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Adulari ei, v. eum, to flatter. Allabi oris; aures ejus, Virg. ad exta, Liv.
Dominari cunctis oris, Virg. in cætera animalia, to rule over. Ovid.
Ignoscere mihi, culpæ meæ, mihi culpam, to pardon me or my fault.
Impendere alicui, aliquem, in aliquem, to hang over.
Incessit cura, cupido, timor ei, eum, v. in eum, seized.
Incumbere toro; gladium, in gladium, to fall upon; labori, ad laudem, ad studia, in studium, curam, cogitationem, &c. to apply to.
Indulgere alicui, id ei; nimio vestitu, to indulge in, Ter.
Inhiare auro, bona ejus, to gape after. Innasci agris, in agris, to grow in.
Insultare rei et homini, v. hominem; fores; patientiam ejus, in miseriam ejus; bonos, to insult over.
Latet res mihi, v. me, is unknown to me. Mederi ei; cupiditates, to cure.
Moderari animo, gentibus: navim, omnia, to rule.
Nocere ei, rarely eum, to hurt, Plaut.
Nubere alicui; in familiam; Nupta ei and cum eo, to marry, Cic.
Obstrepere auribus and aures. Obtrectare ei laudibus, ejus, to detract from.
To these may be added verbs, which, chiefly among the poets, govern the dative; but in prose are usually construed with a preposition; as, 1. Contendo, certo, bello, pugno, concurro, coeo alicui, for cum aliquo; 2. Distare, dissentire, discrepare, dissidere, differre rei alicui, for à re aliqua. We also say, Contendunt, pugnant, distant, &c. inter se; and contendere, pugnare contra and adversus aliquem.
OBS. 4. Many verbs vary both their signification and construction; as, Timeo, metuo, formido, horreo tibi, de te, and pro te, I am afraid for you, or for your safety; but timeo, horreo te, v. a te, I fear or dread you as an enemy; So Consulo, prospicio, caveo tibi, hoc, I foresee this; Studere aliquid, to desire; alicui, to favour; alicui rei, rem, and in re, to apply to a thing. So mulor tibi, I envy; te, I imitate; Ausculto tibi, I obey or listen to; te, I hear; Cupio tibi, I favour; rem, I desire; Fonero and -or tibi, I lend you on interest; abs te, I borrow; Metuisti, ne non tibi istuc fœneraret, should not return with interest, or bring usury, Ter. And thus many other verbs, which will be afterwards explained.
OBS. 5. Verbs signifying Motion or Tendency to a thing are construed with the preposition ad; as,
Eo, vado, curro, propero, festino, pergo, fugio, tendo, vergo, inclino, &c. ad locum, rem, v. hominem. Sometimes, however, in the poets they are construed with the dative; as, It clamor cælo, for ad cælum, Virg.
XXXVII. Recordor, memini, reminiscor, and obliviscor, govern the accusative or genitive; as,
Recordor lectionis or lectionem,
I remember the lesson.
OBS. 1. These verbs are often construed with the infinitive, or some part of a sentence; as, Memini videre virginem, Ter. Oblitus est, quid paulo ante possuisset, Cic.
OBS. 2. Memini, when it signifies to make mention, is joined with the genitive, or the ablative with the preposition de; as, Memini alicujus, vel de aliquo. So recordor, when it signifies to recollect; as, Velim scire ecquid de te recordere, Cic.
4. Verbs governing the Ablative.
XXXVIII. Verbs of abounding and wanting, govern the ablative, and sometimes the genitive; as,
He abounds in riches.
Verbs of plenty are, Abundo, affluo, exubéro, redundo, suppedito, scateo, &c.—of want, Careo, egeo, indigeo, vaco, deficior, destituor, &c.
OBS. 1. Egeo and indigeo frequently govern the genitive; as, Eget æris, He needs money, Hor. Non tam artis indigent, quàm laboris, Cic.
OBS. 2. The ablative after these verbs is governed by some preposition understood; and sometimes we find it expressed; as, Vacat a culpa, he is free from fault, Liv.
