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7. Diminutives in OLUS, OLA, OLUM; and ULUS, ULA, ULUM, always shorten the penult; as, urceõlus, filiõla, musæõlum; lectulus, ratiuncula, corculum, &c.

8. Adverbs in TIM lengthen the penult; as, oppidatim, virītim, tribūtim. Except affătim, perpětim, and stătim.

9. Desideratives in URIO shorten the antepenultima, which in the second or third person is the penult; as, esŭrio, esuris, esărit. But other verbs in urio lengthen that syllable; as, ligūrio, ligūris ; scatūrio, scatūris, &c.

PENULT OF PROPER NAMES.

The following proper names lengthen the penult: Abdera, Abydus, Adōnis, Æsõpus, Ætōlus, Ahala, Alaricus, Alcides, Amycle, Andronicus, Anubis, Archimedes, Ariarathes, Ariobarzānes, Aristides, Aristobulus, Aristogiton, Arpinum, Artabānus; Brachmanes, Busiris, Buthrōtus; Cethegus, Chalcedon, Cleobulus, Cyrene, Cythera, Curêtes; Darici, Demonicus, Diomedes, Diōres, Dioscuri; Ebudes, Eriphyle, Eubulus, Euclides, Euphrates, Eumēdes, Euripus, Euxinus,; Gargānus, Gætúlus, Granicus; Heliogabalus, Henricus, Heraclides, Heraclitus, Hippōnax, Hispānus; Irene; Lacedas, Latōna, Leucāta, Lugdunum, Lycōras; Mandāne, Mausōlus, Maximinus, Meleäger, Messala, Messāna, Milētus; Nasica, Nicanor, Nicētas; Pachynus, Pandora, Pelōris & -us, Pharsalus, Phoenice, Polites, Polyclētus, Polynices, Priapus; Sarpēdon, Serāpis, Sinope, Stratonice, Suffetes; Tigranes, Thessalonica; Verona, Veronica.

The following are short: Amathus, Amphipõlis, Anabosis, Anticyra, Antigonus, & -ne, Antilochus, Antiochus, Antiopa, Antipas, Antipăter, Antiphănes, Antiphates, Antiphila, Antiphon, Anýtus, Apulus, Areopagus, Ariminum, Arměnus, Athesis, Attălus, Attica; Bitŭrix, Bructĕri; Calăber, Calicrătes, Callistratus, Candace, Cantăber, Carneădes, Cherilus, Chrysostomus, Cleombrotus, Cleoměnes, Corycos, Constantinopolis, Craterus, Cratylus, Creměra, Crustuměri, Cyběle, Cyclădes, Cyzicus; Dalmǎtæ, Damocles, Dardanus, Dejõces, Dejotărus, Democritus, Demipho, Didymus, Diogenes, Drepǎnum, Dumnŏrix; Empedocles, Ephesus, Evergětes, Eumenes, Eurymědon, Euripylus; Fucinus; Geryones, Gyărus; Hecyra, Heliopolis, Hermione, Herodotus, Hesiodus, Hesione, Hippocrates, Hippotămos, Hypăta, Hypănis; Icărus, Icetas, Illyris, Iphitus, Ismărus, Ithaca; Laodice, Laomedon, Lampsăcus, Lamyrus, Lapithæ, Leucretilis, Libănus, Lipăre, v. -a, Lysimachus, Longimanus; Marathon, Mænǎlus, Marmarica, Massagětæ, Matrona, Megăra, Melitus, & -ta, Metropolis, Mutina, Myconus; Neocles, Neritos, Noricum; Omphăle; Patăra, Pegasus, Pharnǎces, Pisistratus, Polydămas, Polyxěna, Porsěna, or Porsenna, Praxiteles, Puteõli, Pylades, Pythagoras; Sarmătæ, Sarsina, Seměle, Semiramis, Sequăni, & -a, Seriphos, Sicoris, Socrates, Sodoma, Sotǎdes, Spartacus, Sporădes, Strongyle, Stymphălus, Sybaris; Taygetus, Telegonus, Telemachus, Tenědos, Tarraco, Theophanes, Theophilus, Tomyrus; Urbicus; Veněti, Vologesus, Volusus; Xenocrătes, Zorlus, Zopyrus.

