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for a single book. He improved typeEarth Moss. Phascum cuspidatum.
metal, by giving it that degree of hardDedicated to St. Chrysostom.
ness, which has been a desideratum in founderies of this kind; and discovered a
new method of facilitating the process of January 28.
melting and casting. From his foundery St. Agres.-Second Commemoration. he sent types to Russia, Sweden, Poland, St. Cyril, A. D. 444. Sts. Thyrsus, Leu
and even America. He also improved cius, and Callinicus. St. John of
the printing-press. Reomay, A. D. 540. Blessed Margaret,
Besides this, his inquiries into the origin Princess of Hungary, A. v. 1271.
and progress of the art of printing, furSt. Paulinus, A. D. 804. Blessed
nished the materials of a history, which Charlemagne, Emperor, A. D.
he left behind in manuscript. He pub
814. St. Glastian, of Fife, A. D. 830.
lished in 1784, the first part of “ An At
tempt to illustrate the origin of playingSt. Thyrsus.
cards, the introduction of paper made Several churches in Spain are dedicated from linen, and the invention of engraving to him. In 777, the queen of Oviedo and on wood in Europe ;" the latter part was Asturia presented one of them with a finished, but not published, before his silver chalice and paten, a wash-hand death. His last publication was a small basin and a pipe, which, according to “ Treatise on Bibliography,” &c. pubButler, is “ a silver pipe, or quill to suck lished in 1793, with his reasons for reup the blood of Christ at the communion, taining the present German characters. such as the pope sometimes uses—it sucks With the interruption of only five or six up as a nose draws up air.”
hours in the twenty-four, which he allowed CHRONOLOGY,
for sleep, his whole life was devoted ?
study and useful employment. John Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf, a celebrated printer, letter-founder, and bookseller of Leipsic, died on this day, in Double Daisy. Bellis perennis plenus. the year 1794 : he was born there No Dedicated to St. Margaret of Hungary;. vember 23, 1719. After the perusal of a work by Albert Durer, in which the shape of the letters is deduced from mathema
Jamuary 29. tical principles, he endeavoured to fashion St. Francis of Sales, A. D. 1622. St. them according to the most beautiful Sulpicius Severus, A. D. 420. St.Gildas models in matrices cut for the pur the Abbot, A.D. 570. St. Gildas, the pose. His printing-office and letter Scot, A. D. 512. foundery acquired very high reputation. This being the anniversary of the king's It contained punches and matrices for accession to the throne, in 1820, is a 400 alphabets, and he employed the types Holiday at all the public offices, except the of Baskerville and Didot. Finding that Excise, Stamps, and Customs. engraving on wood had given birth to printing, and that the latter had contributed to the improvement of engraving,
Flowering Fern. Osmundu regalis he transferred some particulars, in the
Dedicated to St. Francis of Sales. province of the engraver, to that of the printer; and represented, by typography, all the marks and lines which occur in
January 30. the modern music, with all the accuracy
KING CHARLES'S MARTYRDOM, of engraving, and even printed maps and Holiday at the Public Ofces : except the mathematical figures with movable types;
Stamps, Customs, and Excise. though the latter he considered as a mat St. Bathildes, Queen of Navarre, A.D. 680. ter of mere curiosity : such was also ano St. Martina. St. Aldegondes, A. D. 660. ther attempt, that of copying portraits by jt. Barsimæus, A. D. 114. movable types. He likewise printed,
St. Martina. with movable types, the Chinese charac The Jesuit Ribadeneira relates that the ters, which are, in general, cut in pieces emperor Alexander IV., having decreed of wood, so that a whole house is often that all christians should sacrifice to the „Decessary :) contain the blocks employed Roman gods, or die, insinuated to St
Martina, that if she would conform to the
Lord Orford says,
one can scarce edict, he would make her his empress, conceive a greater absurdity than retainbut on her being taken to the temple, bying the three holidays dedicated to the a sudden earthquake the blockish idol of house of Stuart. Was the preservation of Apollo was broken in pieces, a fourth part James I. a greater blessing to England of his temple thrown down, and, with his than the destruction of the Spanish arruins, were crushed to death; his priests mada, for which no festival is established ? and many others, and the emperor him- Are we more or less free for the execution self, began to Ay." Whereupon St. of king Charles ? Are we at this day Martina taunted the emperor; and the still guilty of his blood? When is the devil, in the idol, rolling himself in the stain to be washed out? What sense is dust, made a speech to her, and another there in thanking heaven for the restora. to the emperor, and “ fled through the tion of a family, which it so soon became air in a dark cloud; but the emperor necessary to expel again ?" would not understand it.” Then the According to the “ Life of William emperor commanded her to be tortured. Lilly, written by himself,” Charles I. The jesuit's stories of these operations and caused the old astrologer to be consulted her escapes, are wonderfully particular. for his judgment. This is Lilly's account: According to him, hooks and stakes did “ His majesty, Charles I., having inher no mischi sbe had a faculty of trusted the Scots with his person, was, shining, which the pouring of hot lard for money, delivered into the hands of upon her would not quench ; when in the English parliament, and, by several gaol, men in dazzling white surrounded removals, was had to Hampton-court, her; she could not feel a hundred and about July or August, 1647; for he was eighteen wounds; a fierce lion, who had there, and at that time when my house fasted three days, would not eat her, and was visited with the plague. He was fire would not burn her; but a sword cut desirous to escape from the soldiery, and her head off in 228, and at the end of to obscure himself for some time near two days two eagles were found watching London, the citizens whereof began now her body.