XXXIX. Utor, abutor, fungor, fruor, potior, vescor, and some others, govern the ablative; as,
Utitur fraude, He uses deceit. Abutitur libris, He abuses books.
To these add, gaudeo, creor, nascor, fido, vivo, victito, consto, labōro, for male me habeo, to be ill ; pascor, epulor, nitor, &c.
OBS. 1. Potior often governs the genitive; as, Potiri urbis, Sall. And we always say, Potiri rerum, to possess the chief command, never rebus; imperio being understood.
OBS. 2. Potior, fungor, vescor, epulor, and pascor, sometimes have an accusative; as, Potiri urbem, Cic. Officia fungi, Ter. Munera fungi, Tacit. Pascuntur silvas, Virg. And in ancient writers, utor, abutor, and fruor; as, Uti consilium, Plaut. Operam abutitur, Ter. Depasco and depascor, always take an accusative; as, Depascitur artus, Virg.
XL. A verb compounded with a preposition, often governs the case of that preposition; as,
Let us go to the school.
OBS. 1. The preposition with which the word is compounded, is often repeated; as, Adire ad scholam; Exire ex schola; Aggredi aliquid, or ad aliquid; ingredi orationem, or in orationem inducere animum, and in animum; evadere undis and ex undis; decedere de suo jure, decedere viâ or de via; expellere, ejicere, exterminare, extrudere, exturbare urbe, and ex urbe. Some do not repeat the preposition; as, Affari, alloqui, allatrare aliquem, not ad aliquem. So Alluere urbem; accolere flumen; circumvenire aliquem; præterire injuriam; abdicare se magistratu, (also abdicare magistratum ;) transducere exercitum fluvium, &c. Others are only construed with the preposition; as, Accurrere ad aliquem, adhortari ad aliquid, incidere in morbum, avocare a studiis, avertere ab incepto, &c.
Some admit other prepositions: as, Abire, demigrare loco; and a, de, ex loco; abstrahere aliquem a, de, vel e conspectu; Desistere sententiâ, a vel de sententia; Excidere manibus, de, vel e manibus, &c. OBS. 2. Some verbs compounded with e or ex govern either the ablative or accusative; as, Egredi urbe or urbem, sc. extra; egredi extra vallum, Nep. Evadere insidiis, or insidias. Patrios excedere muros, Lucan. Sceleratâ excedere terrâ, Virg. Elabi ex manibus; pugnam, vincula, Tac. OBS. 3. This rule does not take place, unless when the preposition may be disjoined from the verb, and put before the noun by itself; as, Alloquor patrem, or loquor ad patrem.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE INFINITIVE.
XLI. The infinitive mood may be governed by a verb, participle, adjective, or noun; as,
Cupio discere, I desire to learn.
OB3. 1. The infinitive is often governed by adjectives; as, Horatius est dignus legi, Quinctil. And sometimes depends on a substantive; as, Tempus, equum fumantia solvere colla, Virg.
OBS. 2. The word governing the infinitive is sometimes understood; as, Mene incepto desistere victam, scil. decet, or par est, Virg. Videre est, one may see. Dicere non est, scil. copia, or facultas, Horat. And sometimes the infinitive itself is to be supplied; as, Socratem fidibus docuit, scil. canere, Cic. So Discere, scire, fidibus.
OBS. 3. The infinitive was not improperly called by the ancients Nomen verbi, the name or noun of the verb; because it is both joined with an adjective like a substantive; as, Velle suum cuique est, Every one has a will of his own; and likewise supplies the place of a noun, not only in the nominative, but also in all the oblique cases; as, 1. In the nominative, Latrocinari, fraudare, turpe est, Cic. Didicisse fideliter artes emollit mores, Ovid. 2. In the genitive, Peritus cantare for cantandi, or cantûs, Virg. 3. In the dative, Paratus servire, for servituti, Sall. 4. In the accusative, Da mihi fallere, for artem fallendi, Horat. Quod faciam superest, præter amare, nihil, Ovid. 5. In the vocative. O vivere nostrum, ut non sentientibus effluis! for vita nostra. 6. In the ablative, Dignus amari, for amore, or qui ametur, Virg.
