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V. C. 537. pugnavere. Restitit suo loco Romana acies. Lenta pugna? A. U. 217. et ex dictatoris magis, quam Hannibalis, fuit voluntate.

Ducenti ab Romanis, octingenti hostium cecidere.

Inclusus inde videri Hannibal, via ad Casilinum obsessa: quum Capua et Samnium, et tantum ab tergo divitum sociorum Romanis commeatus subveheret; Ponus contra inter Formiana saxa ac Literni arenas' stagnaque perhorrida situ hibernaturus esset?. Nec Hannibalem fefellit, suis se artibus peti. Itaque, quum per Casilinum evadere non posset, petendique montes et jugum Calliculæ superandum esset; necubi Romanus inclusum vallibus agmen aggrederetur, ludibrium oculorum”, specie terribile, ad frustrandum hostem commentus, principio noctis furtim succedere ad montes statuit. Fallacis consilii talis apparatus fuit. Faces undique ex agris collectæ, fascesque virgarum atque arida sarmenta' præligantur cornibus boum, quos domitos indomitosque multos inter ceteram agrestem prædam agebat. Ad duo millia ferme boum effecta: Hasdrubalique negotium datum, ut primis tenebris noctis id armentum accensis

cornibus ad montes ageret; maxime, si posseto, super saltus 17. ab hoste insessos. Primis tenebris silentio mota castra ;

boves aliquanto ante signa acti. Ubi ad radices montium viasque angustas ventum est, signum extemplo datur, ut accensis cornibus armenta in adversos concitentur montes5. Et metus ipse relucentis flammæ ex capite, calorque, jam ad vivum, ad imaque cornuum 6 adveniens, velut stimulatos

detail;" literally, “by snatches, in 9 Literni arenas, &c.] Liternum fits and starts,” &c.

lay farther down on the

coast, toward 7 Lenta pugna.)

“The engage- Cumæ and Baiæ. The marshes ment was slow,” inanimate, cau- were those of Minturnæ at the mouth tious.)

of the Liris (Garigliano); the same 8 Inclusus inde videri Hannibal.] in which Marius afterward con“Now found himself hemmed in ;" cealed himself. i. e. he could neither leave his posi- | Hibernaturus esset.] Depends tion by the Appian road on the north, on quum. nor through the valley on the east; 2 Ludibrium oculorum.] “ An and some passage over the hills optical illusion." to his original position at Alifæ, 3 Sarmenta.] The prunings of must be effected either by force trees, especially of vines. or address.

In fact, the posi- 4 Maximè, si posset.) "And partion into which Fabius had now ticularly, if possible.” It is not brought Hannibal was precisely simi- mentioned by Livy, that before comlar to that of the Romans on the mencing this movement, Hannibal plain of the Thrasymene, between put 5000 prisoners to death, to prethe lake and the Gualadra hills. The vent their turning upon their guards, pass of Tarracina secured the Appian and rejoining their countrymen road, Casilinum closed up the rear. against him. The Vulturnus, from Casilinum to 5 In adversos— montes.] “ Up the the sea, stopped the way to the mountain." south; and the colony of Cales on 6 Ad vivum, ad imaque cornuum the east intercepted the outlet from &c.] “ Penetrating to the quick the plain by the Latin road.

and the roots of the horns."

furore agebat boves. Quo repente discursu, haud secus U.C.537. quam silvis montibusque accensis, omnia circum virgulta A. C. 217. ardere: capitumque irrita quassatio”, excitans flammam, hominum passim discurrentium speciem præbebat. Qui ad transitum saltus insidendum locati erant, ubi in summis montibus ac super se quosdam ignes conspexerunt, circumventos se esse rati, præsidio excessere : quâ minime densæ micabant flammæ, velut tutissimum iter, petentes summa montium juga, tamen in quosdam boves palatos ab suis gregibus inciderunt. Et primo, quum procul cernerent, veluti flammas spirantium miraculo attoniti constiterunt: deinde, ut humana apparuit frauss, tum vero insidias rati esse, dum majore metu concitant se in fugam, levi quoque armaturæ hostium incurrere. Ceterum nox æquato timore' neutros pugnam incipientes ad lucem tenuit. Interea, toto agmine Hannibal transducto per saltum, et quibusdam in ipso saltu hostium oppressis, in agro Allifanoo posuit castra.

Hunc tumultum sensit Fabius. Ceterum et insidias esse 18. ratus, et ab nocturno utique: abhorrens certamine, suos munimentis tenuit. Luce prima sub jugo montis proelium fuit; quo interclusam ab suis levem armaturam facile (etenim numero aliquantum præstabant) Romani superassent, nisi Hispanorum cohors, ad id ipsum remissa ab Hannibale, prævenisset. Ea assuetior montibus, et ad concursandum inter saxa rupesque aptior ac levior, quum velocitate corporum, tum armorum habitu, campestrem hostem, gravem armis statariumque, pugnæ genere facile elusit. Ita haudquaquam pari certamine digressi, Hispani fere omnes incolumes, Romani, aliquot suis amissis, in castra contenderunt.

