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None but itself can be its parallel. It really consists of three separate works The first is a paged and bound as one. series of biographical sketches of "The Men who Advertise "-i. e., naturally enough, of those who advertise with G. P. Rowell & Co., unless a certain number of sample personages be excepted, useful for their lofty example in the cause. One among these sketches, however, reminds us of the procession which consisted in part of “people going the other way." It is a history of Mr. A. T. Stewart, and shows pretty plainly that he did not advertise; he financiered. Still, his is a good name to have in almost any list. These sketches contain a good many facts and dates about American business biography, and they are, of course (except as excepted), soaked with advertising through and through -a mere gospel of advertising. There are little didactic chapters and scraps here and there, teaching-very naturally, again-that, of this gospel, Messrs. G. P. Rowell & Co. are the cheapest and smartest apostles. The record-part is an "American Newspaper Rate-Book." This is not a list of the advertising rates of the newspapers, for whom Messrs. Rowell are advertising agents. That supposition would disgracefully underrate the shrewdness of these gentlemen. It consists of 400 pages of advertisements of newspapers and periodicals, in the course of which the advertising terms of each are stated. This extremely neat device must clear a handsome sum over and above the whole cost of the book. When we reflect that the volume itself is to be sold for the sum of five dollars, and also that, in the natural course of events, some of the biographical sketches are pretty freely contributed, we are moved to admiration. It is an advertisement of the publisher's business, not in that form, but in the form of advertisements by their patrons.

The third part is a well-arranged, extensive, and convenient "American Newspaper Directory," giving the names, days of issue, circulation, &c., of a good list of newspapers and other periodicals VOL. VI.-8

in the United States and British America, and is a laborious, successful, and useful piece of cataloguing.


"The Iliad of Homer," translated into English Blank-verse by WM. CULLEN BRYANT. R. 8vo. cloth. Fields, Osgood & Co.

"Passages from the English Note-Books of Nathaniel Hawthorne." 2 vols. 12mo. cloth. Fields, Osgood & Co.

"Queen Hortense. A Life-Picture of the Napole onic Era." A Historical Novel, 8vo. cloth. D. Appleton & Co.

"Home Scenes and Heart Studies." By GRACE AGUILAR. New Edition. 12mo. cloth. D. Appleton & Co.

"The Caged Lion." A Novel by CHARLOTTE M. YONGE, author of "The Heir of Redclyffe." 12mo. cloth. D. Appleton & Co.

"Henrietta Temple, a Love Story," by the Right Hon. B. DISRAELI. Cheap Edition. 8vo. paper. D. Appleton & Co.

"Mommsen's History of Rome." Translated, with the author's sanction, and additions by Rev. W. P. DICKSON, D. D., University of Glasgow. New Edition, 4 vols. 12mo. cloth. Vol. III. C. Scribner & Co.

"Elocution; the Sources and Elements of its Power." A text-book for schools and colleges. By Prof. J. H. McILVAINE, of Princeton, 12mo. cloth. C. Scribner & Co.

"Wonders of Architecture."

Translated from

the French of M. LEFEBRE. (Illustrated Library of Wonders.) 12mo. cloth. C. Scribner & Co. "Lifting the Veil." 16mo, cloth. C. Scribner & Co.

"Poems." By DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI. Author's edition. 12mo, cloth. Roberts Bros.

"Salmonia; or Days of Fly Fishing." With some account of the habits of fishes belonging to the genus Salmo. By SIR HUMPHRY DAVY, Bart. From the 4th London edition. 12mo, cloth, Illus. Roberts Bros

"Consolations in Travel; or the Last Days of a Philosopher." By SIR HUMPHRY DAVY, Bart. From the 5th London edition. 16mo, cloth, Illus. Roberts Bros,

"Superstition & Force, Essays on the Wager of Law, the Wager of Battle, the Ordeal, Torture. By HENRY C. LEA. 2d edition revised. 12mo, cloth. H. C. Les

"A Treatise on the Christian Doctrine of Marri age." By HUGH DAVY EVANS, LL.D. With a biographical sketch of the author. 12mo, cloth. Hurd & Houghton.

"Only a Girl; or a Physician for the Soul." A Romance; from the German of Wilhelmine Von Hillern, by Mrs. A. L. WISTER. J. B. Lippincett & Co.