OBS. 4. Instead of the infinitive, a different construction is often used after verbs of doubting, willing, ordering, fearing, hoping; in short, after any verb which has a relation to futurity; as, Dubitat ita facere, or more frequently, an, num, or utrum ita facturus sit; Dubitavit an faceret necne, Non dubito quin fecerit. Vis me facere, or ut faciam. Metuit tangi, or ne tangatur. Spero te venturum esse, or fore ut venias. Nunquam putavi fore ut ad te supplex venirem, Cic. Existimabant futurum fuisse ut oppidum amitteretur, Cæs.
OBS. 5. To, which in English is the sign of the infinitive, is omitted after bid, dare, need, make, see, hear, feel, and some others; as, I bid him do it; and in Latin may often be rendered otherwise than by the infinitive; as, I am sent to complain, Mittor questum, or ut querar, &c. Ready to hear, Promptus ad audiendum; Time to read, Tempus legendi ; Fit to swim, Aptus natando; Easy to say, Facile dictu; I am to write, Scripturus sum; A house to let, or more properly, to be let, Domus locanda; He was left to guard the city, Relictus est ut tueretur urbem.
Accusative before the Infinitive.
XLII. When quod, quin, ut, or ne, is omitted in Latin, the word, which would otherwise be in the nominative, is put in the accusative, and the verb in the infinitive mood; as,
Gaudeo te valere, I am glad that you are well.
OBS. 1. The particle that in English, is the sign of the accusative before the infinitive in Latin, when it comes between two verbs without expressing intention or design. Sometimes the particle is omitted; as, Aiunt regem adventare, They say the king is coming, that being understood.
OBS. 2. The accusative before the infinitive always depends upon some other verb, commonly on a neuter or substantive verb; but seldom on a verb taken in an active sense.
OBS. 3. The infinitive, with the accusative before it, seems sometimes to supply the place of a nominative; as, Turpe est militem fugere, That a soldier should fly is a shameful thing.
OBS. 4. The infinitive esse or fuisse, must frequently be supplied; especially after participles; as, Hostium exercitum casum fusumque cognovi, Cic. Sometimes both the accusative and infinitive are understood; as, Pollicitus suscepturum, scil. me esse, Ter.
OBS. 5. The infinitive may frequently be otherwise rendered by the conjunctions, quod, ut, ne, or quin; as, Gauleo le valere, i. e. quod valeas, or propter tuam bonam valetudinem; Jubeo vos bene sperare, or ut bene speretis; Prohibeo eum exire, or ne exeat; non dubito eum fecisse, or much better, quin fecerit. Scio quod filius amet, Plaut. for filium amare. Miror si potuit, for eum potuisse, Cic. Nemo dubitat, ut populus Romanus omnes virtute superàrit, for populum Romanum superasse, Nep. Ex animi sententia juro, ut ego rempublicam non deseram, for me non deserturum esse, Liv. xxii. 53.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS, AND SUPINES.
XLIII. Participles, gerunds, supines, and adverbs, govern the same case as the words from which they are derived; as,
Amans virtutem, Loving virtue. Carens fraude, Wanting guile.
OBS. 1. Passive participles often govern the dative, particularly when they are used as adjectives; as,
Suspectus mihi, Suspected by me; Suspectiores regibus, Sall. Invisus mihi, hated by me, or hateful to me; Indies invisior, Suet. Occulla, et maribus non invisa solum, sed etiam inaudita sacra, unseen, Cic.
EXOSUS, PEROSUS, and often also PERTÆSUS, govern the accusative; as, Tadas exosa jugales, Ovid. Plebs consulum nomen haud secus quam regum perosa erat, Liv. Pertæsus ignariam suam; semet ipse, displeased with, Suet. vilam, weary of, Justin. levitatis, Cic.