“ That which above all con- to be unruly, and alienated in affection firmeth the truth of this relation,” says from the parliament, inclining wha!! Ribadeneira, “ is, that there is nothing to his majesty, and very averse to me herein related but what is in brief in the army. His majesty was well informed lessons of the Roman Breviary, com of all this, and thought to make good manded by public authority to be read use hereof: besides, the army and paron her feast by the whole church.” liament were at some odds, who should
be masters. Upon the king's intention CHRONOLOGY.
to escape, and with his consent, madam
Whorewood (whom you knew very well, On this day, in the year 1649, king worthy esquire) came to receive my Charles I. was beheaded. In the Com- judgment, viz. In what quarter of this mon Prayer Book of the Church of Eng- nation he might be most safe, and not land, it is called “The Day of the Martyr- to be discovered until himself pleased. dom of the Blessed King Charles I.;" When she came to my door, I told and there is “ A Form of Prayer, with her I would not let her come into my Fasting, to be used yearly” upon its re- house, for I buried a maid-servant of the
plague very lately : however, up we The sheet, which received the head of went. After erection of my figure, I Charles I. after its decapitation, is care- told her about twenty miles (or therefully preserved along with the commu- abouts) from London, and in Essex, I nion plate in the church of Ashburnham, in
was certain he might continue undisthis county ; the blood, with which it has covered. She liked my judgment very been almost entirely covered, now appears well; and, being herself of a sharp judgnearly black. The watch of the unfor- ment, remembered a place in Essex about tunate monarch is also deposited with the that distance, where was an excellent linen, the movements of which are still house, and all conveniences for his reperfect. These relics came into the pos- ception. Away she went, early next session of lord Ashburnham immediately morning, unto Hampton-court, to after the death of the king.-Brighton quaint his majesty ; but see the misHaraka
fortune: he, either guided by his own
approaching hard fate, or misguided by headed January 30, 1649. After the Ashburnhamn, went away in the night- execution, his body was carried to Windtime westward, and surrendered him- sor, and buried with Henry VIIIth, self to Hammond, in the Isle of Wight. in the same vault where his body was Whilst his majesty was at Hampton- lodged. Some, who saw him embowelled, court, alderman Adams sent his majesty affirm, had he not come unto this untimely one thousand pounds in gold, five hun- end, he might have lived, according unto dred whereof he gave to madam Whore- nature, even unto the height of old age. wood. I believe I had twenty pieces of Many have curiously inquired who it was that very gold for my share.” Lilly pro- that cut off his head: I have no permisceeds thus : “ His majesty being in sion to speak of such things; only thus Carisbrook-castle, in the Isle of Wight, much I say, he that did it is as valiant the Kentish men, in great numbers, rose and resolute a man as lives, and one of a in arnis, and joined with the lord Gor- competent fortune. For my part, I do ing; a considerable number of the best believe he was not the worst, but the ships revolted from the parliament; the most unfortunate of kings.” citizens of London were forward to rise Lilly elsewhere relates, “ that the next against the parliament ; his majesty laid Sunday but one after Charles I. was his design to escape out of prison, by beheaded, Robert Spavin, secretary unto sawing the iron bars of his chamber win- lieutenant-general Cromwell at that time, dow; a small ship was provided, and invited himself to dine with me, and anchored not far from the castle to bring brought Anthony Pierson, and several him into Sussex; horses were provided others, along with him to dinner. Their ready to carry him through Sussex into principal discourse all dinner-time was, Kent, that so he might be at the head of who it