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C. Julius Caesar m. Aurelia

Caesar the Dictator

Atius Balbus in. Julia

C. Octavius m. Atia

C. Octavius (Augustus). 8. ex dodrante : the fractions of an estate were expressed in terms of the AS and its twelfth parts, UNCIAE ; dodrans is de quadrans, i.e. f ; see Justinian, Institutes, II. 14. 5. Lucium Pinarium : grandson of Caesar's elder sister; he served against Brutus and Cassius; App., B. C. III. 22 ; IV. 107. Quintum Pedium : also a grandson of Caesar's elder sister; though it has been argued that, considering his age, he was more probably her son; legatus of Caesar in Gaul in 57 B.C., praetor in 48 B.C.; enjoyed a triumph in 45 b.c. for his campaign in Spain ; consul with Octavianus in the autumn of 43 B. c. ; died at the beginning of the Second Triumvirate, during the excitement of the proscription. ex quadrante : they were to divide the fourth equally between them.

9. in ima cera : at the end of the will, which was written on waxed tablets; Introd. II. & 2. c.

10. adoptavit : the more correct word would be adscivit; for quasiadoption by testament, cf. Cic., de Off. III. 18. 74 ; Brut. LVIII. 212; Nep., Att. V. 2; this book, page 107, line 16; Tib. 6. 3; Octavius was sui iuris and 18 years old, and he had his adoption confirmed by a lex curiata, which was necessary for an arrogatio inter vivos ; Bouché-Leclercq, Manuel des Institutions Romaines, 387; Roby, Roman Private Law, I. 59, note.

11. in tutoribus: guardians could be named by fathers in their wills for sons under 14; it was for a possible posthumous son that he was providing, not for Octavius.

12. secundis heredibus : a technical expression ; Introd. II. § 1. c. To guard against the possible failure of the first named heir or heirs, a second set were ordinarily named in a will; to guard against their failure a third set might be named, and so on. This was called substitutio vulgaris. Three grades of heirs were mentioned in the will of Augustus, page 107, line 18. See Justinian, Institutes, II. 15. The Romans had a religious or superstitious horror of dying intestate, either by leaving no will or by the failure of the heirs appointed. hortos: at the base of the Janiculum ; cf. Hor., Sat. I. 9. 18.

13. publice : for the use of the public as a park.

Chapter 84. Funeral 15. indicto : by a crier or a herald, as was usual in the case of Roman nobles.

16. iuxta Iuliae tumulum: See note to page 12, line 26. ad simulacrum : i.e. it was a small model of the temple.

17. intra : adverb; Introd. II. § 5. m.

19. tropaeum : a likeness of a trophy erected on a battle field after a victory. fuerat: for erat; Introd. II. $ 7. h.

20. munera : offerings to be cast on the pyre and burned with the body ; — clothes, arms, ornaments, spices, perfumes, and the like.

21. omisso ordine : not waiting for the regular procession ; the time on the day of the funeral would be too short.

22. Inter ludos : it was the custom to hold games, and especially theatrical shows, as part of the obsequieś of great personages ; e.g. Terence's Hecyra was acted for the second time and his Adelphoe for the first time at the funeral games of Aemilius Paulus in 160 B. C.

24. Pacuvi: the tragic author of this name was contemporary with Ennius and the Second Punic War. Armorum Iudicio : a tragedy dealing with the contest between Ajax and Ulysses for the arms of the dead Achilles. The quotation is from a complaint of Ajax.

Cf. App., B. C. II. 146.

25. Men : = mene; me is the subject of servasse, exclamatory infinitive.

26. Acili : some editors read Atili, for this unknown Acilius; see Teuffel and Schwabe, History of Roman Literature, § 107. 2. Laudationis loco : it was dangerous for Antony to commit himself, in an outspoken manner, in the excited state of public feeling. His position was insecure and he could not have yet made up his mind as to his future policy. His method was well adapted to test the feelings of the populace, and to excite regret for Caesar.

27. senatus consultum : cf. chaps. 76 and 78. 1; App., B. C. II. 144. 600, 601.

29. item: Introd. II. $6. h. (2). ius iurandum : cf. App., B.C. II. 145. 604.

30. a se: on his own account ; Introd. II. $ 5. a. (4).

31. Lectum : the bier. rostris : the Rostra Iulia is meant, close by the Regia ; the temple of Deified Julius was afterward built at this spot; see Platner, Ancient Rome?, 183–186.

Page 44. 2. duo quidam: no doubt representing Castor and Pollux. Quidam is also used of the apparition at the Rubicon, page 16, line 27. Both passages are highly dramatic.

3. cereis : sc. funibus or funalibus; Introd. II. § 3. b. 4. tribunalia : belonging to the courts in the Forum.

5. ad donum: by way of offering ; cf. munera, page 43, line 20, and note; for ad see Introd. II. $ 5. b. (6).

6. scaenici artifices : perhaps they were present, ready to act a play, or perhaps they were to personate Caesar's ancestors in the funeral procession.