The penult of several words is doubtful; thus, Batāvi, Lucan, Batăvi, Juv. & Mart. Fortuitus, Horat. Fortuitus, Mart. Some make fortuitus of three syllables; but it may be shortened like gratuitus, Stat. Patrimus, matrimus, præstolor, &c. are by some lengthened, and by some shortened; but for their quantity there is no certain authority.

FINAL SYLLABLES.

XI. A, in the end of a word declined by cases, is short; as, Musă, templă, Tydeă, lampădă.

Exc. The ablative of the first declension is long; as, Musâ, Ænēά; and the voca tive of Greek nouns in as; as, O Æncâ, O Pallá.

A in the end of a word not declined by cases is long; as, Ama, frustrā, prætereà, ergā, intrā.

Exc. Ită, quia, ejă, posteă, pută, (adv.) are short; and sometimes, though more rarely, the prepositions contră, ultră, and the compounds of ginta; as, trigintă, &c Contra, and ultra, when adverbs, are always long.

E.

XII. E, in the end of a word, is short; as,

Natě, sedile, patrě, currě, nempě, untě.

Exc. 1. Monosyllables are long; as, me, tē, se; except these enclitic conjunctions, quě, vě, ně; and these syllabical adjections, ptě, cě, tě; as, suaptě, hujuscě, tutě; but these may be comprehended under the general rule, as they never stand by themselves.

Exc. 2. Nouns of the first and fifth declension are long; as, Calliope, Anchisë, fide. So re-, and die, with their compounds, quarē, hodie, pridie, postridie, quotidie : Also Greek nouns which want the singular, Cete, melē, Tempe; and the second person singular of the imperative of the second conjugation; as, Docē, manē ; but cave, vale, and vide, are sometimes short.

Exc. 3. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second declension are long; as, placide, pulchrē, valdē, contracted for valide; to these add fermë, ferë, and ohe; also all adverbs of the superlative degree; as, doctissimē, fortissimē: but beně and malě are short.

I.

XIII. I final is long; as, Domini, patrī, doceri.
Exc. 1. Greek vocatives are short; as, Alexi, Amarylli.

Exc. 2. The dative of Greek nouns of the third declension which increase, is common; as, Palladi, Minoidi.

Mihi, tibi, sibi, are also common: so likewise are ibi, nisi, ubi, quasi; and cui, when a dissyllable, which in poetry is seldom the case. Sicubi and necubi are always short.

0.

XIV. O final is common; as, Virgo, Amo, quando. Exc. 1. Monosyllables in o are long; as, ō, dō, stō, prō. The dative and ablative sing. of the second declension, are long; as, libro, domino: also Greek nouns, as, Didō, and Athō the genitive of Athos, and adverbs derived from nouns; as, certò, falsō, paulō. To these add quo, eō, and their compounds, quōvis, quōcunque, adeō, ideō; likewise, illo, idcirco, citro, intro, retrō, ultrō.

Exc. 2. The following words are short; Ego, scio, cedo a defective verb, homo, cito, illico, imo, duo, ambo, modò, with its compounds, quomodo, dummodò, postmodo: but some of these are also found long.

Exc. 3. The gerund in DO in Virgil is long; in other poets it is short. Ergó, on account of, is long; ergo, therefore is doubtful.

U and Y.

XV. U final is long; Y final is short; as, Vultu, Moly.

B, D, L, M, R, T.

XVI. B, D, L, R, and T, in the end of a word, are short; as,

Ab, apud, seměl, precor, capăt.

The following words are long, sal, sol, nil; par, and its compounds, impar, dispar, &c. fär, lār, Nār, cur, für; also nouns in er which have eris in the genitive; as, Crater, ver, Iber, likewise aēr, œther; to which add Hebrew names; as, Jōb, Daniel, David.

M final anciently made the foregoing vowel short; as, Militum octo, Ennius. But by later poets, m in the end of a word is always cut off, when the next word begins with a vowel; thus, Milit, octo; except in compound words; as, circumāgo, circumeo.

C, N.

