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herself unequal to the task. She at first refused, though | better than I can do, that deep and overwhelming sensi-
husband furnished her with the support she required,
(To be continued.) restless curiosity of a mind that wished to seek the truth elsewhere. The other contained within him the germ of all the ideas which have since been developed, and which are those of the present age ; but absolute as
THE GLASS MANUFACTURE.1 inexperience, visionary as imagination, the tenets which he professed with enthusiasm at twenty, could not at Sand is not used at all in some of the richest and first sight captivate a clear-sighted, particular mind, finest glass, such as that required for telescopes, the like that of Mademoiselle de Meulan. For a long time composition of which, according to Faraday, should be Monsieur Guizot knew only how to please, without nitrate of lead, silicate of lead, and boracic acid, in the persuading her; for a long time she loved without under proportion of one hundred and fifty-four parts of the standing him; yet she carried into this affection an first, twenty-four of the second, and forty-two of the admirable simplicity and devotedness, and guarded her last. The reader may perhaps exclaim, “What is self from imagining that this sentiment should ever the use of telling me that ? I am none the wiser for become the charm and the happiness of her whole life. listening to terms which I do not understand : pray Labours in common, mutual services, endless conversa- what is nitrate and silicate of lead?" Fearing that some tions in which these two minds learned to understand readers, and these not the least intelligent, may really each other, and to modify themselves by the impression, feel thus, we must pause a moment to explain these appeared for a long time to be the only affinity which terms, and so make our path clear as we advance. ever would unite them. A day, however, was to come, Nitrate of lead is simply lead united to nitric acid, 2 or, when a complete sympathy would result from a long and as it was formerly termed, spirit of nitre, a substance mutual friendship, and from that day their common fate abounding in nature, but procurable by heating nitre is to be fixed. The day at length came, when, ceasing and sulphuric acid 3 together. Thus nitrate of lead is to misunderstand the affection which united them, they this metal brought into a peculiar union with an acid gave it its true name. Their marriage took place on substance. The other element of telescopic glass is the ninth of April, 1812.
silicate of lead, which arises from the union of oxide of There is a kind of happiness of which one knows not lead with a most singular acid termed silicic. From how to write: expressions fail; it proclaims itself not. this it will be seen that lead, nitre, and a peculiar llinty I find in a letter of Madame Guizot's (dated 1821), these substance, enter into the composition of the glass recomwords : “ I am happy, the happiest creature upon earth.” mended by Faraday. The remaining element the She said the truth ; at least she felt it, and happiness boracic acid, formed from borax, (an element discovered can only be measured by feeling; it exists only in the by Sir Humphry Davy,) and oxygen.
If the nonimpression which it produces; all its reality is in the chemical reader is not wearied by this detail, which heart. A situation at once happy and animated was perhaps it is but insulting him to suspect, he must be what Madame Guizot had always wanted; had she been struck by the vast circle of knowledge brought to bear compelled to choose, I think she would have preferred on the manufacture of a piece of fine flint glass. The activity to happiness ; her sense, and that energy which attempt to explain the three substances composing nature had implanted in her, made activity a law to her; Faraday's glass, has necessitated the mention of six nevertheless, none felt more keenly or more deeply the other bodies, to understand the nature of which would real joys of life. My resolution is taken,” she some require an acquaintance with more than twenty different where says, “as soon as a barrier is raised between me clements, and a familiarity with numerous processes of and happiness; I now know very well, and will never the most delicate nature. more forget, that one can live without happiness ; only All have probably noticed the weight of vessels when it is there I can ill brook any thing that disturbs formed from flint glass; and this will not appear sinit. You know, for I have told you so a hundred times, that it enfeebles me, or rather it is so suitable to my
(1) Continued from page 150.