11. bullas : these amulets were usually of gold and were worn on the necks of children of the higher classes.

13. circulatim : forming groups (circulos).

14. Iudaei : humane treatment of the Jews was a part of the enlightened policy of Caesar.

Chapter 85. Popular Disorders

6

16. domum: one would naturally expect domos with the two genitives. It is not likely that Brutus and Cassius lived in one house.

17. Helvium Cinnam : cf. page 27, line 3, and note; Gell., XIX. 9. 8 and 13. 5; Val. Max., IX. 9. 1; Dio, XLIV. 50. 4; App., B. C. II. 147. 613; Plut., Brut. XX. The unfortunate error which caused his death made him famous.

18. quasi Cornelius (Cinna) is esset : Introd. II. § 8. i.

19. requirebat: reminding of our Western slang: was looking for'.

21. lapidis Numidici : a mottled yellow marble, giallo antico. The column probably stood near the ara Caesaris, remains of which are still visible. The altar was demolished with spectacular violence by Dolabella, consul suffectus in 44 B.C., but Augustus built a temple to Julius on the spot, which was twice afterward restored, and of which considerable remains still exist.

23. longo tempore : Introd. II. § 4. q.

Chapter 86.

Why Caesar had failed to take Precautions

28. religiones: this noun, though abstract, occurs not seldom in the plural ; e.g. page 97, line 32.

32. tadinspectantium : the reading of the text here is very doubtful. Ihm's is adsectantium, attending him'. e diverso : cf. page 61, line 8; Introd. II. $ 5. j. (2). Page 45.

1. cavere : the lacuna may be filled as in Roth's text: sollicitum maluisse. Quidam dicere etiam.

4. potentiae . abunde : Introd. II. § 4. e.

Chapter 87. Preference for a Sudden Death 10. apud Xenophontem : in the Cyropaedia, VIII. 7, especially $ 25.

13. pridie quam : = die ante quam; we may attribute the use of the subjunctive here to the influence of the cum-construction, just as, for example, with the dum-clause in Liv., I. 40. 7, dum . . . averteret.

14. apud Marcum Lepidum: later one of the Second Triumvirate, then Magister Equitum ; cf. Plut., Caes. LXIII; App., B. C. II. 115. 479.

15. repentinum inopinatumque : ån poo obkntos is the word in Plutarch (Caes. LXIII).

Chapter 88. Deification 16. sexto et quinquagensimo . anno: this would fix the date of his birth as 100 B.C. See note to page 1, line 1. 17. ore ..

decernentium : i.e. by a formal decree; Introd. II. § 3. a.

18. ludis : celebrated by Octavianus. Cf. Plin., N. H. II. 25. 93, quos faciebat Veneri, etc.

19. consecrato: when he was deified. ei : it would more usual to omit the pronoun.

stella crinita : a comet, identified by the people with the spirit of the deified Julius. Augustus suggested or at any rate profited by this idea: see Dio, XLV. 7; Plut., Caes. LXIX.

24. Curiam: in Pompey's theater; see page 41, line 22. placuit: the coördinate subjects are the two infinitives and the ne-clause.

Chapter 89. Fate of the Assassins 28. sua morte : by a natural death ; cf. Sen., Ep. 69. 6. Damnati omnes : by the lex Pedia. This law annulled the amnesty voted just after the Ides of March 44, B.C. As to Q. Pedius see note to page 43, line 8.

It is said that Brutus and Cassius killed themselves with the same daggers with which they had murdered Caesar; cf. Plut., Caes. LXIX; Dio, XLVIII. 1. 1.

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(a) Ancharia m. 17. C. Octavius m. (6) Atia m. L. Marcius Philippus | Praetor, 61 B.C.; d. 58 B.C. 1

(a) Clodia m.

43–41 B.O. 18. Octavia Maior m. Sex. Appuleius (a) C. Marcellus m. 19. Octavia Minor m. (6) M. Antonius (6) Scribonia m. ( 20. C. Octavius m. (c) Livia Drusilla

40-39 B.C. | (Augustus) Sex. A ppuleius Consul, 29 B.C.

M. Marcellus m. Curule aedile, 23 B.O.

3. Cn. Octavius Consul, 165 B.C.; d. 162 B.C.

4. Cn. Octavius

Consul, 128 B.C.

11. M. Octavius Plebeian tribune, 133 B.C.

5. Cn. Octavius

Consul, 87 B.C.

7. M. Octavius
Plebeian tribune, about 90 B.C.

6. L. Octavius

Consul, 75 B.O.

8. Cn. Octavius Consul, 76 B.C.

10. <Octavius>

d. 53 B.C.

9. M. Octavius Curule aedile, 50 B.C.

14. C. Octavius Roman knight

15. C. Octavius Military tribune, 216 B.C.

16. C. Octavius

M. Atius Balbus m. Julia

Consul, 50 B.C. d. 11 B.o.

Julia

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