Fabius quoque movit castra: transgressusque saltum super Allifas, loco alto ac munito consedit. Tum, per

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Capitumque irrita quassatio.] Mons Callicula. The country was " And the ineffectual tossing of open, and he was at liberty either their heads, while it fanned the to move to the north, or to return fire, presented the appearance of to his old quarters in Apulia. men running wildly to and fro." 3 Nocturno utique.]“ By night

8 Ut humana apparuit fraus.] especially." " When the artifice of man became 4 Sub jugo montis.] This was at evident.”

the western or Campanian side of 9 Nox æquato timore.] “ The the mountains, which Fabius had darkness, by assimilating their not yet left: and to which the fears."

Spanish cohort was “sent back.” Neutros pugnam incipientes. Pugne genere.] “The peculiar Must be resolved, in translation, nature of their assault.” A guerilla into utrosque pugnam incipere no- is elsewhere forcibly described by lentes, or some such paraphrase. Livy, as hostis levis et velox et

? In agro Alifano. He was repentinus, qui nullum usquam now in Samnium again. This terri- tempus, nullum locum quietum aut tory lay at the eastern side of securum esse sineret.'

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U.C.537. Samnium Romam se petere simulans, Hannibal usque in A. C. 217. Pelignos populabundus rediit. Fabius medius inter hos

tium agmen urbemque Romam jugis ducebat: nec absistens, nec congrediens. Ex Pelignis Pænus flexit iter, retroque Apuliam repetens, Geronium pervenit, urbem metu, quia collapsa ruinis pars monium erat, ab suis desertam. Dictator in Larinate agro? castra communiit. Inde sacrorum causa Romam revocatus, non imperio modo, sed consilio 8 etiam, ac prope precibus agens cum magistro equitum, ut plus consilio, quam fortunæ, confidat: et se potius

ducem, quam Sempronium Flaminiumque, imitetur. Ne nihil actum censeret', extracta prope æstate per ludifica* tionem hostis. Medicos quoque plus interdum quiete, quam movendo? atque agendo, proficere. Haud parvam rem esse, ab toties victore hoste vinci desisse, et ab continuis cladibus respirasse. Hæc nequicquam præmonito

magistro equitum, Romam est profectus. 19.

Principio æstatis, qua hæc gerebantur, in Hispania quoque terra marique coeptum bellum est. Hasdrubal ad eum navium numerum, quem a fratre instructum paratumque acceperat, decem adjecit: quadraginta navium classem Himilconi tradidit: atque ita Carthagine profectus navibus prope terram, exercitum in litore ducebat, paratus confligere, quacunque parte copiarum hostis occurrisset. Cn. Scipioni, postquam movisse ex hibernis hostem audivit, primo idem consiliis fuit: deinde, minus terra, propter ingentem famam novorum auxiliorum, concurrere ausus, delecto milite ad naves imposito, quinque et triginta navium classe ire obviam hosti pergit. Altero ab Tarracone die5

6 Per Samnium Romam &c.] 9 Ne nihil actum censeret &c.] His march to Rome should have “ He must not suppose that no been north west from Alifæ: the object had been effected, when direction of the Peligni was more nearly the whole summer had been nearly due north. Mediis inter spent in disappointing the enemy.” hostium agmen urbemque jugis. 1 Quiete, quam movendo &c.] These hills formed a part of the “More by repose than by excitement range of the Apennines. Crossing and active remedies.” these, he descended into the Pelig- Carthagine.] sc. Carthagena. nian plain by Sulmo, and taking a 3 Idem consilii.] Of this elegant large amount of plunder with him, idiom, it must be remarked that it passed across to his former position is not identical with idem consilium, at Arpi.

which would signify“ the same ? Dictator in Larinate agro &c.] policy;" but signifies more correctly, This was the position from which to the same principle of policy.” he had watched Hannibal during 4 Milite ad naves.] i. e. milite his former sojourn in the same classico.

What we

would call neighbourhood.

“ marines.” Compare the analogous 8 Non imperio modo, sed consilio phrase servos ad

remum.(l. xxxiv. 6.) “In à tone not of authority 5 Altero ab Tarracone die.) “On merely, but of advice and almost of the day following his departure from entreaty."

Tarraco,” i. e. “ on the second day

&c.]

ad stationem, decem millia passuum distantem ab ostio Iberi U. C. 537. amnis, pervenit. Inde duæ Massiliensium speculatoriæ A. C. 217. præmissæ retulerunt, classem Punicam stare in ostio fluminis, castraque in ripa posita. Itaque, ut improvidos incautosque universo simul offuso terrore opprimeret, sublatis ancoris ad hostem vadit. Multas et locis altis positas turres? Hispania habet, quibus et speculis et propugnaculis adversus latrones utuntur. Inde primo, conspectis hostium navibus, datum signum Hasdrubali est; tumultusque prius in terra et castris, quam ad mare et ad naves, est ortus, nondum aut pulsu remorumo strepituque alio nautico exaudito, aut aperientibus classem promontoriis: quum repente eques, alius super alium ab Hasdrubale missus, vagos in litore quietosque in tentoriis suis, nihil minus quam hostem aut proelium eo die exspectantes, conscendere naves propere atque arma capere jubet: classem Romanam jam haud procul portu esse. Hæc equites dimissi passim imperabant. Mox Hasdrubal ipse cum omni exercitu aderat : varioque omnia tumultu strepunt, ruentibus in naves simul remigibus militibusque, fugientium magis e terra, quam in pugnam euntium modo. Vixdum omnes conscenderant, quum alii, resolutis oris', in ancoras evehuntur: alii, ne quid teneat, ancoralia incidunt: raptimque omnia præpropere agendo, militum apparatu nautica ministeria impediuntur, trepidatione nautarum capere et aptare arma miles prohibetur. Et jam Romanus non appropinquabat modo, sed direxerat etiam in pugnam naves. Itaque non ab hoste et proelio magis Poni, quam suomet ipsi tumultu turbati, tentata verius pugna, quam inita, in fugam averterunt clas

