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XIII. Nam quid ea memorem, quae, nisi iis qui videre, nemini credibilia sunt: a privatis compluribus subversos montes, maria constructa esse; qui. bus mihi videntur ludibrio fuisse divitiae; quippe, quas honeste habere licebat, abuti per oturpidinem properabant. Sed lubido stupri, ganeae, ceteri. que fcultus, non minor incesserat: sviros pati muliebria, mulieres pudicitiam in propatulo habere; yescendi caussa, terra marique omnia exquirere; dormire prius,quam somni cupido esset; non famem, aut sitim, neque frigus, neque lassitudinem oppe. riri, sed ea omnia luxu antecapere. Haec juventutem, ubi familiares opes defecerant, ad facinora incendebant. Animus imbutus malis artibus haud facile Mubidinibus carebat : eo profusius omnibus modis quaestui atque sumptui deditus erat.

XIV. In tanta tamque corrupta civitate, Catilina, id quod factu facillimum erat, omnium flagitiorum atque facinorum circum se, tamquam stipatorum, catervas habebat. Nam, quicumque impudicus, adulter, ganeo, manu, ventre, pene, bona patria laceraverat; quique alienum aes grande confaverat, quo flagitium aut facinus kredimeret;, praeterea, omnes undique parricidae, sacrilegi, convicti judiciis, aut pro factis judicium timentes; ad hoc,

d Constructa. 'Other editions have constrata, some contracta.

? Turpidinem. An old noun, regularly formed from turpis, the same with turpitudinem, which is the common reading.

f Cultus. Is here taken in a bad sense for refinement, or over-niceness in diet and dress.

& Viros. I should prefer viri, which is the reading in other editions.

h Lubidinibus. Written also libidinibus. This word is most frequently taken in a bad sense.

i Flagitiorum atque facinorum. A Beton. for fagitiosorum atque facinorosorum; which are the words found in some other editions.

* Redimeret. Might buy off; i. e. might escape the punishment due to his crimes by bribery.

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quos manus atque lingua, perjurio aut sanguine civili alebat; postremo, omnes quos flagitium, egestas, conscius animus exagitabat; ii Catilinae proxumi familiaresque erant. Quod si quis etiam a culpa vacuus in amicitiam ejus inciderat, quotidiano usu atque illecebris facile par similisque ceteris efficiebatur. Sed maxume adolescentium familiari. tates adpetebat: eorum animi molles et aetate fluxi, dolis haud difficulter capiebantur. Nam, uti cujusque studium ex aetate flagrabat, aliis scorta prae. bere; aliis canes atque equos mercari; postremo, neque sumptui, neque modestiae suae parcere, dum illos "obnoxios fidosque faceret. Scio fuisse nonnullos, qui ita aestumarent, juventutem, quae domum Catilinae frequentabat, parum honeste pudicitiam habuisse ; sed ex aliis rebus magis, quam quod cuiquam compertum foret, haec fama valebat.

XV. JAM primum adolescens Catilina multa nefanda stupra fecerat; cum virgine nobili, cum sacerdote "Vestae, alia hujuscemodi contra ojus fasque. Postremo, captus amore Aureliae Orestillae, cujus, praeter formam, nihil Pumquam bonus laudavit; quod ea nubere illi dubitabat, timens privignum adulta aetate; pro certo creditur, necato filio, va. cuam domum scelestis nuptiis fecisse. Quae quidem res mihi in primis videtur caussa fuisse facis noris maturandi. Namque animus impurus, dis hominibusque infestus, neque vigiliis, neque quietibus sedari poterat; ita conscientia mentem excitam Pyastabat. Igitur colos exsanguis, foedi oculi, citus modo, modo tardus incessus; prorsus in "facie vultuque vecordia inerat.

1 Par similisque. Equivalent to par vel saltem similis; but the conjunction que is rarely used in this sense. Why may not the meaning be, equally expert in wickedness, and similarly disposed to evil ?

m Obnoxios. Some editions give obstrictos; others insert the prononn sibi after fidosque, the omission of which appears to me more elegant. To avoid repetition, we remark that the pronoun, as well as the conjunction, is often elegantly omitted in Cortius's edition, though expressed in others.

n Vesta. The priestesses of Vesta, who guarded and main. tained the sacred fire, &c. were bound to inviolable chastity, and when convicted of dishonour, were burned alive in the campus sceleratus, and their paramours scourged to death in the forum.

Jus fasque. Human and divine law. p Umquam. More frequently unquam.

XVI. Sed juventutem, quam, ut supra diximus, illexerat, multis modis mala facinora edocebat. Ex illis testes signatoresque falsos commodare ; fidem, fortunas, pericula vilia habere; post, ubi eorum famam atque pudorem attriverat, majora alia imperabat : si caussa peccandi in praesens minus suppetebat, nihilo minus insontes, sicuti sontes, circumvenire, jugulare: scilicet, ne per otium torpescerent 'manus aut animus, gratuito potius malus atque crudelis erat. His amicis sociisque confisus Catilina, simul quod aes alienum per omnis terras ingens erat, et quod plerique Sullani milites, largius suo usi, rapinarum et victoriae ve. teris memores, civile bellum "exoptabant; 'opprimundae reipublicae consilium cepit. - In Italia nul. lus exercitus: Cn. Pompeius in extremis "terris

p Vastabat. A more emphatical word than vexabat, which is the reading in some editions.

