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dextra, Faesulanum quendam in sinistra parte curare jubet. Ipse cum libertis et colonis propter aquilam adsistit, quam bello Cimbrico C. Marius in exercitu

habuisse dicebatur. At ex altera parte C. Anto5 nius, pedibus aeger, quod proelio adesse nequibat,

M. Petreio legato exercitum permittit. Ille cohortes veteranas, quas tumultus causa conscripserat, in fronte, post eas ceterum exercitum in subsidiis locat.

Ipse equo circumiens, unum quemque nominans 10 appellat, hortatur, rogat, ut meminerint se contra

latrones inermes pro patria, pro liberis, pro aris atque focis suis certare. Homo militaris, quod amplius annos triginta tribunus aut praefectus aut

legatus aut praetor cum magna gloria in exercitu 15 fuerat, plerosque ipsos factaque eorum fortia noverat: ea commemorando militum animos accendebat.

60. Sed ubi, omnibus rebus exploratis, Petreius tuba signum dat, cohortes paulatim incedere jubet.

Idem facit hostium exercitus. Postquam eo ven20 tum est, unde a ferentariis proelium committi posset,

maxumo clamore cum infestis signis concurrunt; pila omittunt, gladiis res geritur. Veterani, pristinae virtutis memores, comminus acriter instare;

illi haud timidi resistunt: maxuma vi certatur. 25 Interea Catilina cum expeditis in prima acie vor

sari, laborantibus succurrere, integros pro sauciis arcessere, omnia providere, multum ipse pugnare, saepe hostem ferire: strenui militis, et boni impe

ratoris officia simul exsequebatur. Petreius, ubi 30 videt Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi

tendere, cohortem praetoriam in medios hostes inducit, eosque perturbatos atque alios alibi resistentes interficit. Deinde utrimque ex lateribus

ceteros aggreditur. Manlius et Faesulanus in pri35 mis pugnantes cadunt. Catilina postquam fusas

copias seque cum paucis relictum videt, memor generis atque pristinae suae dignitatis, in confertissumos hostes incurrit ibique pugnans confoditur.

61. Sed confecto proelio, tum vero cerneres, quanta audacia quantaque vis animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinae. Nam fere, quem quisque vivus pugnando locum ceperat, eum amissa anima corpore tegebat. Pauci autem, quos medios cohors praetoria disjecerat, paulo divorsius, sed omnes tamen advorsis 5 volneribus conciderant. Catilina vero longe a suis inter hostium cadavera repertus est, paululum etiam spirans, ferociamque animi, quam habuerat vivus, in voltú retinens. Postremo ex omni copia neque in proelio neque in fuga quisquam civis ingenuus 10 captus est: ita cuncti suae hostiumque vitae juxta pepercerant. Neque tamen exercitus populi Romani laetam aut incruentam victoriam adeptus erat. Nam strenuissumus quisque aut occiderat in proelio aut graviter volneratus discesserat. Multi autem, qui 15 e castris visundi aut spoliandi gratia processerant, volventes hostilia cadavera, amicum alii, pars hospitem aut cognatum reperiebant; fuere item, qui inimicos suos cognoscerent. Ita varie per omnem exercitum laetitia, maeror, luctus atque gaudia agi- 20 tabantur.

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Crombie, - Crombie's Gymnasium sive Symbola Critica.
Dict. Antiqq., - Smith’s Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
Dict. Biog., - Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and

Mythology.
Dict. Geog., = Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.
Lex. or Lexicon, — Andrews's Freund's Latin Lexicon.
Niebuhr, — Niebuhr's History of Rome.

* The numbering of the sections in these two grammars is identical.

134

NOTES

TO THE

JUGURTHINE WAR.

INTRODUCTION.

sons.

JUGURTHA, king of Numidia, was a grandson of Masinissa, being & son of his youngest son, Mastánabal; but on account of his illegitimate birth — his mother being only a concubine - he was neglected by his grandfather, and remained in a private situation so long as Masinissa lived. But when Micipsa succeeded to the throne (B.C. 149), he adopted his nephew, and caused him to be brought up with his own sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal. Jugurtha quickly distinguished himself, both by his abilities and his skill in all bodily exercises, and rose to so much favor and popularity with the Numidians, that he began to excite the jealousy of Micipsa, who became apprehensive lest he should eventually supplant his two

In order to remove him to a distance, and not without a hope that he might perish in the war, Micipsa sent him, in B. C. 134, with an auxiliary force, to assist Scipio against Numantia ; but this only proved to the young man a fresh occasion of distinction: by his zeal, courage, and ability, he gained the favor not only of his commander, but of all the leading nobles in the Roman camp, by many of whom he was secretly stimulated to nourish ambitious schemes for acquiring the sole sovereignty of Numidia; and notwithstanding the contrary advice of Scipio, these counsels seem to have sunk deep into the mind of Jugurtha. On his return, he was received with every demonstration of honor by Micipsa; nor did be allow his ambitious projects to break forth during the lifetime of the old man. Micipsa, on his death-bed, though but too clearly foreseeing what would happen, commended the two young princes to the care of Jugurtha; but at the very first interview which took place between them after his decease (B. C. 118), their dissensions broke out with the utmost fierceness. Shortly after, Jugurtha found an opportunity to surprise and assassinate Hiempsal in his lodging at Thirmida; whereupon Adherbal and his partisans rushed to arms, but were defeated in battle by Jugurtha; and Adherbal bimself fled for refuge to the Roman province, from whence he hastened to Rome, to lay his cause before the senate. Jugurtha had now the opportunity of putting to the test that which he had learned in the camp before Numantia, of the venality and corruption of the Roman nobility: he sent ambassadors to Rome to counteract, by a lavish distribution of bribes, the effects of the just complaints of Adherbal; and by these means succeeded in averting the indignation of the senate. A decree was however passed for the division of the kingdom of Numidia between the two competitors; and although Jugurtha obtained by far the larger and richer portion of the two, he was by no means contented, but continually harassed the frontiers of the neighboring kingdom, in hopes of inducing Adherbal to repress these petty assaults by arms. The patience and steadiness with which Adherbal adhered to a pacific and defensive system frustrated these hopes, and Jugurtha at length invaded his territories with a large army. Adherbal was defeated in the first conflict, and though two successive deputations from Rome commanded both parties to desist from hostilities, he was shortly after (B. C. 112) captured and immediately put to death. War was therefore declared against the Numidian king, and one of the consuls, L. Calpurnius Bestia, landed in Africa with a largo army; and though several Roman commanders successirely undertook the conduct of the war, such was their avarice or incapacity, that the general result was simply failure and disgrace. Nor was any headway made against Jugurtha until the arrival of the consul Q. Caecilius Metellus (B. C. 109), who at once began to retrieve the honor of the Roman arms; and though Metellus met with some reverses, he would doubtless have brought the war to a successful termination, had not Caius Marius been appointed to succeed him.

The arrival of Marius infused fresh vigor into the Roman arms. Success followed upon success, until, finally, the defection of Jugur. tha's ally, Bocchus, king of Mauritania, gave the finishing stroke to the war. Bocchus was gained over by Sulla, the quaestor of Marius, and he joined in a plan for seizing the person of the Nu, midian king. Jugurtha fell into the snare. He was induced, under pretence of a conference, to repair, with only a few followers, to meet Bacchus, when he was instantly surrounded, his attendants cut to pieces, and he himself made prisoner, and delivered in chains to Sulla, by whom he was conveyed directly to the camp of Marius. This occurred in B. C. 106. He remained in captivity till the return

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