XVII. C and N, in the end of a word, are long; as,

Ac, sic, non. So Greek nouns in n; as, Titan, Siren, Salamin, Ænean, Anchisēn, Circen, Lacedæmon, &c.

The following words are short, nec and doněc; forsităn, în, forsăn, taměn, ăn, viděn'; likewise nouns in en which have inis in the genitive; as, carmen, criměn ; together with several Greek nouns; as, Ilion, Pylon, Álexin.

The pronoun hic, and the verb fac, are common.

AS, ES, OS.

XVIII. AS, ES, and OS, in the end of a word, are long; as, Mās, quiēs, bonōs.

The following words are short, anăs, és from sum, and penès; ŏs, having ossis in the genitive, compos, and impos; also a great many Greek nouns of all these three terminations; as, Arcăs and Arcădăs, herõăs; Phryges; Arcados, Tenědõs, Mělõs, &c. and Latin nouns in es, having the penult of the genitive increasing short; as, Alès, hebes, obses. But Cerēs, paries, aries, abies, and pes with its compounds, are long.

IS, US, YS.

XIX. IS, US, and YS, in the end of a word, are short; as,
Turris, legis, legimus, annus, Capÿs.

Exc. 1. Plural cases in is and us are long; as, Pennis, libris, nobis, omnis for

omnes, fructus, manûs: also the genitive singular of the fourth declension; as, portûs. But bus in the dative and ablative plural is short; as, floribus, fructibus, rebus.

Exc. 2. Nouns in is are long, which have the genitive in itis, īnis, or entis; as, lis, Samnis, Salamis, Simois. To these add the adverbs gratis and foris; the noun glis, and vis, whether it be a noun or a verb; also is in the second person singular, when the plural has itis; as, audis, abis, possis. Ris in the future of the subjunctive is common.

Exc. 3. Monosyllables in us are long; as, grūs, sūs: also nouns which in the genitive have ūris, ūdis, útis, untis, or odis; as, tellus, incus, virtus, amăthus, tripūs. To these add the genitive of Greek nouns of the third declension; as, Chûs, Sapphûs, Mantûs; also nouns which have u in the vocative; as, Panthūs.

Exc. 4. Tethys is sometimes long, and nouns in ys, which have likewise yn in the nominative; as, Phorcys, Trachys.

The last syllable of every verse is common

Or, as some think, necessarily long on account of the pause or suspension of the voice, which usually follows it in pronunciation.

THE QUANTITY OF DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND WORDS. 1. DERIVATIVES.

XX. Derivatives follow the quantity of their primitives; as,
Amicus, from
Auctiōnor,

Decoro,

from

Exŭlo,

Auctōro,

Păvidus,

Auditor,

Quirito,

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ǎmo.

auctio, -ōnis.

auctor, -ōris.

auditum.

Dēni, from décem.

Fōmes,

foveo.

homo.

rego.

Vădum,

Fides,

SŎpor,

auspex, -icis.

caupo, -ōnis.

competitum.
cornix, -icis.

custos, -ōdis.
decor, -ōris.

from

Radicitus,

Sospito,

Natura,

áreo.

nōtus.

vado.

fido.

sõpio

Maternus,

Lěgebam, &c.
Légeram, &c.

EXCEPTIONS.

1. Long from Short.

Suspicio, from suspicor.
Sēdes,

sĕdeo.

Sēcius,

sĕcus.

Pênuria.

pěnus.

2. Short from Long.

Lucerna,
Dux, ucis,
Stăbilis,

Dĭtio,

Quăsillus,

decus, -ŏris.
exul, -ŭlis.
păveo.
Quiris, -itis.

radix, -icis.

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2. COMPOUNDS.

XXI. Compounds follow the quantity of the simple words which compose them; as,

Deduco, of de, and duco. So proféro, antěféro, consōlor, denoto, depeculor, depravo, despero, despumo, desquamo, enōdo, erudio, exūdo, exăro, expăveo, incero, inhumo, investīgo, prægrăvo, prænăto, regělo, appăro, appareo, concavus, prægrăvis, desōlo, suffoco & suffoco, diffidit from diffindo, and diffidit from diffido, indico, and indico, permănet from permăneo, and permānet from permāno, effodit, in the present, and effodit in the perfect; so, exedit and exēdit; devenit and devenit; devěnĭmus and devēnimus; reperimus and reperimus; effugit and effugit, &c.