(2) When this is weakened by water the mixture is called nature, I was so made for feeling it, that I give myself
Aqua-forlis. up to it with all my weakness." Such citations attest (3) This weakened with water is called oil of vitriol.
gular when we remember how largely lead enters into the melted glass brought to the required condition, its composition. Various other effects follow the use it is allowed to cool until the whole acquires the conof this metal, one being the superior density of the sistency of paste, in which state it will bear the reglass, in consequence of which it refracts the rays of quisite handling without cracking or losing the shape light with great power, and this quality is clearly of the impressed. The furnace is not, however, allowed to highest value for all glass used in telescopes. The lead cool until the contents of the crucible have become also acts as a flux, and thus aids in fusing the various transparent, which generally happens in about two materials, while it imparts transparency and richness to days and nights from the commencement of the prothe product. Care must, however, be taken not to use cess. In this short period the sandy and alkaline suban excess of the litharge (oxide of lead) or the glass stances have been so transformed in their natures, as will be too soft for many purposes. These various sub- to exhibit the appearance of a pearly paste, which may stances, being mixed in the proportion desired, are put be blown, drawn into every variety of shape, pulled in the crucibles, and as the melting proceeds fresh in- out into wire, or formed into elegant vases. Thus the gredients are added, until the melted matter fills the sand, which was last year washed by the waves of each crucibles. An intense and long.continued heat is re- returning tide, is now wrought into graceful forms and quired in the glass furnaces on two accounts; in the beautiful designs, on which the cultivated taste may first place nothing short of such heat will bring into speculate with delight. To rule the waters with power perfeet fusion all the substances used ; and it is also and skill, to read the past histories of the starry host, necessary for the expulsion of many impurities, the pre- and to see with clear vision the wonderful workings of sence of which would inevitably spoil the glass. For in Divine laws in the far extended universe, are great the alkaline matter employed are certain salts which advantages. But the facility with which grains of sand will not unite with the silicious matter, but rising to and the ashes of vegetables are moulded into servants the top of the crucible, form there a whitish froth for human benefit, is not the least amongst the prized enover the liquid mass. Sometimes a little carbonaceous dowments of our race, and such a reflection is naturally matter is found in the melted fluid, and this is suggested by the creation of yon sparkling vase from a destroyed by a due admixture of nitre with the other heap of dust. ingredients. Certain foreign substances will often be- 2. Plate glass.--- The production of this costly matecome mingled with the sand, causing a discoloration of rial demands and receives the highest care, both in the the glass, which must wholly destroy its value if not selection of the materials from which it is formed, and neutralized. This is effected by throwing in a small in the careful fusion of the mass, and rolling of the quantity of a dark powder, called the black oxide of bright plates. To make 1,200 lbs. of plate glass, 1,700 manganese, which in fact a metal combined with lbs. of five different substances must be mixed in the oxygen. The manganese may therefore be called a following proportions :glass purifier, and was once termed “glass soap” from Dried Lynn sand
7720 lbs. its cleansing qualities. But this soap will itself tarnish Fine soda
450 the glass unless care be taken not to introduce too much Slaked quicklime.
80 into the crucible, otherwise the whole mass will assume Nitre.
25 a purplish or even black hue. When the former of Old plate glass broken up
425 these results happens, that is when the purple tinge is produced, the evil is remedied in a singular and most
1,700 lbs. simple manner. No elaborate processes are called in The reader will perceive that exactly one fourth of the to neutralize the stain, a piece of wood dipped into the whole material employed is old glass, without which boiling glass restores it to the transparency required. the crucible will not yield the quality required. Soda How is this effect produced? The purple discoloration is also preferred to pearlash, as the fusion is thereby is caused by the manganese absorbing much oxygen, for promoted. When all these materials are reduced to å which this metal has so strong an aflinity that it is liquid mass, the whole is ladled from the crucible into never found without it. The object of the workman is a vessel called a cuvette, from which, after some further to remove this oxygen from the manganese, when the heating, it is poured on the surface of a long table, and colour will instantly disappear. Now carbon or char- spread by a roller. This spreading of the plate is an coal has a strong attraction for oxygen, and when the extremely beautiful sight, for as the rollers press and wood is thrust into the heated glass it becomes car. smooth the transparent and gelatine-like glass, we see bonized (made into charcoal), upon which the oxygen the most vivid colours wave to and fro along the burdeparts from the manganese to the wood, and is in this nished plate, as if some distant Aurora were beinz remanner drawn away from the contents of the crucible. flected in a mirror. As soon as each plate sets in its