"The Annals of an Eventful Life," by George Webbe Dasent (Hurst and Blackett, London), is praised enthusiastically by the Quarterly Review, with extracts which seem to justify its favor; and has rapidly passed through four editions. The "Emile of the Nineteenth Century," by the admirable poet and essayist, M. Alphonse Esquiros (Paris, Librairie Internationale), is highly commended, both as an imaginative story and as a pleasing picture of early education in England. แ Sidney Bellew, a Story," by Francis Francis (London, Tinsley), appears to have been constructed by an inexpert writer, but contains spirited and instructive sketches of manly sport in Scotland, evidently from life. Mr. Anthony Trollope began a new story, "Sir Anthony Hotspur," in Macmillan's Magazine for May, but a prophet is needed to say whether any incomplete work of this unequal writer will be good or bad. But Mr. Trollope is no longer content with novel-writing; he aspires to be known as a scholar and an interpreter of the classics, and the next volume of "Ancient Classics for English Readers" (Edinburgh, Blackwood & Sons) is to be his account of Julius Cæsar. Garibaldi's "Rule of the Monk," so severely handled by the critics as a work of art, seems to have succeeded well enough to encourage the old hero to try his hand at another novel, and "Cantoni, the Volunteer," is to be published at once. On the whole, the German novelists seem to contribute more, just now, to the world's amusement than those of any other nation. Julius Rodenberg's "Von Gottes Gnaden," ("By God's Grace,") a story of Cromwell's time, is thoroughly good, in manner as well as in substance, and, though twice as long as an average English novel, will doubtless be translated and become a favorite. It is at once a remarkably good story and a

true picture of the times it treats. Gustav Freitag's Life of the Baden statesman, Karl Mathy, has much of the interest of a romance, though it is accepted as a faithful biography. Daniel von Kászony, a Hungarian dramatist of local celebrity, publishes a German novel, entitled "1872, A Romance of the Future" (Leipzig, Pardubitz), in which he shows exactly what the political history of Europe is to be for the next three years, and, among other events, assures us of the annexation of all the South German States to Prussia, and the coronation of the king of Prussia at Frankfort as "Kaiser Friedrich VI."

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Karl Ferdinand Gutzkow is perhaps best known in this country as the author of such tragedies as "Uriel Acosta," or of such strong and morally loose novels as Wally," " written in his "Werther Period." But his genius has deepened and widened with the years, and, at home, a new work from his pen is an event of universal interest. He has recently published two volumes of "Pictures from Life" ("Lebensbilder," Stuttgart, 1870), containing five sketches and novels, the most important of which, with the same title as Spielhagen's well-known "Through Night to Light," is a story of the Eighteenth Century in England, a period of which the author has made a special and successful study. This novelette is now published in English, also, by Tauchnitz, Leipsic, in his "Collection of German Authors; and a new novel by Gutzkow, "The Sons of Pestalozzi,” is also announced as ready, but has not yet reached New York.

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That Henri Taine is a great critic and a great teacher of critical principles, no reader of his English Literature or of his Ideal in Art will question. But we must rub our eyes clear, really to believe that these two stout octavo volumes "De l'Intelli

gence" (Paris, Hachette et Cie.) are his. An attempt at a complete and philosophical psychology is bold in any man, and seems rash in one who has given so many years to art, history, and general literature. But M. Taine looks on his former studies as the vestibule to this, and thinks the step from history to psychology is but that from the particular to the general, from the instance to the law. "The historian writes the psychology of the molecule or the group, and what he does for the past, romancers and dramatists do for the present. I have worked fifteen years at these special psychologies; I now attempt general psychology.” And this he calls "the work to which he has given the most thought." M. Taine's previous contributions to philosophy were acute as criticisms, but did not suggest the patience or the breadth necessary to work out independently a theory of mental action. We have but read enough of this elaborate treatise to feel that it is too rhetorical for science; that the author believes some strange reports without conclusive proof; and that he is often ready to mistake an apt and beautiful illustration for an argument; but his pages are always clear, and usually fresh, vigorous, suggestive, and entertaining.

