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Addita superbia

tis indignior ac miserabilior esset. ipsius regis miseriaeque et labores plebis in fossas cloacasque exhauriendas demersae: Romanos homines, vicStone. Cutters tores omnium circa populorum, opifices ac lapicidas pro 10 bellatoribus factos. Indigna Servi Tulli regis memorata caedes et invecta corpori patris nefando vehiculo filia, 1 invocatique ultores parentum dii. His atrocioribusque credo aliis, quae praesens rerum indignitas haudquaquam relatu scriptoribus facilia subicit, memoratis incensam multitudinem perpulit, ut imperium regi abrogaret exsulesque esse iuberet L. Tarquinium cum coniuge ac libe12 ris. Ipse iunioribus, qui ultro nomina dabant, lectis armatisque ad concitandum inde adversus regem exerci tum Ardeam in castra est profectus; imperium in urbe Lucretio, praefecto urbis iam ante ab rege instituto, 13 relinquit. Inter hunc tumultum Tullia domo profugit exsecrantibus quacumque incedebat invocantibusque parentum furias viris mulieribusque.

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60 Harum rerum nuntiis in castra perlatis, cum re nova trepidus rex pergeret Romam ad comprimendos motus,

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9. fossas: the smaller drains. exhauriendas: not merely digging dry earth, but clearing out mud and filth; hence also demersae, to intensify the picture. omnium circa: cf. circa, 58. 2 n.- opifices, etc. these artisans were of the lowest classes, and so it was a degradation to be placed among them as compared with soldiers.

10. dii: not any particular gods, but such as might take it on themselves; cf., however, 13, where there is a slightly different conception.

II. indignitas: in the same sense as in 59. 3; but the Latin, it must

be remembered, does not distinguish between indignity and

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senserat enim adventum

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flexit viam Brutus vius fieret; eodemque fere tempore diversis itineribus `Brutus Ardeam, Tarquinius Romam venerunt. Tarquinio clausae portae exsiliumque indictum; liberatorem urbis laetà castra accepere, exactique inde liberi regis; duo patrem secuti sunt, qui exsulatum Caere in Etruscos ierunt; Sextus Tarquinius Gabios, tamquam in suum regnum, profectus, ab ultoribus veterum simultatium, quas sibi ipse caedibus rapinisque concierat, est interfectus.

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L. Tarquinius Superbus regnavit annos quinque et 3 viginti. Regnatum Romae ab condita urbe ad liberatam annos ducentos quadraginta quattuor. Duo consules 4 inde comitiis centuriatis a praefecto urbis ex commentariis Servi Tulli creati sunt, L. Iunius Brutus et L. Tarquinius Collatinus.

camp reads like a novel, as the whole doubtless is.

3. ab condita, etc.: cf. degeneratum, 53. I. This construction is more deeply rooted in Latin than at first appears; cf. castigator, 59. 4n, and the gerundive construction.

4. a praefecto urbis, etc.: again an effort to give a show of regularity to the proceedings; the auspices and imperium are thus continued. - ex commentariis: i.e. according to forms of election prescribed by him in his constitution.

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TITI LIVI

AB VRBE CONDITA

LIBER II.

Liberi iam hinc populi Romani res pace belloque ges tas, annuos magistratus, imperiaque legum potentiora 2 quam hominum peragam. Quae libertas ut laetior esset, proximi regis superbia fecerat. Nam priores ita regnarunt ut haud immerito omnes deinceps conditores partium certe urbis, quas novas ipsi sedes ab se auctae 3 multitudinis addiderunt, numerentur. Neque ambigitur quin Brutus idem, qui tantum gloriae Superbo exacto rege meruit, pessimo publico id facturus fuerit, si libertatis immaturae cupidine priorum regum alicui regnum 4 extorsisset. Quid enim futurum fuit, si illa pastorum convenarumque plebs, transfuga ex suis populis, sub tutela inviolati templi aut libertatem aut certe impunitatem adepta, soluta regio metu, agitari coepta esset tribu

BEGINNING OF THE REPUBLIC.

1. liberi: the emphasis marks the division of the new era from the old. iam hinc: with peragam in grammatical construction, but its position adds to the emphasis of liberi, and connects the adverbial idea more closely with the new state of things.

2. nam introducing the suggestion of the tyranny of the last king, who alone of all did nothing which could be counted as an addition to

the city. The whole is intended

to show that the republic came in just at the right time; hence neque,

etc.