Thus, by a knowledge of natural attinities, means are mould, it is passed into an annealing oven, in which all suggested which accomplish the purification of the glass the plates remain for about fourteen days, being allowed with the utmost ease and certainty. It is this wide to cool but very slowly. This annealing process is acquaintance with nature which enables the modern necessary for all glass, which would otherwise possess natural philosopher to advance with such speed along such brittleness that the gentlest variations in tempethe path of physical discovery; for, without this com- rature would cause the largest pieces to fly into fragprehensive knowledge, the most important operations ments. Suppose a piece of plate glass, which had not and experiments would be brought to a close every day. undergone this operation, fixed in a window on some Thus, suppose our glass manufacturers were ignorant of warm day; the first change in the thermometer would the affinities between manganese and carbon, whole tons most probably cause its destruction, and, whilst gazing at of glass would frequently be spoiled, and instead of the surrounding objects through the crystalline substance, transparent vessels now in use, we should be compelled we should be startled by hearing the whole plate crack to drink-from stained and impure glasses. Such results and shiver into a hundred pieces. This result is prewould lead to the abandonment of manganese as a vented by stopping the rapid cooling of the glass, which, purifier, and thus one means of controlling the action being placed in an oven, and passed through succesof his crucibles would be removed from the manu- sively diminishing degrees of heat, is prepared to resist facturer. But all is made easy by knowing the nature the usual changes of atmosphere. To what the of the two substances, manganese and carbon; though brittleness of unannealed glass must be ascribed is a the majority, whose pleasures are increased by the disputed point, but it is generally referred to some abundance of pure and cheap glass, may never think peculiar arrangement of the atoms, which the prolonged much of the nice adaptations necessary to the creation and gradually diminishing heat of the annealing oven of such enjoyments.
alters. Thus after all the manufacturer's labour and When all the impurities have been expelled, and skill have been employed, he is compelled to acknow
ledge that the usefulness of his glass depends upon some the soft glass until it assumes the shape of a circular
circumference of the glass globe further and further from
(To be continued.) used :Sand
200 lbs. Kelp
A CHRONICLE OF ST. ALBANS. Lime
Waile public attention is directed to St. Albans, as Broken crown glass
about to become probably a Bishop's See, we have When superior glass is required, other proportions are thought that a slight sketch of its past history might employed, whilst pearlash and saltpetre are substituted not prove unacceptable to our readers. Recourse has for the kelp. What is this kelp, which we have not
been had to its most accredited chronicles, and the hitherto had occasion to mention! It is the ashes of following may be depended on, as a brief, but faithful sea-weeds, which were formerly gathered in large quantities along the shores of Ireland and Scotland, and in summary of their testimony. some places cultivated by the landowners with the Cassibelaunus ! Verulam ! St. Albans !-It is perhaps greatest care. But the alkaline matter, resulting from impossible for the explorer into the bygone times of the burning of kelp, was too coarse and impure for use British history to find a spot of more varied and hallowed when a superior glass was required, and it is now rarely interest than that which has borne successively the employed except in cases when fine material is not the
names of Cassibelaunus, Verulam, and St. Albans !object. The introduction of Barillal at a moderate duty from abroad, and the reduction of the duty on salt In the year of the world 3950, or fifty-four years before from which alkali for the glass-works is now made, have the birth of our Saviour, when the greater part of freed our manufacturers from the necessity of using kelp Britain was but a tangled forest, or an uncultivated in their operations. The most singular process in the waste, it was described by Cæsar as a place of some making of crown glass is the blowing, and whirling of strength and importance, “excellently defended by
nature and by art.”! Thus, on the very first page, as it (1) A carbonate of soda procured in Spain, Sicily, Italy, and the Canaries, from two plants, one of which is called Barillo. 214,000 cwt. are imported yearly.