was beheaded the king : one said the army in Kent, and from thence to it was the common hangman; another, march immediately to London, where Hugh Peters; others also were nomithousands then would have armed for nated, but none concluded. Robert Spahim. The lady Whorewood came to me, vin, so soon as dinner was done, took me acquaints me herewith. I got G. Farmer by the hand, and carried me to the south (who was a most ingenious locksmith, window; saith he,' These are all mistaken, and dwelt in Bow-lane) to make a saw they have not named the man that did to cut the iron bars in sunder, I mean to the fact; it was lieutenant-colonel Joice : saw them, and aqua fortis besides. His I was in the room when he fitted himself majesty in a small time did his work; for the work, stood behind him when he the bars gave liberty for him to go out; did it; when done, went in again with he was out with his body till he came to him. There is no man knows this but my his breast; but then his heart failing, he master, viz. Cromwell, commissary Ireproceeded no farther: when this was ton, and myself.'-Doth not Mr. Rushdiscovered, as soon after it was, he was worth know it?' said I. 'No, he doth narrowly looked after, and no oppor- not know it,' saith Spavin. The same tunity after that could be devised to en- thing Spavin since hath often related large him."
unto me when we were alone.” Lilly goes on to say, “ kle was be
Surove TUESDAY regulates most of the list, the introduction of which on the next 'moveable feasts. Shrove Tuesday itself page puts the reader in possession of seris the next after the first new moon in the viceable knowledge on this point, and month of February. If such new moon affords an opportunity for affirming, should happen on a Tuesday, the next that Mr. Nicolas's book contains a vaTuesday following is Shrove Tuesday. A riety of correct and valuable informarecently published volume furnishes a tion not elsewhere in a collected form:
Pentecost or Whit Sunday, is the fit
tieth day and stventh Sunday after FROM
Easter day. “ Tables, Calendars, &c. for the use of His Quinquagesima Sunday, is so named
torians, Antiquaries, and the Legal Pro from its being about the fiftieth day fession, by N. H. Nicolas, Esq."
before Easter. It is also called Shrove Advent Sunday, is the nearest Sunday to Sunday.
the feast of St. Andrew, November Relick Sunday, is the third Sunday after 30th, whether before or after.
Midsummer-day. Ascension Day; or Holy Thursday, is the Rogation Sunday, is the fifth Sunday af
Thursday in Rogation week, i. e. the ter Easter day.
week following Rogation Sunday, Rogation Days are the Monday, Tuesday, Ash Wednesday, or the first day in lent, and Wednesday following Rogation is the day after Shrove Tuesday.
Sunday. Carle, or Care Sunday, or the fifth Sun- Shrove Sunday, is the Sunday next be
day in lent, is the fifth Sunday after fore Shrove Tuesday. It is also called Shrove Tuesday.
Quinquagesima Sunday. Corpus Christi, or Body of Christ, is a
Septuagesima Sunday, so called from festival kept on the Thursday after its being about the seventieth day beTrinity Sunday; and was instituted in
fore Easter, is the third Sunday before the year 1264.
Lent. Easter Day. The Paschal Sabbath. The Sexagesima Sunday, is the second Suu
Eucharist, or Lord's Supper, is the day before Lent, or the next to Shrove seventh Sunday after Shrove Tuesday, Sunday, so called as being about the and is always the first Sunday after sixtieth day before Easter. the first full moon, which happens on Trinity Sunday, or the Feast of the Holy or next after the 21st of March.
Trinity, is the next Sunday after Pen-. Easter Monday are the Monday and
tecost or Whitsuntide. Easter Tuesday
following Whit Sunday. See Pentecost. Easter day.
are the Monday and Ember Days, are the Wednesdays, Fri
following days, and Saturdays, after the first Sun
Whit Sunday. day in lent; after the Feast of Peate Whitsuntide, is the three days above
after Holy-rood Day, or the Feast mentioned. of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, viz. 14th September ; and after St.
