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Haec, these things, i. e., all these things which we see, buildings, temples, and, in fine, the city and state itself.

IX., X.- Catiline is incorrigible. He will go, not into
Exile, but to the Camp of Manlius.

35. Quamquam, and yet, indicating a sudden transition in the course of thought. G. 515, III., note 2. Ut frangat; G. 486, II., note. -Ulla; G. 457.

36. Tu ut corrigas. Observe the emphatic position of the pronoun. G. 446; 569, III., 1.

1. Utinam duint; G. 240, 3; 483, 1 and 2. — Istam mentem, such a purpose, i. e., to go into exile.

3. Animum induxeris, you should determine. Induxeris, Perf. Subj. from Fut. Perf. G. 525,2.- Quanta . . . impendeat; Indirect Question, depending upon video. G. 529, I.-Tempestas invidae, a storm of hatred; a figurative expression by no means uncommon. - Nobis; G. 446, note 2. 4. Si minus, if not. G. 552, 3.- Recenti memoria, from the fresh recollection. Abl. of Cause. G. 416.

5. At, yet. In posteritatem, for the future. -Est tanti, it is worth so much, i. e., the end in view, the safety of the state, is worth all this sacrifice.

6. Sit privata, may be confined to myself, lit., private, personal. G. 513, I. - Privata; Pred. Adj.

7. Ut commoveare; Subject Clause with est postulandum.

8. Temporibus, the exigencies.

9. Ut revocaverit; G. 500; 492, 2.

10. Pudor, metus, ratio. These words correspond respectively to ut commoveare (that you should be moved, i. e., with shame), ut pertimescas, and ut cedas, in the preceding sentence.

12. Inimico, ut praedicas, tuo, your enemy as you call me. Why inimico rather than hosti? Lat. Comp. 344.

14. Si id feceris, if you do this, i. e., go into exile, lit., if you shall have done this, Fut. Perf. to denote a future action completed before another future action, viz., that expressed by feram. See note on fecerunt, p. 3, line 8.- Istius, that, i. e., that incurred in consequence of my connection with you.

15. Servire, subserve.

18. Secerne te a bonis. In such cases the preposition is necessary before the Ablative of Separation denoting persons.

19. Impio latrocinio, impious robbery; G. 416.-Ad alienos, ad tuos, to strangers, to friends. G. 441, 1.






20. Videaris. Is videor usually personal or impersonal? G. 534, 1, note 1, (1).

21. Quid invitem, why should I invite. G. 486, II. —A quo sciam, by whom I know; Relative clause assigning a Reason, since I know that by you. G. 517. G. 380,

22. Qui praestolarentur; G. 445, 6; 497.—Ad, near. 1.- Forum Aurelium; a small market town on the Aurelian Way. 23. Cui; G. 388, 1. Perhaps cui is here used to avoid the frequent repetition of a quo.

24. Aquilam illam argenteam, that silver eagle; i. e., the wellknown eagle which C. Marius is said to have had in the Cimbrian War. See Sallust Cat. 59. The silver eagle was the standard of the legion.

25. Esse; construe with futuram. - Confido, constitutum fuit. Why not in the Subj.? G. 524, 2, 1).—Cui, for which, referring to aquilam. 26. Domi tuae; G. 426, 2.- Sacrarium scelerum tuorum, the sanctuary of your crimes. The standard of the legion was kept in a small chapel near the tent of the commander. The eagle here mentioned was kept by Catiline in his own house, and, as it was to be used for criminal purposes, the place where it was kept is called the sanctuary of


27. Tu ut possis; G. 486, 2, note. — Illa, i. e., aquila; G. 414, I. 28. A cujus altaribus, from whose altar; altaribus, singular in


33. Haec res, this fact, i. e., his departure to the camp of Manlius, as the signal of civil war. - Quandam; G. 456, 2.


35. Nunquam modo otium concupisti, not only have you never desired peace.

36. Nactus es, etc. Construe: Nactus es manum improborum conflatam ex perditis atque derelictis (those utterly forsaken) ab omni non modo fortuna, verum etiam spe.

1. Ab fortuna, spe; G. 415, I., 2.

3. Hic; i. e., in the camp of Manlius with your congenial associates and followers (improborum manum). — Laetitia ; G. 421, I. — Gaudiis ; Abl. of Cause.

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6. Ad hujus vitae studium, for the pursuit of such a life.Meditati sunt, were designed; Passive.- Qui feruntur, which are reported.

7. Jacere, vigilare; in apposition with labores.

9. Insidiantem; agrees with te, the omitted subject of vigilare. Insidiantem somno maritorum illustrates ad obsidendum stuprum, and insidiantem bonis otiosorum illustrates ad facinus obeundum.


10. Habes, ubi ostentes, you have an opportunity to show, lit., 10 where you may show. G. 503, I., note 2.

cum, at the time when.

11. Quibus; refers to famis, frigoris, inopiae. 12. Tempore; G. 429. - Tum 13. A consulatu. Why not e consulatu? Because he was kept from (a, ab) the consulship, but was not turned out of (e, ex) it, as he was never in it. - Reppuli; the approved form instead of repuli. For an account of Cicero's resolute bearing at the consular election, see Introduction, p. 139. - Ut posses; Subjunctive of Result after tantum.Exsul, consul, as exile, as consul, in apposition with the omitted subject of posses. G. 363, 2 and 3.

XI., XII.-Reasons for allowing Catiline to leave the City, though his Crimes deserve Death.

17. Nunc, patres conscripti. Cicero now addresses the senate. - Ut a me detester ac deprecer, that I may solemnly refute and avert from myself. Querimoniam detestari is to answer a complaint by solemnly calling the gods to witness our innocence and the truth of our statement, while querimoniam deprecari is to pray earnestly that the complaint may no longer be made.

