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Numerals with "G." refer to the author's Latin Grammar; with "L. C." to his Introduction to Latin Composition; with "p." to pages in this work. The other numerals refer to books and chapters in the Latin text.

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Caesaris Commentarii, Caesar's Commentaries. The term commen- 1 tarii, as here used, is applicable to any simple and concise chronicle of events. Caesar, in his seven books of Commentaries on the Gallic War, has given a concise account of seven campaigns waged by himself in Gaul. Each book is a journal of one year.



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I. General Description of Gaul.

1. Gallia. Gallia, or Gallia Transalpina, properly designates that part of the continent of Europe which lies west of the Alps and the Rhine, and north of the Pyrenees; but, as here used, it does not include the Roman province (provincia) in the south-eastern portion of this district. In a still more restricted sense, Gallia is sometimes used to designate one of the three general divisions of this country, namely, that occupied by the Celtae or Galli. Gallia omnis distinguishes the country, as a whole, from this part.-Quarum; Partitive Genitive, depending upon unam, and agreeing with partes as its antecedent. G. 396, III.; 445.

2. Aliam, another, less definite than alteram, which would mean the second. Aliam = aliam partem is the object of incolunt understood.


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1 Tertiam quiii incolunt tertiam partem, qui. G. 445, 6.- Ipsorum lingua, in their own language. G. 414. Ipsorum; lit., of themselves = their own. G. 452, 5.

3. Celtae, Galli; G. 362. The reader will observe that the term Galli, like Gallia, is used in two senses. It properly denotes the inhabitants of all Gaul (Gallia omnis), but it is also often used, as in this instance, to designate the inhabitants of the third division of the country, i. e., of Celtic Gaul. This distinction must be constantly borne in mind by the learner.- Nostra; supply lingua.- Lingua; G. 429.

4. Inter se, from each other; lit., among themselves.

5. Dividit. In the singular, because the two rivers form but one boundary. G. 463, 3.

6. Horum; G. 396. III. - Propterea quod, because; lit., on account of this (these things) that. This introduces two reasons to account for the valor of the Belgae-their distance from the Roman province and their nearness to the warlike Germans. —A cultu atque humanitate, from the civilization and refinement. Cultus here refers to external comforts and luxuries, humanitas to mental and moral culture.

7. Provinciae; i. e., of the Roman province in the south-eastern portion of Gaul.

8. Minime saepe, least frequently.

9. Ad effeminandos animos; G. 562, 565.- Proximique; supply propterea quod, introducing the second reason for the valor of the Belgians.

10. Incolunt, dwell. This verb is sometimes transitive, inhabit, as in line 2, and sometimes intransitive, dwell, as in this passage.

11. Qua de causa Helvetii, i. e., because they, too, dwell near the Germans.

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12. Virtute praecedunt, surpass in valor. G. 429. 13. Suis finibus, from their territory. G. 425, 2. Suis refers to the subject, Helvetii, while eos and eorum refer to Germanis. G. 449, 451. 15. Eorum una pars, one portion of their country; lit., one part (of the country) of them. Eorum is a Possessive Genitive (of them their), referring to hi omnes, line 3, and horum omnium, line 6.-Quam ... dictum est, which, it has been said, the Gauls occupy. Gallos = Celtas, i. e., the Gauls in the restricted sense of that word. See note on Celtae, Galli, line 3.- Dictum est. Give the subject. G. 549.

16. Continetur, is bounded.

17. Ab Sequanis, on the side of the Sequani; i. e., in their territory; lit., from the Sequani-a common Latin idiom, using a, ab, e, or ex, where our idiom requires at, in, on, on the side of, or some similar expression.

18. Vergit ad septemtriones, it extends towards the north, spoken

with reference to the Roman province in the south of Gaul; i. e., viewed from that province, the country of the Celtae extends from the Rhine towards the north.

19. Extremis, pertinent, spectant. These words suppose the reader to be in the Roman province. Thus, extremis finibus, the farthest confines, means the northern boundary, i. e., the one most remote from the province.

1. Ad, near, bordering upon.

II. Ambitious Designs of Orgetorix.

4. Messala . . . consulibus; G. 430. This was in the year 61 B. C., three years before Caesar arrived in Gaul.

5. Regni, of regal power, sovereignty. — Nobilitatis, civitati; the abstract for the concrete; nobility, for nobles, state, for citizens.

