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Crombie's Gymnasium sive Symbola Critica.
Dict. Antiqq., Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. Dict. Biog., Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Dict. Geog., - Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Lex. or Lexicon, Andrews's Freund's Latin Lexicon.
Niebuhr, Niebuhr's History of Rome.
JUGURTHA, king of Numidia, was a grandson of Masinissa, being a son of his youngest son, Mastánabal; but on account of his illegitimate birth—his mother being only a concubine — he was neglected by his grandfather, and remained in a private situation so long as Masinissa lived. But when Micipsa succeeded to the throne (B. C. 149), he adopted his nephew, and caused him to be brought up with his own sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal. Jugurtha quickly distinguished himself, both by his abilities and his skill in all bodily exercises, and rose to so much favor and popularity with the Numidians, that he began to excite the jealousy of Micipsa, who became apprehensive lest he should eventually supplant his two sons. In order to remove him to a distance, and not without a hope that he might perish in the war, Micipsa sent him, in B. C. 134, with an auxiliary force, to assist Scipio against Numantia; but this only proved to the young man a fresh occasion of distinction by his zeal, courage, and ability, he gained the favor not only of his commander, but of all the leading nobles in the Roman camp, by many of whom he was secretly stimulated to nourish ambitious schemes for acquiring the sole sovereignty of Numidia; and notwithstanding the contrary advice of Scipio, these counsels seem to have sunk deep into the mind of Jugurtha. On his return, he was received with every demonstration of honor by Micipsa; nor did he allow his ambitious projects to break forth during the lifetime of the old man. Micipsa, on his death-bed, though but too clearly foreseeing what would happen, commended the two young princes to the care of Jugurtha; but at the very first interview which took place between them after his decease (B. C. 118), their dissensions broke out with the utmost fierceness. Shortly after, Jugurtha found an opportunity to surprise and assassinate Hiempsal in his lodging
at Thirmida; whereupon Adherbal and his partisans rushed to arms, but were defeated in battle by Jugurtha; and Adherbal himself fled for refuge to the Roman province, from whence he hastened to Rome, to lay his cause before the senate. Jugurtha had now the opportunity of putting to the test that which he had learned in the camp before Numantia, of the venality and corruption of the Roman nobility he sent ambassadors to Rome to counteract, by a lavish distribution of bribes, the effects of the just complaints of Adherbal; and by these means succeeded in averting the indignation of the senate. A decree was however passed for the division of the kingdom of Numidia between the two competitors; and although Jugurtha obtained by far the larger and richer portion of the two, he was by no means contented, but continually harassed the frontiers of the neighboring kingdom, in hopes of inducing Adherbal to repress these petty assaults by arms. The patience and steadiness with which Adherbal adhered to a pacific and defensive system frustrated these hopes, and Jugurtha at length invaded his territories with a large army. Adherbal was defeated in the first conflict, and though two successive deputations from Rome commanded both parties to desist from hostilities, he was shortly after (B. C. 112) captured and immediately put to death. War was therefore declared against the Numidian king, and one of the consuls, L. Calpurnius Bestia, landed in Africa with a large army; and though several Roman commanders successively undertook the conduct of the war, such was their avarice or incapacity, that the general result was simply failure and disgrace. Nor was any headway made against Jugurtha until the arrival of the consul Q. Caecilius Metellus (B. C. 109), who at once began to retrieve the honor of the Roman arms; and though Metellus met with some reverses, he would doubtless have brought the war to a successful termination, had not Caius Marius been appointed to succeed him.
The arrival of Marius infused fresh vigor into the Roman arms. Success followed upon success, until, finally, the defection of Jugurtha's ally, Bocchus, king of Mauritania, gave the finishing stroke to the war. Bocchus was gained over by Sulla, the quaestor of Marius, and he joined in a plan for seizing the person of the Numidian king. Jugurtha fell into the snare. He was induced, under pretence of a conference, to repair, with only a few followers, to meet Bocchus, when he was instantly surrounded, his attendants cut to pieces, and he himself made prisoner, and delivered in chains to Sulla, by whom he was conveyed directly to the camp of Marius. This occurred in B. C. 106. He remained in captivity till the return
of Marius to Rome, when, after adorning the triumph of his conqueror (Jan. 1, B. C. 104), he was thrown into a dungeon, and there starved to death. - Abbreviated from Smith's Dictionary of Greek
and Roman Biography and Mythology.