19. Quaeso; old form for quaero, chiefly used parenthetically, as in this instance. Quae dicam. Supply ea as the antecedent of quae. G. 503, I.—Animis, mentibus. See Syn. L. C. 355.

20. Etenim. This properly belongs to the conclusion of this conditional sentence, but as the condition with the quotation which it contains extends to the end of the chapter, that which would otherwise have been the conclusion is made an independent sentence at the beginning of the next chapter: His... respondebo. This personification of the country, calling her servant Cicero to account for his doings, has been much admired.

21. Vita mea multo; G. 417; 423.

22. Loquatur; G. 509. -Tulli; G. 51, 5.-Tune; tu subject of patiere, ne interrogative particle.

25. Evocatorem servorum. Catiline seems at first to have intended to enlist the slaves in his cause, but he subsequently abandoned

the plan.

27. Immissus in urbem; because he may be expected to return to the city with an armed force.

29. Mactari, to be visited, punished. After impero, Cicero uses the infinitive only in the passive. The common construction is the Subjunctive with ut, ne, etc.




30. Mosne majorum? Supply te impedit. The country personi fied proceeds to consider the three excuses which the consul might urge for not having put Catiline to death: the custom of his ancestors, the laws, and the dread of unpopularity. - At... multarunt. The answer to the first ground of defence. - Persaepe privati. We have undoubtedly a rhetorical exaggeration in the use of persaepe and of the plural privati. The only illustration which Cicero gives us is P. Scipio, pontifex maximus. See p. 1, line 20.

31. An leges. The second ground of defence, that the laws - the Valerian, the Porcian, and the Sempronian - forbade that a Roman citizen should be put to death without the sanction of the people. —Quae rogatae sunt, which have been enacted. Legem rogare is the common formula in putting the question on the passage of a law: hence to enact a


32. At nunquam. The answer to the second ground of defence: "But," says the country, "those who have withdrawn their allegiance from the state are no longer citizens."

34. Praeclaram vero.. . gratiam, remarkable gratitude in truth you show; in irony. See Syn. L. C. 548, 3.

35. Per te cognitum, known by yourself alone, i. e., by your own exertions, instead of being recommended to popular favor by illustrious ancestry. Cicero was the first of his family who attained any of the higher offices of state.

36. Tam mature, so early. Cicero was elected to the consulship at the age of forty-two, the earliest age at which any citizen was eligible to that high office.

1. Summum imperium; i. e., the consulship. - Per omnes gradus; i. e,, the quaestorship, aedileship, praetorship, and consulship. 4. Severitatis invidia, unpopularity incurred by severity; lit., of severity.

7. Invidiae incendio conflagraturum. A figurative expression suggested by tecta ardebunt.

8. His... respondebo. See note on etenim, p. 10, line 20.—EOrum mentibus, the thoughts of those.

9. Hoc idem; i. e., that Catiline ought to be put to death.

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10. Optimum factu, the best thing to do. — Optimum; G. 373, 1, note 2. Factu; G. 547.-Judicarem, non dedissem, if I judged (both then and now), I should not have given. The Imperfect is used in the condition, in preference to the Pluperfect, to show that his judgment still remains unchanged. G. 510; 510, note 1.


11. Catilinam
tori; a term of reproach.

multari; in apposition with hoc. Gladia


13. Saturnini et Gracchorum. See p. 1, line 21, and p. 2, lines 11 14 and 17; also notes on P. Scipio, p. 1, line 20; on C. Gracchus, p. 2, line 14; and C. Mario, p. 2, line 16.- Flacci. See note on M. Fulvius, p. 2, line 15.—Superiorum complurium, of many men of former


14. Sed etiam honestarunt, but even distinguished themselves. 15. Verendum... erat, I had no reason to fear. G. 388. 16. Parricida; Abl. Absol. - Invidiae; Partitive Genitive with quid.

17. Quod si, but if. G. 453, 6. — Ea; i. e., invidia. — Si impenderet. Observe that hoc animo semper fui is only in appearance the conclusion from this condition; the real conclusion is hoc animo essem, readily supplied from it.

18. Hoc animo; Abl. of Characteristic. -Ut invidiam... putarem, to regard (that I regarded) unpopularity incurred by virtue as glory, not unpopularity.

20. Qui videant. G. 503, I.

22. Qui aluerunt, and these have confirmed, an independent statement with the Indicative, and not, like qui videant, a mere relative clause defining an indefinite antecedent. G. 453.

23. Non credendo, by not believing, i. e., by not crediting the charges against Catiline.

24. Non solum improbi . . . imperiti, not only the bad, but also the ignorant. Improbi and imperiti, used substantively, are in apposition with multi. G. 364.

25. Si in hunc animadvertissem, if I had punished him, a common technical expression, lit., had turned my attention to (against) him. Here the condition (animadvertissem) relates to past time, but the conclusion (dicerent) belongs to the present. G. 510, note 1.

26. Regie, tyrannically. The Romans under the commonwealth, with their traditional hatred of kings, often used the term in this sense. Quo intendit. Supply pervenire. - Quo, whither, i. e., in Manliana


27. Pervenerit. Mood and Tense? What would be used in the Direct Discourse? G. 525, 2.


29. Hoc uno; i. e., Catiline.

30. Hanc pestem; i. e., the conspiracy. - Paulisper reprimi

.. comprimi posse, may be checked for a short time, not suppressed forever.

31. Se ejecerit. Supply ex urbe. -Ejecerit; Fut. Perf., because the action is to be completed at the time denoted by exstinguetur. 33. Naufragos, ruined followers, lit., shipwrecked.

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