(1) “Egregiè naturâ atqua opere n.unitum."
were, of the history of our country, we find inscribed , master whom he loved, and in whose service he had the name of the city whose annals I have undertaken to become a “man of many griefs.” make known.-Indeed, it is worthy of remark, that we The Christian's faith and hope were no longer forhave no British records to which to refer, and that the bidden subjects of conversation, but loved and cherished earliest notice of the first occupiers of the soil is to be themes, and, ere many weeks had flown, at the name of found in the history of their conquest. Still, though Jesus Alban had bowed the knee. Rumour, however, the mists of ages envelope those far distant times, and had meanwhile been busy in the city, "given up untó though history lends not her wonted light to enable us idols,"—it had reached the ears of the Pagan Governor to see them as they were still fancy can penetrate the of Verulam that Alban was harbouring a Christian, gloom, and recall, how here in rude magnificence the and he ordered that strict search should instantly bé Prince of the Cassii held his court; how here the smoke made, and summary judgment be executed. Alban, from many an altar laden with human sacrifice, rose hearing of the threatened storm, hastened to Amphifoul incense to the skies ;—and how through the now balus, made him change garments with himself, and silent hills, resounded from many a "sacred oak," the bidding him, “God speed," sent him forth from the death cries of the prisoners taken in savage warfare by city. The monk's after fate no pen has recorded, but, the British Cassibelaun - But death was at hand for it is more than probable, that, like his son in the the destroyers; Cæsar, who never came but conquering faith," in his own blood, shed“ by wicked hands," his and to conquer, led his proud legions to the Druid's name is inscribed on the muster roll of “the noble haunts, and the strong-hold of the British prince. army of Martyrs."
- Cæsar gave the word, and Cassibelaunus was no Meanwhile, the Centurion, and his band of soldiers, more! its very name perished, and scarce one stone sent to search for the “accursed thing" in Alban's remained upon another to tell what it had been. house, hasten to fulfil their merciless errand with From its ruins, Verulam arose ; which speedily became blood-thirsty avidity, and, finding the supposed monk a place of note and of importance, being one of the in the little chamber lately inhabited by Amphibalus, chief cities situated on the great Roman highway—the they fell on him with yells of savage triumph, and led still existing Watling-street. Of its flourishing state him with mock honours to the Governor. He was at under its founders and first governors there can be no the time sacrificing to his gods, (or devils, as they are doubt, as Tacitus calls it a “municipium,” or town called by ancient chroniclers,) and, turning from the privileged to have a corporation or local government, altar, he gazed on the victim of his bigotry. His which was granted only to places of magnitude and im- altered dress could not hide from the discerning eye of portance. Coins are also still extant with the name of the Roman, the noble form and countenance of Alban, Verulam inscribed upon them, which were struck there and with an oath of awful import he exclaimed, by the Romans, in commemoration of their victories. “Whom have we here ? this is no monk!" and looking
Encompassed with walls and a moat, adorned by on the prisoner, he asked in a voice of thunder, “Art temples, palaces, and forums; abundantly supplied with thou not Alban? the enemy of Cæsar and the friend of money, and every comfort and luxury then known, and the accursed Christian ?" "I am a Christian," was the the seat of a powerful and enlightened local government, mild yet firm reply, and to all the questions put to him Verulam had probably reached the zenith of its glory this was the only answer he ever gave. When straitly and prosperity, when, in the time of the Emperor charged to tell what had become of the monk, he Dioclesian, that fearful persecution of the Christians opened not his mouth, and, boiling with indignation began, which “raged," we are told, "with merci- and inflamed by religious bigotry, the Governor conless fury throughout Britain for ten years, and in demned him to die the death the other should have which many illustrious persons fell in testimony of their suffered, and gave orders for his immediate execution. faith."
Alban, bedecked as a victim for the sacrifice, robed in It was in the beginning of the year of our Lord 293, purple, and adorned with flowers, was led with the that a British monk, travel-worn and foot-sore, flying sound of music, and the shouts of brutal triumph, from the destroyers of his home, (the stately monastery beyond the walls of Verulam, and, on the opposite hill of Caerleon in Wales,) craved a refuge and protection, at to the one on which the city stood, on the 17th day of the hands of a Roman and a Pagan.
