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Respecting distant invasions, the general testimony of history establishes the principle, that, except where a communication with home can be maintained by land or sea, the consequences have been always humiliating and disastrous, especially in countries where an ungenial climate, physical obstacles and peculiarities, with poverty of soil and absence of refinement, have destroyed invading armies more effectually than actual reverses in the field. Herodotus records, (iii. 134 sq.) that Darius Hystaspes, the second in succession after Cyrus the Great, instigated by his Queen, who represented the necessity of finding occupation for the idle arms of his subjects, crossed the Ister with an army of 700,000 men, and commenced the pursuit of an enemy, protected by a seemingly interminable desert, always within view and never overtaken, and always harassing and breaking the ranks of the Persians when least expected. At length the Scythian King, Idanthyrsus, sent an embassy to the Persian Monarch, with an enigmatical present, consisting of a mouse, a bird, a frog, and five arrows, which a sagacious courtier interpreted as an intimation, that, unless the invaders could hide themselves in the earth, or soar into the air, or dive beneath the water, they must fall by the arrows. After considerable loss, the Persians effected a retreat over the bridge of the Ister, which was kept open by the fidelity of the Ionians, who had been left to guard it.

The same Scythians, (known after their migration eastward as Parthians,) armed with long bows, like those with which the English archers “stitched together” their enemies at Crecy and Halidon Hill, destroyed the army of Crassus, in the deserts of Mesopotamia.

Soon afterwards, Antony, after marching 100,000 men three hundred miles into the desert, and fighting eighteen skirmishes, exclusively of the nature of a guerilla warfare, returned to Armenia, after losing 24,000 men by starvation and the missiles of the enemy.

In a repetition of the same expedition, the Emperor Julian lost his life near Ctesiphon (Al Modain), whence Jovian, who was elected on the spot as his successor, led the fainting remnant of the army to Nisibis, where they met reinforcements, and were saved.

But of all such failures, the most signal and tragical was the retreat of the French army from Moscow, in 1812, when, of 680,500 men, only 20,000 unarmed soldiers found a shelter in Poland; their feet covered with old hats, and their shoulders with pieces of canvass, and the skins of horses torn raw from the flesh- the largest invading army, and the most pitiably defeated, since the time of Cambyses.

The most successful, for a time, of all such schemes of distant conquest, was the progress of the arms of the Crescent in the eighth century. In fifty years after Mohammed's expulsion from Mecca, Constantinople, the capital of the Christian world, was successfully besieged by the Kaliph ; in one hundred years the empire extended from India to the Pyrenees; and in three years after the invasion of Spain, (A. D. 711.) Musa proposed to annex by conquest Germany, Italy, and France. This project was partially carried out by Musa's successor in command, Abderrahman (in 731), who advanced as far as the Loire, where he was met and defeated by Charles le Martel, in the memorable battle of Tours. It was not, however, until 1683, that Europe was definitely relieved from its Mohammedan invaders, by John Sobieski at the battle of Vienna.

The final destruction of Carthage was principally effected by the incessant warnings and remonstrances of Cato, whose enmity is believed to have arisen from some personal insult received in Carthage, when he visited it as an ambassador. On the extinction of the Carthaginian power, the trade which that people had carried on between the west coast of Africa and Europe~exchanging the gold and ivory of the former for the cereal produce of the latter-fell into the hands of the Phocæans of Massilia.