Verbals in BUNDUS govern the case of their own verbs; as, Gratulabundus patriæ, Just. Vilabundus castra hostium, Liv. So sometimes also nouns; as, Justitia est obtemperatio scriptis legibus, Cic. Insidia consuli, Sall. Domum reditionis spe sublata, Cæs. Spectatio ludos, Plaut.
OBS. 2. These verbs do, reddo, volo, curo, facio, habeo, comperio, with the perfect participle, form a periphrasis similar to what we use in English; as, Compertum habeo, for comperi, I have found, Sall. Effectum dabo, for efficiam; Inventum tibi curabo, et adductum tuum Pamphilum, i. e. inreniam et adducam, Ter. Sometimes the gerund is used with ad; as, Tradere ei gentes diripiendas, or ad diripiendum, Cic. Rogo, accipio, do aliquid utendum; or ad utendum; or Misit mihi librum legendum, or ad legendum, &c.
OBS. These verbs, curo, habeo, mando, loco, conduco, do, tribuo, mitto, &c. are elegantly construed with the participle in dus instead of the infinitive; as, Funus faciendum curavi, for fieri, or ut fieret; Columnas ædificandas locavit, Cic.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF GErunds.
OBS. Gerunds are construed like substantive nouns; as,
Studendum est mihi, I must study.
Fit for studying.
Tempus studendi, Time of study. Scio studendum esse mihi, I know that I must study. XLIV. The gerund in dum, of the nominative, with the verb est, governs the dative; as,
Legendum est mihi, I must read. Moriendum est omnibus, All must die.
So Scio legendum est mihi; moriendum esse omnibus, &c.
OBS. 1. This gerund always imports obligation or necessity; and may be resolved into oportet, necesse est, or the like, and the infinitive or the subjunctive, with the conjunction ut; as, Omnibus est moriendum, or Omnibus necesse est mori, or ut moriantur; or Necesse est ut omnes moriantur. Consulendum est tibi a me, I must consult for your good; for Oportet ut consulam tibi, Cic.
OBS. 2. The dative is often understood; as, Orandum est, ut sit mens sana in corpore sano, sc. tibi, Juv. Hic vincendum, aut moriendum, milites, est, sc. vobis, Liv. Deliberandum est diu, quod statuendum est semel, sc. libi vel alicui, P. Syr.
XLV. The gerund in di, of the genitive, is governed by nouns, or adjectives; as,
Tempus legendi, Time of reading.
Cupidus discendi, Desirous of learning.
OBS. This gerund is sometimes construed with the genitive plural; as, Facultas agrorum con. donandi, for agros, Cic. Copia spectandi comœdiarum, for comedias, Ter. But chiefly with pronouns; as, In castra venerunt sui purgandi causâ, Cæs. Vestri adhortandi causa, Liv. Ejus ridendi cupidus, sc. fœminæ, Ter. The gerund here is supposed to govern the genitive like a substantive
XLVI. The gerund in do, of the dative, is governed by adjectives signifying usefulness, or fitness, &c.; as,
Charta utilis scribendo, Paper useful for writing.
QBS. 1. Sometimes the adjective is understood; as, Non est solvendo, scil. par, or habilis, He is not able to pay. Is finis censendo factus est, Liv.
OBS. 2. This gerund is sometimes governed also by verbs; as, Adesse scribendo, Cic. Aptat habendo ensem, for wearing, Virg.
XLVII. The gerund in dum, of the accusative, is governed by the prepositions ad, ob, inter, ante, propter; as,
Promptus ad audiendum,
OBS. This gerund is also governed by some other prepositions; as, Circa movendum, Quinctil. Or it depends on some verb going before, and then with the verb esse governs the dative case; as, Scio moriendum esse omnibus, I know that all must die. Esse is often understood.
Ready to hear.
Attentive in time of teaching.
XLVIII. The gerund in do, of the ablative, is governed by the prepositions a, ab, de, e, ex, in; or without a preposition, as the ablative of cause, means,
or manner; as,
Pana a peccando absterret, Punishment frightens from sinning.