The change of a vowel or diphthong in the compound does not alter the quantity; as, incido from in and cădo; incido from in and cœdo; suffoco from sub and faux, faucis: unless the letter following make it fall under some general rule; as, admitto, percello, deosculor, prohibeo.

Exc. 1. Agnitum, cognitum, dējēro, pejĕro, innŭba, pronŭba, maledicus, veridicus, nihilum, semiṣõpitus; from notus, juro, nubo, dico, hilum, and sopio: ambitus, a

participle from ambio, is long; but the substantives ambitus and ambitio are short. Connubium has the second syllable common.

Exc. 2. The preposition PRO is short in the following words: profundus, profugio, profugus, pronepos, proneptis, profestus, profari, profiteor, profānus, profecto, procella, protervus, and propago, a lineage; pro in propago, a vine stock or shoot, is long. Pro in the following words is doubtful: propago, to propagate; propino, profundo, propello, propulso, procuro, and Proserpina.

Exc. 3. The inseparable prepositions SE and DI are long; as, sēpăro, divello : except dirimo, disertus. Re is short; as, remitto, refero: except in the impersonal verb refert, compounded of res and fero.

Exc. 4. E, I, O, in the end of the former compounding word are usually shortened; as, trecenti, nefas, neque, patěfacio, &c. Capricornus, omnipotens, agricõla, signìfico, biformis, aliger, Trivia, tubicen, &c. Duodecim, hodie, sacrosanctus, &c. But from each of these there are many exceptions. Thus i is long when it is varied by cases; as, quidam, quivis, tantīdem, eidem, &c. And when the compounding words may be taken separately; as, ludimagister, lucrifacio, siquis, &c. Idem in the masculine, is long; in the neuter, short: also, ubique, ibidem. But in ubivis and ubicunque, the i is doubtful.

ACCENT.

Accent is the tone of the voice with which a syllable is pronounced.

In every word of two or more syllables, one syllable is sounded higher than the rest, to prevent monotony, or an uniformity of sound, which is disagreeable to the ear.

When accent is considered with respect to the sense, or when a particular stress is laid upon any word, on account of the meaning, it is called Emphasis.

There are three accents, distinguished by their different sounds; acute, gruve, and circumflex.

1. The acute or sharp accent raises the voice in pronunciation, and is thus marked [']; as, prófero, próffer.

2. The grave or base accent depresses the voice, or keeps it in its natural tone; and is thus marked []; as, doctè. This accent properly belongs to all syllables which have no other.

The circumflex accent first raises and then sinks the voice in some degree on the same syllable; and is therefore placed only upon long syllables. When written, it has this mark, made up of the two former [^]; as, amâre.

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The accents are hardly ever marked in English books, except in dictionaries, grammars, spellingbooks, or the like, where the acute accent only is used.

The accents are likewise seldom marked in Latin books, unless for the sake of distinction; as, in these adverbs, aliquò, continuò, doctè, unà, &c. to distinguish them from certain cases of adjectives, which are spelt in the same way. So poētâ, gloriâ, in the ablative: fructûs, tumultûs, in the genitive nostrum, vestrum, the genitive of nos and vos: ergo, on account of; occidit, he slew; Pompili, for Pompilii; amâris, for amaveris, &c.

VERSE.

A verse is a certain number of long and short syllables, disposed according to rule.

It is so called, because when the number of syllables requisite is completed, we always turn back to the beginning of a new line.

The parts into which we divide a verse, to see if it have its just number of syllables, are called Feet.

A verse is divided into different feet, rather to ascertain its measure or number of syllables, than to regulate its pronunciation.

FEET.

Poetic feet are either of two, three, or four syllables. When a single syllable is taken by itself, it is called a Casura, which is commonly a long syllable.

1. Feet of two syllables.

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The following are not so much used:

Molossus,
Amphibrachys,
Bacchius,
Antibacchius,

děléctant.

hònôrè.

dělōrés.
pelluntur.