Lucia's day, viz. 15th December. The Vigil or Eve of a feast, is the day Ember Weeks, are those weeks in which before it occurs. Thus the Vigil of the the Ember days fall.
feast of St. John the Baptist is the 23d The Eucharist. See Easter day.
of June. If the feast-day falls upon a Good Friday, is the Friday in Passion
Monday, then the Vigil or the Eve is Week, and the next Friday before Eas
kept upon the Saturday preceding. ter day.
The Morrow of a feast, is the day followHoly Thursday. See Ascension day.
ing: thus the feast of All Souls, is NoLent, a Fast from Ash Wednesday, to vember 2d, and the Morrow of All
the Feast of Easter, viz. forty days. Souls is consequently the 3d of NovemLords Supper. See Easter day.
ber. Low Sunday, is the Sunday next after
The Octave or Utas of each feast, is alEaster day.
ways the eighth day after it occurs ; Maunday Thursday, is the day before
for example, the feast of St. Hillary, is Good Friday,
the 13th of February, hence the Octave Midlent, or the fourth Sunday in Lent, is
of St. Hillary, is the 20th of that the fourth Sunday after Shrove Tues
In the Octaves, means within the eight Palm Sunday, or, the sixth Sunday in
days following any particular feast. Lent, is the sixth Sunday after Shrove
Is the ninth Sunday before Easter Sunday
King George IV. proclaimed. Holiday at the ExIs the seventh Sunday before Easter.
St. Peter Nolasco, A. D. 1258. St. SeIs the sixth Sunday before Easter, and
rapion, A. D. 1240. the first Sunday in Lent, which com
St. Cyrus and
John. St. Marcella, A. D. 410. St. mences on Ash Wednesday.
Maidoc, or Maodhog, alias Aidar, “ The earliest term of Septuagesima otherwise Mogué, Bishop of Ferns, Sunday is the 18th of January, when
"A. D. 1632. Easter day falls on the 22d of March ; the latest is the 22d of February, when
St. Peter Nolasco. Easter happens on the 25th of April ”
Ribadeneira relates, that on the 1st of Shepherd in his “Elucidation of the August 1216, the virgin Mary with a Book of Common Prayer” satisfactorily beautiful train of holy virgins appeared explains the origin of these days : to this saint at midnight, and signified
* When the words Septuagesima, Sex- it was the divine pleasure that a new agesima, and Quinquagesima were first order should be instituted under the applied to denote these three Sundays, title of Our Blessed Lady of Mercy, for the season of Lent had generally been
the redemption of captives, and that extended to a fast of six weeks, that is, king James of Aragon had the same thirty-six days, not reckoning the Sun vision at the same time, and “this order, days, which were always celebrated as
therefore, by divine revelation, festivals. At this time, likewise, the Sun founded upon the 10th, or as others say, day which we call the first Sunday in upon the 23d of August.” Then St. Lent, was styled simply Quadragesima, Peter Nolasco begged for its support, or the fortieth, meaning the fortieth day and thereby rendered himself offensive before Easter. Quadragesima was also to the devil. For once taking up his the name given to Lent, and denoted the lodging in private, some of the neighQuadragesimal, or forty days' fast. When bours told him, that the master of the the three weeks before Quadragesima house, a man of evil report, had lately ceased to be considered as weeks after died, and the place had ever since been the Epiphany, and were appointed to be inhabited by « night spirits," wherein observed as a time of preparation for he commended himself to the virgin and Lent, it was perfectly conformable to the other saints, and “instantly his admoniordinary mode of computation to reckon tors vanished away like smoke, leaving backwards, and for the sake of even and an intolerable scent behind them." These round numbers to count by decades.
of course were devils in disguise. Then The authors of this novel institution, and he passed the sea in his cloak, angels the compilers of the new proper offices, sung before him in the habit of his order, would naturally call
the first Sunday be- and the virgin visited his monastery; fore Quadragesima, Quinquagesima; the One night he went into the church and second, Sexagesima ; and the third, Sep- found the angels singing the service ‘uagesima. This reason corresponds instead of the monks; and at another with the account that seems to be at pre- time seven stars fell from heaven, and on rent most generally adopted.”
digging the ground “there, they found a There is much difference of opinion as
most devout image of our lady under a whether the fast of Lent lasted an
great bell," -and so forth. ciently during forty days or forty hours.
Hartstongue. Asplenium Scolopendium.
Dedicated to St. Marcella.