EPITOME. In Italiam belli Punici secundi ortus narratur, et Hannibalis Panorum ducis contra fædus per Iberum amnem transitus, a quo Saguntum, sociorum populi Romani civitas, obsessa octavo mense capta est. De quibus injuriis missi legati ad Carthaginienses, qui quererentur. Quum satisfacere nollent, bellum iis indictum est. Hannibal, superato Pyrenæo saltu, per Gallias, fusis Volscis, qui obsistere conati erant, ad Alpes venit ; et laborioso per eas transitu, quum montanos quoque Gallos obvios aliquot præliis repulisset, descendit in Italiam, et ad Ticinum amnem Romanos equestri prælio fudit: in quo vulneratum P. Cornelium Scipionem protexit filius, qui Africani postea nomen accepit. Iterumque excercitu Romano ad flumen Trebiam fuso, Hannibal Apenninum quoque, per magnam militum vexationem propter vim tempestatum, transiit. Cn. Cornelius Scipio in Hispania contra Pænos prospere pugnavit, duce hostium Magone capto

IN parte operis' mei licet mihi præfari, quod in principio . summæ totius professi plerique sunt? rerum scriptores, bellum maxime omnium memorabile, quæ unquam gesta sint, me scripturum ; quod, Hannibale duce, Carthagi

! In parte operis. ] “ At a section and Smith's Dict. of Biogr. and of my work,” &c. Notwithstanding Mythol.). some discussion on the question, it 2 Quod professi plerique sunt &c.] would appear from the prefatory re- For instance, Sallust, (Preface to marks here, and at the commence- Jugurtha,) and Thucydides, who ments of Books i. and xxxi. (the premises that the war he describes beginning of sli. having been lost,) μέγαν τε έσεσθαι, και αξιολογώτατον that Livy intended to divide his των προγεγενημένων. . work into Decades. (See Niebuhr,

nienses cum populo Romano gessere. Nam neque validiores opibus ullæ inter se civitates gentesque contulerunt arma, neque his ipsis tantum unquam virium aut roboris fuit: et haud ignotas: belli artes inter se, sed expertas primo Punico conserebant bello: et adeo varia belli fortuna ancepsque Mars fuit, ut propius periculum fuerint, qui vicerunt. Odiis* etiam prope majoribus certarunt, quam viribus: Romanis indignantibus, quod victoribus victi ultro inferrent arma; Ponis, quod superbe avareque crederent imperitatum victis esse. Fama etiam est, Hannibalem annorum ferme novem, pueriliter blandientem patri Hamilcari, ut duceretur in Hispaniam, quum, perfecto Africo bello, exercitum eo trajecturus sacrificaret, altaribus admotum, tactis sacris jurejurando adactum, se, quum primum posset, hostem fore populo Romano. Angebant ingentis spiritus virum Sicilia Sardiniaque amissæ*: nam et Sicilian nimis celeri desperatione rerum concessam, et Sardiniam inter motum Africæ fraude Romanorum, stipendio etiam insuper imposito, interceptam. His anxius curis ita se Africo bello?, quod fuit sub recentem Romanam pacem, per


3 Et haud ignotas &c.] “ They to the Romans. The foreign posalso brought to the contest military sessions of Carthage, before the first resources not mutually (inter se) Punic war, were, the Baleares, Corunknown, but tested in the first sica, Sardinia, and some smaller Punic war.

islands in the Mediterranean, the 4 Odiis &c.] “The animosity with southern parts of Italy and Spain, which they contended was almost some settlements on the western greater than their strength.”

coast of Africa, the Insulæ Fortu5 Pueriliter blandientem. “Urg. natæ (Canaries ), and Madeira. ing his father with childish caresses, Àfrico bello.] This, called by (or childish enthuiasm.)”

historians inexpiabile bellum, was a 6 Sicilia Sardiniaque amissæ.] civil war against Carthage, on the “ The loss of Sicily and Sardinia part of the Numidians and other was vexatious to a proud-spirited mercenaries, who had supplied conman; for (he considered) that Sicily tingents in the Roman (first Punic) on the one hand (et) had been aban- war, and complained of not having doned in premature despair of the received their stipulated pay. On cause (rerum), and, on the other this occasion the insurgents actually (et), that Sardinia” &c. These had took Carthage, and sold into slavery been lost by Carthage in the first a considerable number of the children Punic war. The terms on which of the nobility. One of these was peace was concluded were, the eva- the comic poet, Terence, who was cuation of Sicily; the surrender of purchased by the distinguished Roall prisoners of war without ransom; man whose family name he assumed, the payment of 3000 talents of silver as usual, on his manumission. (about £600,000); the exclusion of The Carthaginians, being a wealthy Carthage from all islands about and mercantile community, like the Italy and Sicily; and mutual non- Venetians and Genoese of later interference with allies. After the times, generally employed mercesecond Punic war, the Carthaginians nary troops in their wars; and were abandoned all their territories out therefore under considerable disadof Africa, and surrendered their fleet vantage, as compared with the Ro