3. Feet of four syllables.
Proceleusmaticus,
Dispondeus,

Dijambus,
Choriambus,
Ditrochæus,

hominibus.

ōrātōrēs.

ămænĭtās.

pontifices.
cantilenă.

Antispastus,
Ionicus major,
lonicus minor,
Pæon primus,
Pæon secundus,

N

Pæon tertius,
Pæon quartus,
Epitrītus primus,
Epitritus secundus,
Epitritus tertius,
Epitritus quartus,

Alexander.
calcaribus.
propĕrābānt.
temporibus.
potentiă.
ănimālus.
cělĕritās.
võluptātēs.
pænitentēs.
discordias.
fortūnātus.

SCANNING.

The measuring of verse, or the resolving of it into the several feet of which it is composed, is called Scanning.

When a verse has just the number of feet requisite, it is called Versus Acatalectus, or Acatalecticus, an Acatalectic verse: if a syllable be wanting, it is called Catalecticus: if there be a syllable too much, Hypercatalecticus, or Hypermĕter.

The ascertaining whether the verse be complete, defective, or redundant, is called Depositio, or Clausula.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERse.

1. HEXAMETER.

The Hexameter or Heroic verse consists of six feet. Of these the fifth is a dactyle, and the sixth a spondee; all the rest may be either dactyles or spondees; as,

Lúděrě | quæ vēl- | lēm călă- | mō pēr- | misit ǎ- | grėsti. Virg.
Infan- | dūm Rē- | gīnă, jŭ- | bės rěně- vārě dŏ-lōrēm. Id.

A regular Hexameter line cannot have more than seventeen syllables, or fewer than thirteen. Sometimes a spondee is found in the fifth place, whence the verse is called Spondaic: as,

Cără Dĕ- | úm sõbŏ- | lês må- | gnům Jõvis | incrē- | mēntum. Virg.

This verse is used when any thing grave, slow, large, sad, or the like, is expressed. It commonly has a dactyle in the fourth place, and a word of four syllables in the end.

Sometimes there remains a superfluous syllable at the end. But this syllable must either terminate in a vowel, or in the consonant m, with a vowel before it so as to be joined with the following verse, which in the present case must always begin with a vowel; as,

Omniă | Mercuri- | ō sìmì- | lis võ- | cémquě cò- | lōremque
Et flavos crines

Virg.

Those Hexameter verses sound best, which have dactyles and spondees alternately; as,

Virg.

Ludere quæ vellem calamo permisit agresti.
Pinguis et ingratæ premeretur caseus urbi. Id.

Or which have more dactyles than spondees; as,

Tityre tu patulæ recubans sub tegmine fagi. Id.

It is esteemed a great beauty in a Hexameter verse, when by the use of dactyles and spondees, the sound is adapted to the sense; as,

Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum. Virg.
Illi inter sese magna vi brachia tollunt. Id.

Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptum. Id.
Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt. IJ.

But what deserves particular attention in scanning Hexameter verse, is the CÆSURA.

Casura is when, after a foot is completed, there remains a syllable, at the end of a word to begin a new foot; as,

At rẻ-gină gră-vi jām-dudum, &c.

The Casura is variously named, according to the different parts of the hexameter verse in which it is found. When it comes after the first foot, or falls on the third half-foot, it is called by a Greek name, Triemimĕris: when on the fifth half-foot or the syllable after the second foot, it is called Penthemimeris: when it happens on the first syllable of the fourth foot, or the seventh half-foot, it is called Hepthemimĕris: and when on the ninth half-foot, or the first syllable of the fifth foot, it is called Enneemimĕris.

All these different species of the Casura sometimes occur in the same verse; as,

Illě lǎ-tús nivě-ům mōl-li fül-tūs hyă-cinthō. Virg.

But the most common and beautiful Casura is the penthemim; on which some lay a particular accent or stress of the voice in reading a hexameter verse thus composed, whence they call it the Casural pause: as,

Tityre dum rede- O, brevis est via, pasce capellas. Virg.

When the Casura falls on a syllable naturally short, it renders it long; as, the last syllable of fultus in the foregoing example.

The chief melody of a hexameter verse in a great measure depends on the proper disposition

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