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10 30. Mosne majorum? Supply te impedit. The country personified proceeds to consider the three excuses which the consul might urge for not having put Catiline to death: the custom of his ancestors, the laws, and the dread of unpopularity.-At...multarunt. The answer to the first ground of defence.-Persaepe privati. We have undoubtedly a rhetorical exaggeration in the use of persaepe and of the plural privati. The only illustration which Cicero gives us is P. Scipio, pontifex maximus. See p. 1, line 20.

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31. An leges. The second ground of defence, that the laws-the Valerian, the Porcian, and the Sempronian-forbade that a Roman citizen should be put to death without the sanction of the people.-Quae rogatae sunt, which have been enacted. Legem rogare is the common formula in putting the question on the passage of a law: hence to enact a law.

32. At nunquam. The answer to the second ground of defence: "But," says the country, "those who have withdrawn their allegiance from the state are no longer citizens."

34. Praeclaram vero...gratiam, remarkable gratitude in truth you show; in irony. See Syn. L. C. 548, 3.

35. Per te cognitum, known by yourself alone, i. e., by your own exertions, instead of being recommended to popular favor by illustrious ancestry. Cicero was the first of his family who attained any of the higher offices of state.

36. Tam mature, so early. Cicero was elected to the consulship at the age of forty-two, the earliest age at which any citizen was eligible to that high office.

1. Summum imperium; i. e., the consulship.-Per omnes gradus; i. e., the quaestorship, aedileship, praetorship, and consulship. 4. Severitatis invidia, unpopularity incurred by severity, lit., of severity.

7. Invidiae incendio conflagraturum. A figurative expression suggested by tecta ardebunt.

8. His...respondebo. See note on etenim, p. 10, line 20.—Eorum mentibus, the thoughts of those.

9. Hoc idem; i. e., that Catiline ought to be put to death.

10. Optimum factu, the best thing to do.-Optimum; G. 373, 3. -Factu; G. 570.-Judicarem, non dedissem, if I judged (both then and now), I would not have given. The Imperfect is used in the condition, in preference to the Pluperfect, to show that his judgment still remains unchanged. G. 510; 510, 1.

11. Catilinam...multari; in apposition with hoc.-Gladiatori; a term of reproach.

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13. Saturnini et Gracchorum. See p. 1, line 21, and p. 2, lines 11 14 and 17; also notes on P. Scipio, p. 1, line 20; on C. Gracchus, p. 2, line 14; and C. Mario, p. 2, line 16.-Flacci. See note on M. Fulvius, p. 2, line 15.-Superiorum complurium, of many men of former times.

14. Sed etiam honestarunt, but even distinguished themselves. 15. Verendum...erat, I had no reason to fear. G. 388.

16. Parricida; Abl. Absol.-Invidiae; Partitive Genitive with quid.

17. Quod si, but if. G. 453, 6.-Ea; i. e., invidia.-Si impenderet. Observe that hoc animo semper fui is only in appearance the conclusion from this condition, the real conclusion is hoc animo essem, readily supplied from it. G. 512, 2, 2).

18. Hoc animo; Abl. of Characteristic.-Ut invidiam...putarem, to regard (that I regarded) unpopularity incurred by virtue as glory, not unpopularity.

20. Qui videant. G. 501, I.

22. Qui aluerunt, and these have confirmed, an independent statement with the Indicative, and not, like qui videant, a mere relative clause defining an indefinite antecedent. G. 453.

23. Non credendo, by not believing, i. e., by not crediting the charges against Catiline.

24. Non solum improbi...imperiti, not only the bad, but also the ignorant. Improbi and imperiti, used substantively, are in apposition with multi. G. 363, 4.

25. Si in hunc animadvertissem, if I had punished him, a common technical expression, lit., had turned my attention to (against) him. Here the condition (animadvertissem) relates to past time, but the conclusion (dicerent) belongs to the present. G. 510, 1.

26. Regie, tyrannically. The Romans under the commonwealth, with their traditional hatred of kings, often used the term in this sense.Quo intendit. Supply pervenire.-Quo, whither, i. e., in Manliana

castra.

27. Pervenerit. Mood and Tense? What would be used in the Direct Discourse? G. 532, 4.

29. Hoc uno; i. e., Catiline.

30. Hanc pestem; i. e., the conspiracy.-Paulisper reprimi ...comprimi posse, may be checked for a short time, not suppressed forever.

31. Se ejecerit. Supply ex urbe.—Ejecerit ; Fut. Perf., because the action is to be completed at the time denoted by exstinguetur. 33. Naufragos, ruined followers, lit., shipwrecked.

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XIII.-Conclusion.

36. Jam diu; i. e., from the time when Catiline, three years before, presented himself as a candidate for the consulship.

1. Nescio quo pacto, in some way, lit., I know not in what way. This modifies erupit, the principal verb. G. 525, 4.

2. Omnium scelerum maturitas, the full development of all

crimes.

3. Ex tanto latrocinio, from so large a band of robbers; the abstract for the concrete.

5. Cura, metu. Abl. of Separation.

6. In venis atque in visceribus, in the veins and in the vitals. By a natural metaphor, the state is here represented as a human body. Observe the repetition of the preposition in, which has nearly the same effect as in English.

7. Aegri morbo gravi, sick with a severe disease. G. 414, 1.

10. Hic morbus, qui est, etc. Why not hic morbus in re publica, as in English? Lat. Comp. 417; 420.

11. Vivis reliquis, if the rest (of the conspirators) remain alive. Abl. Absol. G. 431, 2.

12. Secedant; Subj. of Desire. G. 487.-A bonis. See note on secerne te a bonis, p. 9, line 18.

13. Id quod...dixi, as (lit., that which) I have already often said. Id is in apposition with the clause, muro denique discernantur a nobis. G. 445, 7.

15. Circumstare... praetoris urbani; i. e., to intimidate him in the discharge of his duties. The praetor urbanus had jurisdiction in judicial questions between citizens, while cases in which one or both of the parties were foreigners were referred to the praetor peregrinus.

16. Malleolos, fire-darts. In form these weapons resembled ham-~ mers, hence the name. They were made up largely of pitch and tow, and were set on fire before they were hurled.

17. Sit inscriptum, let it be written; Subj. of Desire. Here the attention is directed, not so much to the act of writing, as to the result of that act, hence the Perfect tense. The subject of sit inscriptum is the Indirect Question, quid...sentiat. G. 525, 2.

19. Tantam...fore diligentiam; in apposition with hoc.

24. Hisce ominibus, with these omens, i. e., with such prospects as those indicated in the last sentence.

25. Cum tua... pernicie, with your own ruin and destruction (sure). 27. Tu, Juppiter. As this oration was delivered in the Temple of Jupiter Stator, these words were doubtless addressed to the statue of

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