6. Civitati; G. 385.

potiri. This is

7. Exirent; G. 461, 492.- Perfacile esse an instance of the Indirect Discourse, Oratio Obliqua, very common in Caesar. In the Direct Discourse it would stand thus: Perfacile est, quum virtute omnibus praestetis, totius Galliae imperio potiri. The learner will observe that the Ind. est is changed to the Infin. esse, G. 530, I.; that the Pres. praestetis is changed to the Imperf. praestarent, because dependent upon an historical tense, persuasit, G. 481, II. 1, and that the second person, praestetis, is changed to the third, praestarent, G. 533. The Infin. esse depends upon a verb of saying, implied in persuasit; He persuaded them, &c., saying that it would be easy, G. 530, 1. The subject of esse is the clause totius ... potiri, with which perfacile agrees as a predicate adjective. G. 549, 2; 438, 3. The learner should now make himself perfectly familiar with the whole subject of the Indirect Discourse as presented in the Gram. 528–533.-Omnibus; G. 386.- Praestarent. Why in the Subjunctive? G. 518, I.

8. Imperio potiri; G. 419, I. -Id hoc facilius eis persuasit, he persuaded them to that course (id, i. e., ut exirent) the more easily on this account (hoc, i. e., quod . . . continentur). Id is the object of persuasit ; lit., persuaded that to them. Hoc is Abl. of Means. G. 414.

9. Loci natura, by natural boundaries, viz., the Rhine, the Rhone, Mount Jura, and Lake Lemannus.-Continentur, are confined, hemmed in. - Una ex parte, on one side. See note on ab Sequanis, p. 1, line 17. 10, Latissimo, very broad. G. 444, 1.

12. Tertia; supply ex parte.

13. Provinciam nostram, our province, i. e., the Roman province, corresponding to the south-eastern portion of France.

14. Ut vagarentur; G. 495, 2.- Minus late, less extensively, i. e., than they wished.





16. Homines bellandi cupidi, they, a people (men) fond of warfare. G. 363, 2; 563, 1, 2).

17. Pro, in proportion to.

19. Qui. The antecedent is fines. - Millia... ducenta, etc. Mille passuum is a little more than nine tenths of an English mile, which makes the length about 220 miles, and the breadth about 160. Caesar's estimate is, however, somewhat too high, resting doubtless upon the exaggerated, accounts of others. - Millia; G. 178, 378.

III. The Helvetii prepare to invade Gaul.

22. Quae ad proficiscendum pertinerent, which would be requisite for their departure. G. 501; 565, 3.

23. Quam maximum; G. 444, 3.

24. Ut suppeteret; G. 489, I. — In itinere, on their march.

25. Cum proximis civitatibus, with the adjacent (nearest) states; i. e., of Gaul.

26. Ad eas res conficiendas; G. 562; 565, 3.

27. In tertium annum... confirmant, by formal enactment they appoint their departure for the third year; i. e., they appoint the third year as the time for their departure. G. 435, 1.

32. Amicus. To be called friend by the Roman Senate was a distinguished honor.

33. Ut regnum occuparet. The Imperfect is explained by its connection with the Historical Present persuadet. G. 481, IV. The sovereign authority (regnum) seems not to have been hereditary, but to have been conferred by the people.

35. Qui refers to Dumnorigi.—Tempore; G. 426. — Principatum obtinebat, held (was holding) the first place; i. e., in power and influence. Principatus is a word of very general import, and its special appliIcation in any instance must be learned from the context. It does not, like regnum, necessarily involve either official station or legal authority. Dumnorix may, however, have been at that time Vergobretus. See p. 8, line 38.

36. Plebi acceptus; G. 391. For Synonymes, see L. C. 216.

37. Perfacile factu esse, etc., he shows them (to them) that it is very easy to accomplish their designs; lit., that to accomplish their designs is very easy to do (factu). G. 570. See note on perfacile esse, p. 2, line 7.

38. Quod ipse ... obtenturus esset; a subordinate clause in the Indirect Discourse. In the Direct Discourse it would read thus: Quod ipse meae civitatis imperium obtenturus sum. The learner will observe that the Ind. sum is changed to the Subj. esset, G. 531; that the Pres. 1st Pers. sum is changed to the Imperf. 3d Pers. esset, after the Hist. Pres.

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