quinque annos, ita deinde novem annis in Hispania augendo Punico imperio gessit, ut appareret, majus eum, quam quod gereret, agitare in animo bellum: et, si diutius vixisset, Hamilcare duce 8 Pænos arma Italiæ illaturos fuisse, qui Hannibalis ductu intulerunt. Mors Hamilcaris peropportuna et pueritia Hannibalis distulerunt bellum. Medius Hasdrubal inter patrem et filium octo ferme annos imperium obtinuit; flore ætatis, uti ferunt, primo Hamilcari conciliatus: gener inde ob altam indolem provecto annis ascitus, et, quia gener erat, factionis Barcinæ opibus, quæ apud milites plebemque plus quam modicæ erant, haud sane voluntate principum, imperio potitus. Is, plura consilio, quam vi, gerens, hospitiis regulorum magis, conciliandisque per amicitiam principum novis gentibus, quam bello aut armis, rem Carthaginiensem auxit. Ceterum nihilo ei pax tutior fuit. Barbarus eum quidam palam, ob iram interfecti ab eo domini, obtruncavit; comprehensusque ab circumstantibus haud alio, quam si evasisset, vultu, tormentis quoque quum laceraretur, eo fuit habitu oris, ut, superante lætitia dolores, ridentis etiam speciem præbuerit. Cum hoc Hasdrubale', quia miræ artis in sollicitandis gentibus, imperioque jungendis suo fuerat, fædus renovaverat populus Romanus, ut finis utriusque imperii esset amnis Iberus, Saguntinisquemediis inter imperia duorum populorum

mans, among whom every citizen his three sons, Hannibal the Great, was a soldier. It was during those Hasdrubal, and Mago, and his sondomestic troubles that a threatened in-law Hasdrubal. The leader of renewal of hostilities compelled them the opposite (aristocratic) faction, at to give up Sardinia, not included in this time, was Hanno; and it was the original treaty, and increase the by the jealousy and machinations of indemnity by 1000 silver talents. this party that Hannibal was ba

8 Hamilcare duce, &c.] “That nished on the conclusion of the second the Carthaginians would have carried Punic war. The name Barca war into Italy under the command (Hebrew, Varak) literally signifies of Hamilcar, as (qui) they did,” &c. " a thunderbolt.” It is probably in The general here mentioned was the same sense that Virgil calls Hamilcar Barca. Two others of the Scipios fulmina belli. the same name had previously com- 1 Cum hoc Hasdrubale.] In order manded the armies of Carthage; to retain the emphasis which the the son of Mago, defeated and slain arrangement of words, in the oriby Gelon of Syracuse, (B.C. 480;) ginal, lends to the proper name, we and the son of Gisco, who was killed must translate, “It was with this in an assault on Syracuse during the Hasdrubal, because he possessed absence of Agathocles in Africa, singular address in conciliating,” (B.C. 309.) This Hamilcar had &c. fallen in battle with the Vetrones, one 2 Saguntinisque.) “ And that the of the most warlike Spanish tribes. liberties of the Saguntines, who lay

9 Factionis Barcinæ.] This was between the dominions of both nathe democratic party, headed by the tions, should be guaranteed.” The Barca family, whose most distin- name Saguntum (now Murviedro) guished members were Hamilcar, is a corruption of that of Zacynthus,

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