Memoria excolendo augetur, The memory is improved by exercising it.
OBS. The gerund in its nature very much resembles the infinitive. Hence the one is frequently put for the other; as, Est tempus legendi, or legere: only the gerund is never joined with an adjective, and is sometimes taken in a passive sense; as, Cum Tisidum vocaretur ad imperandum, i. e. ut ipsi imperetur, to receive orders, Sall. Nunc ades ad imperandum, vel ad parendum potius, Sic enim antiqui loquebantur, Cic. i. e. ut tibi imperetur. Urit videndo, i. e. dum videtur, Virg.
Gerunds turned into participles in dus.
OBS. 1. Gerunds governing the accusative are elegantly turned into participles in dus, which, like adjectives, agree with their substantives in gender, number, and case; as,
By the Participle or Gerundive.
OBS. 2. In changing gerunds into participles in dus, the participle and the substantive are always to be put in the same case in which the gerund was; as,
Genitive. Inita sunt consilia urbis delendæ, civium trucidandorum, nominis Romani extinguendi, Cic.
Dative. Perpetiendo labori idoneus, Colum. Capessendæ reipublicæ habilis, Tac. Area firma templis ac porticibus sustinendis, Liv. Oneri ferendo est, sc. aptus v. habilis, Ovid. Natus miseriis ferendis, Ter. Literis dandis vigilare, Cic. Locum oppido condendo capere, Liv.
Acc. and Ablative. Ad defendendam Romam ab oppugnanda Capua duces Romanos abstrahere, Liv. Orationem Latinam legendis nostris efficies pleniorem, Cic.
OBS. 3. The gerunds of verbs which do not govern the accusative, are never changed into the participle, except those of medeor, utor, abutor, fruor, fungor, and potior; as, Spes potiundi urbe, or potiundæ urbis; but we always say, Cupidus subveniendi tibi, and never tui.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF SUPINES.
1. The Supine in um.
XLIX. The supine in um, is put after a verb of motion; as,
By the Gerund.
So Ducere cohortes prædatum, Liv. Nunc venis irrisum dominum? Quod in rem tuam optimum factu arbitror, te id admonitum venio, Plaut.
OBS. 1. The supine in um is elegantly joined with the verb eo, to express the signification of any verb more strongly; as, It se perditum, the same with id agit, or operam dat, ut se perdat, He is bent on his own destruction, Ter. This supine with iri taken impersonally, supplies the place of the infinitive passive; as, An credebas illam sine tuâ operâ iri deductum domum? Which may be thus resolved, An credebas iri (a te vel ab aliquo) deductum (i. e. ad deducendum) illam, domum, Ter. OBS. 2. The supine in um is put after other verbs besides verbs of motion; as, Dedit filiam nuptum; Cantatum provocemus, Ter. Revocatus defensum patriam; Divisit copias hiematum, Nep.
OBS. 3. The meaning of this supine may be expressed by several other parts of the verb; as, Venit oratum opem: or 1. Venit opem orandi causâ, or opis oranda. 2. Venit ad orandum opem, or ad orandam opem. 3. Venit opi oranda. 4. Venit opem oraturus. 5. Venit qui, or ut opem oret. 6. Venit opem orare. But the third and the last of these are seldom used.
2. The Supine in u.
L. The supine in u, is put after an adjective; as,
So Nihil dictu fædum, visuque hæc limina tangat; intra quæ puer est, Juv. Difficilis res est inventu verus amicus; Fas v. nefas est dictu; Opus est scitu. Cic.
OBS. 1. The supine in u being used in a passive sense, hardly ever governs any case. It is some. times, especially in old writers, put after verbs of motion; as, Nunc obsonatu redeo, from getting provisions, Plaut. Primus cubitu surgat, (villicus) from bed, postremus cubitum eat, Cato.
OBS. 2. This supine may be rendered by the infinitive, or gerund with the preposition ad; as, Difficile cognitu, cognosci, or ad cognoscendum; Res facilis ad credendum, Cic.