Et quum adversi amnis oso lato agmine ac tam multis

sem.

(day's journey) from T. deutepaios among the Romans by the name
èk Tapparwos. (Polyb. iii. 95.) “ ad Turres.
6 Dua-speculatoriæ.](sc. naves.)

8 Inde.] “ From (or, by means
? Multas et locis altisturres &c.] of) these (towers).”
In many other ancient countries, ŷ Nondum aut pulsu remorum
castles of this description, from each &c.] “ Before the dip of an oar or
of which two others were always any other sound from the fleet was
visible, formed chains of communi- heard, or the headlands disclosed
cation, along which intelligence the ships.”
could be communicated, by day or 1 Resolutis oris.) Shipping
night, almost with the speed of their halsers.”

were the electricity Their use is beauti- ropes attached to land. When these fully illustrated by the description, were detached, evehuntur in ancoras, in the Agamemnon of Æschylus, “they swung un their anchors.” of the news of the capture of Troy The cables hy which these were flashing its way round the shores held, were called ancoralia. of the Hellespont. The sites of 2 Adversi amnis os.]

“ The those Spanish castles, now gene- channel of the descending river" rally in ruins, were designated i. e. flowing down against them.

Ore

U. C. 637. simul venientibus haud sane intrabile esset, in litus passim A.C. 217. naves egerunt: atque alii vadis, alii sicco litore excepti,

partim armati, partim inermes, ad instructam per litus 20.

aciem suorum perfugere. Duæ tamen primo concursu captæ erant Punicæ naves, quattuor suppressæ. Romani, quanquam terra hostium erat, armatamque aciem toto prætentam in litore: cernebant, haud cunctanter insecuti trepidam hostium classem, naves omnes, quæ non aut perfregerant. proras litore illisas, aut carinas fixerant vadis, religatas puppibus in altum extraxere: ad quinque et viginti naves ex quadraginta cepere.

Neque id pulcherrimum ejus victoriæ fuit, sed quod una levi pugna toto ejus oræ mari potiti erant. Itaque ad Honoscam classe provecti, exscensione ab navibus in terram facta, quum urbem vi cepissent, captamque diripuissent, Carthaginem inde petunt: atque, omnem agrum circa depopulati, postremo tecta quoque conjuncta muro portisque incenderunt.

Inde jam præda gravis ad Longunticam pervenit classis : ubi vis magna sparti ad rem nauticam congesta ab Hasdrubale. Quod satis in usum fuit, sublato, ceterum omne incensum est. Nec continentis modo projectas oras prætervecta, sed in Ebusum insulam? transmissum. Ubi urbe, quæ caput insulæ est, biduum nequicquam summo labore oppugnata, ubi in spem irritam frustra teri tempus animadversum est, ad populationem agri® versi, direptis aliquot incensisque vicis, majore, quam ex continenti, præda parta, quum in naves se recepissent, ex Baliaribus insulis legati pacem petentes ad Scipionem venerunt. Inde flexa retro classis, reditumque in citeriora provinciæ; quo omnium populorum, qui cis Iberum incolunt, multorum et ultimæ Hispaniæ legati concurrerunt. Sed qui vere ditionis imperiique Romani facti sunt, obsidibus datis, populi, amplius fuerunt centum viginti. Igitur terrestribus quoque copiis satis fidens Romanus usque ad

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Toto prætentam in litore.] made themselves masters of the sea “Lining the whole shore.”

all along that coast;" and accord4 Quæ non aut perfregerant &c.] ingly cruised back again toward Perizonius and Crevier would re- Carthagena. The scene of these move the negative, and thereby operations was the sea coast along destroy the obvious meaning of the those provinces now called Murcia, sentence. The only galleys that Valencia, and Catalonia. the Romans could possibly have 7 Ebusum insulam.] sc. Iviza, one " towed out to sea,” were, of course, of the Pityusæ. those which the Carthaginians had 8 Ad populationem agri.] The not staved nor stranded.

island is about a hundred miles in 5 Pulcherrimum ejus victorie.) circumference.

Its principal pro“ The most glorious feature (lit. duce consisted of figs and flocks, 'the beauty') of that victory. (Pliny, iii. 5.) 6 Toto ejus oræ &c.]

“ Had

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