3. pessimo publico: here pessimo as substantive is modified by publico; cf. bono publico, 44. 3. facturus fuerit: representing fecisset in the direct statement without quin; see Gr. 517. d, and cf. 589. b.

4. futurum fuit: see Gr. 517. d. regio: see Gr. 348. a. — tribuniciis here Livy is thinking of the later republic, when the tri

niciis procellis et in aliena urbe cum patribus serere certamina, priusquam pignora coniugum ac liberorum 5 caritasque ipsius soli, cui longo tempore adsuescitur, animos eorum consociasset? Dissipatae res nondum 6 adultae discordia forent; quas fovit tranquilla moderatio imperii eoque nutriendo perduxit, ut bonam frugem libertatis maturis iam viribus ferre possent.

Libertatis autem originem inde magis, quia annuum 7 imperium consulare factum est, quam quod deminutum quicquam sit ex regia potestate, numeres: omnia iura, 8 omnia insignia primi consules tenuere; id modo cautum est, ne si ambo fasces haberent, duplicatus terror videretur. Brutus prior concedente collega fasces habuit, qui non acrior vindex libertatis fuerat quam deinde custos fuit. Omnium primum avidum novae libertatis popu- 9 lum, ne postmodum flecti precibus aut donis regiis posset, iure iurando adegit neminem Romae passuros regnare. Deinde, quo plus virium in senatu frequentia etiam 10 ordinis faceret, caedibus regis deminutum patrum numerum primoribus equestris gradus lectis ad trecentorum summam explevit. Traditumque inde fertur, ut in se- 11 natum vocarentur qui patres quique conscripti essent:

bunes were the agents of all popular disturbance.

6. res: i.e. the power of the state.- moderatio, the restraint, put upon the strong democracy. frugem: the figure all along is one of vegetable and animal growth.

7. libertatis: its emphasis refers back to liberi, at the beginning: 'but of this freedom, however,' etc.

- quod deminutum sit: see Gr. 540. N. 3.-numeres: see Gr. 447.2.

8. iura: the consuls had all the

power of the king. insignia: chiefly the fasces, but also including

the robes and the sella curulis.· fasces: only one at a time had these symbols of the power of life and death. vindex: properly of the formal claimant of a slave in his suit for freedom; hence here champion.

9. avidum, while jealous; i.e. in their first enthusiasm.

10. etiam: i.e. by mere numbers as well as prominence in the state. - caedibus: cf. I. 54. 8. trecentorum: cf. I. 35. 6.

II. ut: because traditum contains the idea of a custom or law.

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conscriptos videlicet in novum senatum appellabant lectos. Id mirum quantum profuit ad concordiam civitatis iungendosque patribus plebis animos.

Rerum deinde divinarum habita cura; et quia quaedam publica sacra per ipsos reges factitata erant, necubi 2 regum desiderium esset, regem sacrificulum creant. Id sacerdotium pontifici subiecere, ne additus nomini honos aliquid libertati, cuius tunc prima erat cura, officeret. Ac nescio an nimis undique eam minimisque rebus mu3 niendo modum excesserint. Consulis enim alterius, cum nihil aliud offenderit, nomen invisum civitati fuit: nimium Tarquinios regno adsuesse. Initium a Prisco factum; regnasse dein Ser. Tullium; ne intervallo quidem facto oblitum tanquam alieni regni Superbum Tarquinium velut hereditatem gentis scelere ac vi repetisse; pulso Superbo penes Collatinum imperium esse. Nescire Tarquinios privatos vivere. Non placere nomen, peri4 culosum libertati esse. Hinc primo sensim temptantium animos sermo per totam civitatem est datus, sollicitam5 que suspicione plebem Brutus ad contionem vocat. Ibi omnium primum ius iurandum populi recitat neminem

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of time, the reign of Tullius, which broke the continuity of the Tarquin dynasty. tanquam alieni, as belonging not to him, but to the people.

4. temptantium: of the first cautious suggestions of the malcontents to try the temper of the people. sollicitam: i.e. their minds were disturbed by the talk as it spread, so that it became necessary to do something.

5. foret: characteristic subjunctive. id: i.e. the oath and the principle it contained. - dicturum fuisse see Gr. 589. b. 2.- -vinceret: overcome, and so force him.

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