, on and could not tear themselves away, that occasion, the senate appeared in from acquaintances especially, be- mourning for the national disgrace.

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U. C. 537. falso nuntiata erat, mæstam sedentem domi, ad primum A. C. 217. conspectum redeuntis filii gaudio nimio exanimatam.

Senatum prætores per dies aliquot ab orto usque ad occidentem solem in curia retinent, consultantes, quonam duce,

aut quibus copiis, resisti victoribus Pænis posset. 8. Priusquam satis certa’ consilia essent, repens alia nuntiatur

clades: quattuor millia equitum, cum C. Centenio proprætore* missa ad collegam ab Servilio consule, in Umbria, quo post pugnam ad Trasimenum auditam averterant iter, ab Hannibale circumventa. Ejus rei fama varie homines affecit. Pars, occupatis majore ægritudine animis, levem, ex comparatione priorum, ducere recentem equitum jacturam: pars non id, quod acciderat", per se æstimare, sed, ut in affecto corpore quamvis levis causa magis, quam valido gravior, sentiretur; ita tum ægræ et affectæ civitati quodcunque adversi inciderit, non rerum magnitudine, sed viribus extenuatis, quæ nihil, quod aggravaret, pati possent, æstimandum esse. Itaque ad remedium, jam diu neque desideratum nec adhibitum, dictatorem dicendum, civitas confugit: et quia et consul aberat, a quo uno dici posse videbatur; nec per occupatam armis Punicis Italiam facile erat aut nuntium, aut literas mitti; nec? dictatorem populus creare poterat, quod nunquam ante eam diem factum erat: prodictatorem populus creavit Q. Fabium Maximum, et magistrum equitum M. Minucium Rufum. Hisque negotium ab senatu datum, ut muros turresque urbis firmarent, et præsidia disponerent, quibus locis videretur, pontesque rescinderent fluminum : ad penates pro urbe dimicandum

esse, quando Italiam tueri nequissent. 9.

Hannibal recto itinere per Umbriam usque ad Spoletum 3 Priusquam satis certa, &c.] last preceding Dictatorship had been “ Before their plans could be well that of Atilius Calatinus, who had defined.”

superseded the Consul A. Claudius Proprætore.]

" With the au- Pulcher, in the first Punic war, and thority of commander.” Centenius was the first Dictator who comhad never been a Prætor.

manded out of Italy. 5 Pars non id, quod acciderat, &c.] ? Nec per occupatam &c.- nec.] “Some estimated what had hap- These compound negatives, following pened not on its own merits, but et, must be resolved in translation that as an influence however slight into “and-not.” is felt more sensibly in a disordered 8 Q. Fabium Maximum.] This frame, than one more powerful in a cognomen was not a military title, state of health; so, whatever hap- having been acquired by Fabius in pened to the state in its present his censorship for his services to the weak and shaken condition, should aristocratic party in the revision of be regarded not with reference to the city tribes, (see lib. ix. 46.) by its actual importance; but to its ex- the separation and consolidation of hausted strength, which was now

the libertini. beyond the endurance of further Spoletum.] The repulse of Hanoppression.”

nibal from the walls of Spoleto is still & Remedium, jam diu &c.] The commemorated by local tradition,

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venit. Inde, quum perpopulato agro urbem oppugnare U.C. 537. adortus esset, cum magna cæde suorum repulsus, conjectans A. C. 217. ex unius coloniæ haud nimis prospere tentatæ viribus, quanta moles Romanæ urbis esset, in agrum Picenum avertit iter, non copia solum omnis generis frugum abundantem, sed refertum præda, quam effuse avidi atque egentes rapiebant. Ibi per dies aliquot stativa habita : refectusque miles, hibernis itineribus ac palustri via proelioque, magis ad eventum secundo, quam levi aut facili, affectus. Ubi satis quieti datum, præda ac populationibus magis, quam otio aut requie, gaudentibus, profectus Prætutianum Hadrianumque agrum', Marsos inde Marrucinosque et Pelignos devastat, circaque Arpos et Luceriam proximam Apuliæ regionem. Cn. Servilius consul, levibus proeliis cum Gallis actis, et uno oppido ignobili expugnato, postquam de collegæ exercitusque cæde audivit, jam monibus patriæ metuens, ne abesset in discrimine extremo, ad urbem iter intendit. Q. Fabius Maximus dictator iterum, quo die magistratum iniit, vocato senatu, ab diis orsus, quum edocuisset Patres, plus negligentia cærimoniarum auspiciorumque, quam temeritate atque inscitia, peccatum a C. Flaminio consule esse, quæque piacula iræ deum essent, ipsos deos consulendos esse ; pervicit, ut, quod non ferme decernitur, nisi quum tætra prodigia nuntiata sunt, decemviri libros Sibyllinos adire juberentur. Qui, inspectis fatalibus libris, retulerunt Patribus, quod ejus belli causa votum

Marti foret, id non rite factum, de integro atque amplius ' faciendum esse: et Jovi ludos magnos, et ædes Veneri Erycinæ ac Menti vovendas esse, et supplicationem lectisterniumque habendum, et ver sacrum vovendum, si bellatum prospere esset, resque publica in eodem, quo ante bellum fuisset, statu permansisset.' Senatus, quoniam Fabium belli cura occupatura esset, M. Æmilium prætorem, ex collegii pontificum sententia, omnia ea ut mature fiant, curare jubet. His senatusconsultis perfectis, L. Cornelius 10. Lentulus pontifex maximus, consulente collegio prætorum,

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and an inscription over the arch of been Dictator on a former occasion an ancient gate, which is still called (five years previously, according to Porta di Annibale.

some authorities) with C. Flaminius 1 Prætutianum Hadrinnumque as master of the horse: but only for agrum &c.] Not venturing to ap- the purpose of an election. proach the city, even after his re- 3 Quæque piacula iræ &c.] This peated successes in the north, Han- genitive may be regarded as governed nibal passed across to the eastern either by piacula or essent: sc. either side of Italy, plundering and de- “ what were the proper atonements vastating as he went, until he had under the Divine displeasure; or, marched considerably to the south what atonements were suited to of Rome, on the opposite coast. (demanded by) the anger of Hea

2 Dictator iterum.] Fabius had ven."

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