The poetry of Tennyson is a sore stumbling-block to translators. The intense impression much of it makes on many minds, tempts strongly to the reproduction of it in another language; and the "Hora Tennysonianæ," recently published by a few English scholars, in which they give Latin and Greek versions of some striking passages, show, at least, that Greek is better fitted to be the medium for his peculiar style of thinking than any modern tongue, except his own strictly Attic English. There are German, French, and Italian translations of many of his poems; some of the German ones tolerable, none of the others. But the "In Memoriam " has never appeared in a German dress, until now, that a translation, under the title "Freundes-Klage," by Robert Waldmüller-Duboe, is announced by

Grüning, in Hamburg. But until we see a rendering in some other modern language of such lines as these,

"High wisdom holds my wisdom less,

That I, who look with temperate eyes
On glorious insufficiencies,

Set light by narrower perfectness ”— we shall believe them, and a large part of the "In Memoriam," to be the exclusive possession of our mother-tongue.


"The Woman-Question" threatens to set the world by the ears. in Europe the form it takes is certainly more promising than here; for, apart from Mr. John Stuart Mill, nearly all the agitators there regard the new movement as designed mainly, if not solely, for "the industrial emancipation of women," by which they seem to mean simply a wider range of employment and better wages for those women who have to support themselves. To this extent, indeed, most of the economists of Europe have taken extreme ground for reform, which is certainly far more needed in every European nation than it is here; and popular attention has been drawn to the subject in Germany, France, Denmark, Italy, and even in Spain and Russia. But nowhere has more been done to convince public opinion of the real necessity for improving the condition of working-women, than in Sweden, where Frederika'Bremer opened the discussion a generation ago, and her disciples, Rosalie Olivecrona and Sophie Lejonhufvud, keep it very lively now. But their ways are not the ways of the Sorosis and the Revolution. Delmonico's lunches and woman's rights conventions are alike unknown to them. Instead of all this, they have quietly published a journal, devoted to instructing mothers in their educational duties, and stimulating the zeal of women and girls for knowledge and practical skill in the arts of life; and this journal they have tried to bring into every Swedish household, with such success that it has steadily grown in circulation through its ten years of life, and is now one of the best known of Scandinavian publications. At first almost alone in their views, the editors have been gradually joined by a

strong party in the State, until now theirs is the popular side; the Government is with them; large sums have been spent in providing schools to give as good an education to girls as that open to boys; and so many trades and professions are opened, or opening, to them, that Sweden may be said to stand next to the United States in the variety and freedom it gives to female labor. Printing, book-binding, photographing, engraving, watch-making, book-keeping, and lithographing are among the kinds of business now regularly practised by women in Sweden; many offices of state have been declared open to both sexes indifferently, and the two universities have recently, by order of the Government, made their courses of medical instruction accessible to women on precisely the same conditions as to men. The new German Women's Advocate (Der Frauenanwalt, edited by Jenny Hirsch, Berlin, Otto Löwenstein), of which the first number appeared in April, is devoted to the same causeof improving the position of women by improving women themselves—and is remarkably silent on political questions. But Mr. Mill has just stirred up the London meeting of his "Women's Suffrage Society" to believe that the danger of government here is not from tyranny, but from indolence, and that public life needs women to give it purpose and energy. At Turin, Signora Giulia Molino-Colombini has found encouragement enough in her special work of reforming and extending the education of women to lead her to prepare a new and much enlarged edition, in three volumes, of her essays on the subject ("Sulla Educazione della Donna "), which is said to be one of the best works the present agitation has evoked.

Napoleon III. has met with a new rebuke from the Pope. It is well known that he long since purchased a considerable part of the Aventine Hill, on which the palaces of the Caesars formerly stood, and has been digging it out, making important discoveries every month. During the last year the great portico of the palace of Tiberius has

been exposed, and adjoining it lies Domitian's palace; but just here Napoleon's purchase ends. He had recently negotiated for the next property, and the deed was ready, when the Pope interfered to forbid the sale, and is about to make all excavations impossible, by building a new church on the ground as it now lies. Rome has nearly four hundred churches already, and plenty of room for more; but the contrast between French energy and science in antiquarian researches, and the poor old Pope's pretense of excavations close by, with a superannuated invalid or two shovelling away indefinitely, is too striking to be permitted; and then, the eldest son of the Church has not shown zeal enough in these days of "infallibility.”