1-10. Falso, unjustly, without reason; is the emphatic word, and 13 therefore occupies one of the emphatic positions - the beginning of the sentence. 2. Aevi brevis, of short duration: aevi being a genitive of quality, characteristic, or description. A. & S. 2 211, Rem. 6; H. 396, IV.; B. 757; A. 50, I. 2. 3. Regatur, it is governed: subjunctive to refer the statement to natura sua (principle of oratio obliqua). A. & S. ¿ 266, 3; H. 520, II.; B. 1255; A. 66, I. In translating the subjunctive mood, use those auxiliary verbs (when auxiliaries are necessary) which best convey the real meaning: those commonly used in grammars to define this mood are often inadequate to a correct rendering of it. Contra, on the contrary. Reputando, by reflecting = on reflection: the gerund as an ablative of means. 4. Invenias, you will find. This is a subjunctive of modest or cautious statement - a subjunct. to soften the assertion. A. & S. 260, II., Rem. 4; H. 485; B. 1177-8; A. 60, 2; H. and B. call it a 'potential subjunctive; " A., a "subjunctive of implied condition." Some MSS. read invenies. Naturae, dative limiting deesse. A. & S. 2 223, and Rem. 2; H. 384-5 (or 386, 2); B. 820; A. 50, I. 5. Hominum limits naturae. - Industriam deesse, that industry (or exertion) is wanting. Industriam is subject accusative of deesse, depending upon invenias. A. & S. 8 272; H. 551, I.; B. 1135; A. 52, VI. In translation, the subject of the infinitive is commonly preceded by the word that. 6. Mortalium hominum: a favorite word with Sallust. 7. Via, by the path: instrumental ablative. 8. Pollens, abounding in strength; potens, efficient in the use of one's strength. M. Neque eget, and does not stand in need of fortune and is not dependent on chance. Neque neque, and is often best rendered and not. Fortuna here has reference to forte, in line 2. A. & S. ? 250, (2); H. 419, III.; B. 907; A. 54, VI. 9. Artes, qualities. 10. Cuiquam, from any one. A. & S. 2 224, Rem. 2; H. 386, 2; B. 829; A. 51, V. Potest, sc. fortuna. Some MSS. read quae after quippe.
11-27. Captus, ensnared. 12. Pessum-est, it has been wholly given up. The etymology of pessum is uncertain. In general, pessum dari to be sent to the bottom. "The notion of its meaning 'cast under foot,' as if connected with pes, is derived, perhaps, from the apparent similitude of the words." M. 13. Usus, hav
Page 13 ing enjoyed. 14. Diffluxere, have drifted away. 15. Suam-transferunt, the authors (of the blame) transfer each to circumstances their own blame. With auctores supply culpae. 16. Quod si, but if. Hominibus esset =men had, hominibus being a dative of the possessor. 17. Quanto studio must be rendered as is the zeal with which. Nihil profutura = things that will be of no profit: nihil, accus. of specification. A. & S. ? 234, II.; H. 380; B. 728; A. 52, IV. 18. Regerentur, and esset in line 17, are subjunctives, the latter in protasis, the former in apodosis. A. & S. 2 261, 1; H. 510; B. 1267 ; A. 59, IV. 2. 19. Eo magnitudinis, to such a pitch (or degree) of greatness. A. & S. ? 212; H. 396, III.; B. 771; A. 50, II. 4. 20. Ubi = ut ibi, the preceding eo ad talem gradum; hence fierent is subjunctive of result. A. & S. 2 262; H. 489; B. 1218; A. 65, I. Pro mortalibus, instead of mortal. So D. and M.; but An. renders, "as far as is consistent with mortal lot." The former rendering seems to form a better contrast with gloria aeterni, immortal in renown. 24. Nostra. Observe that while this word agrees only with studia, its force belongs equally to res. Alia, alia, etc. Render, pursue, some the nature of the body, others, etc. 25. Facies, beauty. Ad, in addition to. 26. Hujusce modi hujuscemodi : gen. of description or quality. Brevi, sc. tempore. 27. At, but, emphatically calls the attention to something different and opposed. Madvig, 437, c. Ingeni. Sallust always employs this contracted form of the genitive from nouns of the second declension in ius and ium. Egregia, i. e. e grege, chosen from the flock = choice, excellent, admirable, splendid.
14 1-17. Order: postremo ut (est) initium sic est finis bonorum (of the good things = advantages) corporis et fortunae. 2. Orta that have risen. 3. Senescunt. Cf., "The sun himself shall grow dim with age, and nature sink in years." Cato's Soliloquy. Incorruptus, not "incorrupt," but = not subject to decay, imperishable. 4. Agit, acts upon, grapples with. 5. Quo, wherefore: strictly, ablat. of cause from the relative qui. 6. Per, in. 7. Aetatem agunt, pass their time, live. Ceterum properly signifies as for the rest," being an accus. of specification from ceterus, but is often used in the same sense as sed, but. Z. 349. 8. Quo, than which. A. & S. 2 256, 2; H. 417; B. 895; A. 54, V. Render aliud, nothing, and neque neque, either-or. 10. Cum praesertim, especially hence sint, there are, subjunct. of cause. A. & S. 2 263, 5; H. 517, I.; B. 1251; A. 63, III. 11. Artes animi, occupations for the mind. 12. Ex eis, sc. artibus animi. Magistratus, imperia, civic offices, military offices. 13. Minume, least of all, by no