OBS. 3. The supines being nothing else but verbal nouns of the fourth declension, used only in the accusative and ablative singular, are governed in these cases by prepositions understood; the supine in um by the preposition ad, and the supine in u by the preposition in.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCUMSTANCES.
The circumstances, which in Latin are expressed in different cases, are, 1. The Price of a thing. 2. The Cause, Manner, and Instrument. 3. Measure and Distance. 4. Time.
LI. Nouns, signifying the price of a thing, are put in the ablative; as,
Emi librum duobus assibus,
So Asse carum est; vile viginti minis; auro venale, &c. Nocet empta dolore voluptas, Hor. Spem pretio non emam, Ter. Plurimi auro veneunt honores, Ovid.
¶ These genitives, tanti, quanti, pluris, minoris, are excepted; as,
Quanti constitit, How much cost it? Asse et pluris, A shilling and more.
OBS. 1. When the substantive is added, they are put in the ablative; as, părvo pretio, impenso pretio vendere, Cic.
OBS. 2. Magno, permagno, parvo, paululo, minimo, plurimo, are often used without the substantive; as, Permagno constitit, scil. pretio, Cic. Heu quanto regnis nox stetit una tuis? Ovid. Fast ii. 812. We also say, Emi carè, cariùs, carissimè; bene, meliùs, optimè; malè, pejùs, viliùs, vilissimė Valde carè æstimas: Emit domum prope dimidio carius, quàm æstimabat, Cic.
OBS. 3. The ablative of price is properly governed by the preposition pro understood, which is likewise sometimes expressed; as, Dum pro argenteis decem aureus unus valeret, Liv.
2. MANNER AND CAUSE.
LII. Nouns, signifying the instrument, cause, means, or manner, are put in the ablative; as,
I am pale for fear,
So Ardet dolore; pallescere culpâ; æstuare dubitatione; gestire voluptate vel sccundis rebus: Confectus morbo; affectus beneficiis, gravissimo supplicio; insignis pietate; deterior licentia: Pietate filius, consiliis pater, amore frater; hence Rex Dei gratiâ. Paritur pax bello, Nep. Procedere lento gradu; Acceptus regio apparatu: Nullo sono convertitur annus, Juv. Jam veniet tacito curva senecta pede, Ovid. Percutere securi, defendere saxis, configere sagittis, &c.
OBS. 1. The ablative is here governed by some prepositions understood. Before the manner and cause, the preposition is sometimes expressed; as, De more matrum locuta est, Virg. Magno cum metu; Hac de causa; Præ mærore; formidine, &c. Eut hardly ever before the instrument; as, Vulnerare aliquem gladio, not cum gladio: unless among the poets, who sometimes add a or ab; as, Trajectus ab ense, Ovid.
OBS. 2. When any thing is said to be in company with another, it is called the ablative of Concomitancy, and has the preposition cum usually added, as, Obsedit curiam cum gladiis; Ingressus est cum gladio, Cic.
OBS. 3. Under this rule are comprehended several other circumstances; as the matter of which any thing is made, and what is called by grammarians the ADJUNCT, that is, a noun in the ablative joined to a verb or adjective, to express the character or quality of the person or thing spoken of; as, Capitolium saxo quadrato constructum, Liv. Floruit acumine ingenii, Cic. Pollet opibus, valet armis, viget memoria, famâ nobilis, &c. Eger pedibus. When we express the matter of which any thing is made, the preposition is usually added; as, Templum de marmore, seldom marmoris; Poculum ex auro factum, Cic.
3. MEASURE AND DISTANCE.
LIII. Nouns, signifying measure, or distance, are put in the accusative— sometimes in the ablative; as,
The wall is ten feet high.
The city is thirty miles distant.
OBS. 1. The accusative or ablative of measure is put after adjectives and verbs of dimension; as, Longus, latus, crassus, profundus, and altus: Patet, porrigitur, eminet, &c. The names of measure
Murus est decem pedes altus,
Urbs distat triginta millia, or triginta }
Iter, or itinere unius diei,