4 Colos. Or color, bonos or bonor, labos or labor, &c.

r Facie vultuque. Facies applies to the features, vultus to the expression of the countenance.

Ś Circumvenire, jugulare. Are governed by imperabat, · Manus. The nominative plural.

Exoptabant. Earnestly desired : such is the force of the preposition ex in composition.

v Opprimunde. An archaism for opprimende. The use of the u for e in the gerunds and futures of the participles passive will often occur

w Terris. Terræ in the plural signifies both lands and the earth. By extremis terris are here meant Pontus and Armenia.

bellum gerebat : ipsi consulatum petundi magna spes: senatus nihil sane intentus: tutae tranquillaeque res omnes : sed ea prorsus opportuna Catilinae.

XVII. Igitur circiter Kalendas Junias, *L. Cæsare et C. Figulo consulibus; primo singulos adpellare: hortari alios, alios tentare : opes suas, imparatam rempublicam, magna praemia conjurationis docere. Ubi satis explorata sunt, quae voluit, in unum omnis convocat, quibus maxuma 'necessitudo, et plurimum audaciae. Eo convenere, Zsenatorii ordinis, P. Lentulus Sura, P. Autronius, L. Cassius Longinus, C. Cethegus, P. et Servius Sullae, Servii filii, L. Vargunteius, Q. Annius, M. Portius Laeca, L. Bestia, Q. Curius: praeterea 'ex equestri ordine, M. Fulvius Nobilior, L. Statilius, P. Gabinius Capito, C. Cornelius : ad hoc multi ex écoloniis et municipiis, domi nobiles. Erant praeterea complures paullo occultius consilii hujusce participes 'nobiles, quos magis dominationis spes hortabatur, quam inopia, aut alia necessitudo. Ce terum juventus pleraque, sed maxume nobilium, Catilinae inceptis favebat: quibus in otio vel magnifice, vel molliter vivere copia erat, incerta pro certis, bellum, quam pacem, malebant. Fuere item ea tempestate, qui crederent M. Licinium Crassum non ignarum ejus consilii fuisse; quia Cn. Pompeius, invisus ipsi, magnum exercitum ductabat, cujusvis opes volui e contra illius potentiam crescere; simul confisum, si conjuratio valuisset, facile apud illos principem se fore.

* L. Cæsare, &c. In the year of the city 690, and 62 years before the Christian æra.

y Necessitudo. Here signifies necessity; more commonly a friendly connection.

2 Senatorii ordinis. Among the Romans there were three ranks of citizens: senators, equites or knights, and plebes, or conimon people. One hundred senators were originally selected out of the whole people; three by each of the thirty curiæ, three by each of the three tribes, and one by Romulus. These were called patres, either from their age, or the nature of their charge, and their descendents patricii. One hundred more were chosen from among the Sabines, when Tatius, their king, was admitted to share the sovereignty with Romulus. Yet, according to Livy, there were but one hundred in the whole at the death of Romulus. Tullus Hostilius increased their number after the destruction of Alba; Tarquinius Priscus added one hundred more: so that the whole number to the tinte of Sylla consisted of about three hundred. After the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, Brutus selected proper characters to supply the place of those who had been destroyed by Tarquin, whose names were enrolled with the remaining sevators, and hence they were together called patres conscripti. The equites did not originally form a distinct order: they were three hundred young men, one hundred selected from each tribe, and distinguished for their rank, wealth and accomplishments, appointed to guard the person of Romulus, and to serve the state on horsebacki. They were afterwards, on account of the corruption of the senate, appointed judges; and they were also the farmers of a Coloniis & municipiis. The Romans, to aid in preserving the fidelity of conquered nations, sent among them colonies of their own citizens. Municipia were towns in conquered coun tries, composed originally of Roman citizens, who, for their fidelity and good conduct, munera civiuin Romanorum ceperunt, were admitted to the privileges of Roman citizens..

XVIII. Sed antea item conjuravere pauci contra rempublicam, in quibus Catilina ; de "qua, quam verissume potero, dicam. L. Tullo, M. Lepido consulibus, P. Autronius et P. Sulla,

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the public revenue, and in that station called publicani. The body of the people was denominated plebs, or plebes. Besides these three orders, there was always a great number of slaves in the Roman territory. 1.

b Nobiles. This worel is omitted in some editions, though it seems necessary to the sense.

c Qua. Conjuratione being understood. Other editions have quo, referring to the whole sentence, as an antecedent.

d P. Autronius & P. Sula. · After these words in other edi. tions are inserted designati consules, which seem necessary to a clear understanding of the author's meaning. The consuls were chosen the latter end of July, or beginning of August, and were then denominated designatis though they did not enter upon their offices till the first of January,

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