The exhibition of the Royal Academy was opened in London at the end of April, and, with it, all the throng of minor galleries that regularly surround it as satellites. Among names familiar to Americans, Sir Edward Landseer, Mr. Daniel Maclise, Mr. J. F. Lewis, Mr. T. Faed, and Mr. Elmore, are said to be fairly represented. But Mr. Millais, in a number of striking works--said to be the best he has ever painted-seems to attract more attention than any other English artist; while M. Gérôme, with his "Jerusalem," and still more with his "Death of Marshal Ney," quite bears off the honors of the exhibition, although M. Alma-Tadema also contributes to it. Mr. Holman Hunt is not represented here, but has two landscapes in the exhibition of the Society of Painters in water-colors, which are said to present wonderful and entirely new effects of light. The opening of the Academy was saddened by the sudden death of Mr. Maclise, one of its most eminent members, who had, indeed, declined both its presidency and the honor of knighthood from the Crown. The Paris "salon " is this year quite deserted by many of the first French artists, such as Meissonier and Gérôme; and a picture by Régnault is the centre of attraction, representing Salome, just after the dance which bought John the Baptist's head.

Dr. II. C. Bastian has not yet published his promised work on the Origin of Life, which will contain all the information yet collected on the vexed question whether organisms are ever spontaneously produced out of inorganic matter. But he foreshadows, in a letter to the London Times, his own judgment on the question, by reporting some startling experiments lately made by himself and Dr. Frankland. They prepared some solutions containing organic matter, and hermetically sealed them in vessels containing no air whatever; they then submitted them to a great heat, above 300° Fahrenheit, for four hours, in order to destroy any germs which might be supposed to be present; yet, after a few weeks, under favorable conditions, living organisms, many of them of kinds wholly unknown before, were found in the solutions. A full account of these experiments, and of the precautions taken in them to prevent error, is promised to the Royal Society.

The study of "mental time," "personal equation," "the speed of the nerve-fluid," or "the velocity of thought," is fascinating to many inquirers. Let an observer watch for a ball to fall, and himself try to drop another at the same instant; it will take time for the impression on his eye to reach his mind, for the perception to set the will in action, and for the volition to move his muscles, and the question is, How much time? Ingenious methods of inquiry have been devised, and some curious results obtained, which are summed up by Mr. M. Foster in Nature. For instance, it has been proved that, in a frog, the volition goes from the will to the muscle at the rate of about ninety-three feet a second; but in a man, at least one sixth faster. Sensations appear to travel to the brain at greater speed, but this is not quite certain; on the average, the whole "mental time" required to receive an impression by the sight, and give a voluntary signal of it, is about one sixth of a second; but by the touch, one seventh of a second is sufficient. But if the mind has to dis

criminate between two signals, more than a seventh of a second additional is necessary.

There is much zeal shown by British astronomers in preparing to observe the eclipse of the sun of next December, which will be total on a line running from Odemira in Portugal, through Cadiz, and a little north of Gibraltar, to Syracuse and Mount Etna in Sicily. It is proposed to send out at least two expeditions, one of them to Gibraltar, supplied with a full apparatus of telescopes, stereoscopes, &c., and with not less than twenty skilled observers in each, and to make the "corona," which has been seen around the sun in former eclipses, and is still a mystery, the principal object of attack. The astronomer of the Spectator, however, regards this problem as solved, and predicts that the observation will establish his view, that the corona and the zodiacal light alike are produced by innumerable meteors revolving around the sun, forming, perhaps, myriads of streams, each moving in a long ellipse, like that ascribed to the meteors of our August and November showers.

Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace's new essays ("Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection," London, Macmillan) are charming, and though less of their contents is new than was expected, we have read every page of them with deep interest. Their most remarkable feature is the author's refusal to admit that "natural selection" will account for all the changes necessary to produce man from lower forms of life. He holds that mental modifications largely take the place of physical ones in man, and that his social nature leads to cooperation, by which the strength of each helps all; so that the "survival of the fittest" ceases to be the controlling physical law of life, and natural selection is held in check. In his opinion, therefore, the development of man must have been carried on under some other laws as yet unsuspected.

The recent famous sale of the Demidoff collection of pictures has been followed by a sale of the same Prince's

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