June, in the year of man's redemption 293, Alban exThat monk was Amphibalus,- and the Roman-he was changed this life for a better, and won a martyr's crown. Alban,-"a citizen of no mean city,” but one nobly born Of the wonders attending the suffering of England's in Verulam. The old man prays for pity, with all the proto-martyr, there are many monkish legends, of earnestness of one who sues for life,--still Alban hesi- which, those that have been handed down to us by local tates. To harbour a Christian, if discovered, was certain tradition, are the following :death to him who dared to do so; should he then risk To reach the place appointed for the execution, his life, to save that of a stranger to himself-an enemy Alban and the people who followed in his train, had to to his nation, and an alien to the faith of his fathers ? cross the river Vir, and, as there was only a narrow But hark ! he hears the savage yells of the infuriated bridge of planks thrown across it, much time must populace, who, having heard that a Christian has been necessarily have been lost, whilst the multitude were traced to their city, and is even now “within their passing over. Alban, longing for the glorious moment gates,” are thirsting for his blood !-nearer and nearer when he should seal his noble profession with his blood, the sounds approach, and Alban no longer hesitates. and impatient of any delay, prayed that the waters He extends the right hand of protection and support to might divide, and (so says tradition) Heaven heard his the outcast, and proves that, though a Pagan, he has a cry. As with Jordan of old, the waters stood upon an Christian's heart.
heap, on either side, and the people walked forth in Of a hidden chamber in the Roman's house, Amphi. the midst dry-shod. Awe-struck at this wonderful balus became an inmate, and there, day by day, he was manifestation of Divine favour towards the saint, the visited by his host. Meanwhile, the calm aspect, the executioner appointed to do the bloody deed refused to dignified yet humble demeanour, of the monk, his fulfil his office, and another was substituted in his unaffected piety, and the mildness with which he spoke place. But the height of Holmehurst was not yet of the persecutors who had turned him homeless and gained, and as Alban toiled up the weary hill leading friendless upon the world, and who would willingly to it, he thirsted; praying for water, a spring gushed out have drained the last drop of life-blood from his heart, at his feet, which still bears the name of the Holy Well. all won upon the noble-minded Alban, and he conversed of the miracles performed by the blood of the freely with his guest, for whom he soon entertained an martyr, nor how, as his head was severed from his esteem amounting to veneration. From reverencing body, the eyes of his executioner fell from their sockets the lowly monk, Alban came at length to venerate the and rolled upon the ground, it matters not to tell ; from these traditionary tales, I must return to matters Thus have we seen arise, flourish, and perish, the of fact, and hasten to relatc, how, ere half a century British Cassibelaunus, and the Roman Verulam: let us had fiown, his remains were enshrined with all the now hasten to the arising of the city of the martyr, the honours due unto his memory,
Christian St. Albans ! It was in the year A. D. 796, In the year of our Lord 306, Constantine the Great (about 296 years after the battle fought at Verulam, assumed the Imperial Purple, and days of peace and between the British and the Scots, and soon after the of prosperity dawned upon the hitherto proscribed and sacking and demolition of that city during the wars of persecuted Christians. The religion of the Cross be the Heptarchy,) that Offa, the founder of the monastery came the religion of Rome and its dependencies, and and town of St. Albans, ascended the throne of Mercia. Pagan supremacy was no more. How true it is that He was an able and warlike prince, and finding the times of prosperity are the times of greatest danger to people he had to govern both brave and enterprising, he the Church, and that, when no enemies menace it from waged war in turn with the kings of all the surrounding without, then do foes to its peace usually arise within states, some of whom he forced to pay tribute and its bosom.
acknowledge him their lord. Each acquisition of Hardly was it established in Britain, ere its peace authority or territory, instead of satisfying his ambiwas disturbed by the Pelagian Heresy, which divided tion, only inflamed it the more, and he determined to its councils and embroiled its members. Two learned possess himself of the neighbouring and flourishing bishops, (the one, Germanus of Auxerre, the other, kingdom of East Anglia. The means for effecting this Lupas of Croyes,) were sent from France to compose were suggested and acted upon by his queen, a bold bad these differences, which they effected, we are told, at a woman, whose character history has loaded with crimes Synod held in Verulam.
of the darkest lue. For some heinous crime, she was This painful duty performed, they turned their condemned by the King of France to be sent afloat in thoughts to one of a more pleasing nature, namely, that the open sea, in a small boat, and with a few provisions. of doing honour to England's proto-martyr. His remains Quite at the mercy of the winds and waves, she was drifted were collected by the pious Germanus, and that was a to the shores of Britain, and, having landed in Offa's day of public rejoicing in Verulam, on which they, with dominions, she was brought into his presence, when her the relics of other saints departed in the faith, were beauty and romantic adventures so won upon his complaced by him with due solemnities in a fitting shrine. passion, and captivated his heart, that, forgiving or For rather more than eighty years after this event, the forgetting her crimes, he made her his wife. From the city was blessed with prosperity and peace; but at the hand of the executioner, and a watery grave, she had end of that time the clouds, which began to shroud the been saved to fill up the measure of her guilt, and to setting sun of Rome, cast over its satellites dark suffer a still more dreadful punishment ! “ Swift to do shadows, ominous of coming gloom. The frozen north evil,” she no sooner heard that the king had set his poured forth, like a mountain torrent, hordes of her heart on his neighbour's inheritance, than, like Jezebel hardy children over the fertile plains of Italy; and the of old, she determined to gratify him, at the expense of degenerate successor of the Cæsars, fearing lost the breaking all laws, both human and divine. Had the imperial city should be inundated and swept away, and “powers of darkness," in infernal conclave, formed a that the whole empire would share with it a common plan for compassing the ruin of one hateful to their ruin, recalled all the troops from the distant colonies, prince, it could not have been more inhuman in design, and Rome was no longer mistress of the world! The nor terrific in execution, than was that purposed against last Roman legion quitted this island A. D. 440, and the youthful Ethelbert by the Lady Macbeth of British Britain became once more the land of the Britons ! history, the blood-stained Drida! The young king of But they, alas ! were then no longer, what Julius Cæsar East Anglia was “making court,” to the beautiful found them, brave, hardy, and impatient of the yoke ! Elfrida, her youngest child, who, we are told, far from Accustomed to be protected, they knew no longer how “ like a misbehaved and sullen wench” pouting on her to protect themselves; and, having been well content, fortune and her lover, returned his affection,“ with that while clothed in purple and fine linen, to fare sumptu- excellence that angels love good men with.” Indeed ously with the yoke upon their necks, they mourned history describes them to have been equally virtuous, over the day when they were loosed from the burden, amiable, and devoted. And this very circumstance, and became once more free men! Hardly bad the high- which should have called forth every tender feeling in prowed vessels, which bore the Romans from the land of the mother's heart, she determined to "wrest to the their adoption, been lost to the sight of the hundreds destruction of the young prince, the ruin of her daughwho watched their departure with fond regret, mingled ter's happiness, and to her own eternal shame." She with anxious forebodings, and bitterly expressed fears made ready a marriage feast, and invited Ethelbert to for the future, than those fears were realized, and the her own chamber, there to wed the lovely and beloved northmen were upon them! Their track was marked Elfrida. Ile came ! then did her project guther to a head! by fire, and each footstep was traced in blood! The Pretending to send her attendants to call the bride, the resistance met by the Picts and Scots was feeble in the perfidious Drida bade him, whilst awaiting her coming, extreme, until they neared the proud city of Verulam. to sit on a "right royal" seat, which she had prepared There the faithful few who still bore British hearts for him beneath a sumptuous canopy. Those words of within their breasts had flocked to the standard of the sweetness from the lips of the deceiver, were as last scion of their native princes, and under Peter Pendrayn they fought with intrepidity worthy their warlike
“ A knell, ancestors. It was a well-contested field, a bloody fight;
That summoned him to heaven or to hell." but the invaders had the force of superior numbers in their favour, and ere the sun had set the Picts were
Guileless and unsuspecting, the prince reclined on the lords of Verulam. The groans which arose that day fatal seat-in an instant the floor gave way beneath him, from the field of the dying and the dead, sounded as it and in a low dark chamber far below, he fell into the were the death-knell of the glory of Verulam-it had hands of hired assassins, who quickly dispatched him, by departed, and for ever! From the Saxons, in the times smothering him with pillows. Picture the dismay--the of the Heptarchy, it suffered even more than from the anguish - of the bride elect, on hearing of the murder of Scots; by them it was levelled to the ground, and the her “own true love," and being told that her mother was insignificant little town, which afterwards occupied its the cause and instrument thereof! With “a heart full site, bore not the time-honoured name of the city of the of sorrow as the sea of sand,” Elfrida sought the cloister, Roman, but that of Watlingcester,--one unknown to and, as a veiled nunfame, and hardly to be found upon the page of written
A most unspotted lily did she pass, history!
And all the world did mourn hier."