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The subject of the Catilina or Bellum Catilinarium is the conspiracy of Lucius Sergius Catilina against the city and government of Rome, B. C. 63. The conspiracy embraced the murder of many distinguished Roman citizens, the burning of Rome, the proscription of persons and the confiscation of property, and, generally, the entire subversion of the existing order of things, with Catiline and his adherents at the head of affairs.

The life of the great conspirator was stained with the darkest crimes. In addition to other murders, he killed, with his own hand, his brother-in-law, and, according to some authorities, his brother also; while a well-grounded suspicion pointed to him as the murderer of his wife and son. His vicious nature seemed to find a congenial sphere in deeds of violence, and in urging on others, particularly the young, to crime.

Catiline, though a monster of wickedness, possessed great natural abilities, and filled several important offices : he had been quaestor in the army

he was praetor in Rome in B. C. 68; propraetor of Africa in the following year; and even while engaged in maturing his conspiracy, was twice a candidate for the consulship. His great hope had been, as the first magistrate of the commonwealth, to use the arm of the government itself to execute his nefarious designs, and as both his applications for the consulship terminated unsuccessfully, he now resolved to throw off restraint and proceed to open violence. The conspiracy was matured toward the close of B. C. 63, and was an extensive one, embracing no less than eleven senators, four members of the equestrian order, besides many men of rank and influence in the provinces. Magazines of arms were secretly formed, and troops were levied in various parts of Italy, especially in the neighborhood of Faesulae,

of Sulla;

under the direction of Caius Manlius, one of the veteran centurions of Sulla ; while agents were despatched to different parts of Italy to organize a general revolt of the slave population.

Fortunately for Rome, Cicero was one of the consuls for the year, and through Fulvia, mistress of Curius, one of the conspirators, was promptly informed of all their proceedings. The senate declared Catiline and Manlius public enemies; directed the consuls to hold a levy with all speed; decreed that Antonius, Cicero's colleague in the consulship, should go forth to the war, and that Cicero should remain to guard the city.

Perceiving that his designs were now well known and that the consular army was moving upon him, Catiline led his forces, amounting to two legions, into the neighborhood of Pistoria, with the intention of crossing the Apennines and escaping into Gaul. But the disposition of the consular forces made escape impossible, and he therefore determined to trust to the hazard of an engagement. “ The rebels fought with the fury of despair, and long kept at bay the veterans by whom they were assailed. Catiline, in this his last field, nobly discharged the duties of a skilful general and a gallant soldier; his eye and his hand were everywhere; he brought up columns to support those who were most hotly pressed ; withdrew the wounded and weary, and supplied their place with the sound and fresh; flew from rank to rank encouraging the combatants, and strove by repeated feats of daring valor to turn the fortune of the day. But at length, perceiving that all was lost, he charged headlong where the foes were thickest, and fell sword in hand, fighting with resolute courage, worthy of a better cause and a better

His body was found, after the struggle was over, far in advance of his own ranks, in the midst of a heap of his enemies; he was yet breathing, and his features in the agonies of death still wore their habitual expression of reckless daring. His adherents, to the number of three thousand, imitated the example of their leader. Each perished at his post, and not one free-born citizen was taken alive, either in the fight or in the pursuit. But the fortune of Rome prevailed, the gambler was ruined, and the state saved.” Smith's Dict. of Greek and Roman Biography and Myth

ology. Page 93 1-14. Homines, subject accus. of niti, following the impersonal

verb decet. A. & S. 2 239 and 2 272 ; H. 375 (or 545) and 551, I. ; B. 1135 and 1136; A. 52, VI. In translating, the subject accus. is generally preceded by the conjunction that; sometimes, as here, it


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Page is best to omit it. Translate, all men to strive (endeavor). In 93 like manner sese is subject accus. of praestare, but it is best to omit it in translating. 2. Animalibus, dat. limiting the compound prae-stare, the prep. prae retaining its force in the compound (lit. to stand before). A. & S. 224, and Note 1; H. 386 ; B. 826 and 827; A. 51, V. Summa ope, with all their power. Ne transeant, that they should not pass through = in English idiom, not to pa88 through. Transeant, subjunct. of (negative) purpose after ne= that not. A. & S. $ 262, and Rem. 5; H. 489 and 491; B. 1205-07; A. 64, I. Vitam is governed by trans in composition. 3. Silentio, i.e. doing nothing that merits the commendation of our fellowmen: ablat. of manner. 4. Ventri =to the animal appetites. Obedientia, an adj. 5. Imperio, the empire, the directing power. A. & S. 2 245, I.; H. 419, I.; B. 880; A.54, III. 6. Alterum, alterum, the one -- - the other. 7. Quo, on which account, wherefore: ablat. of cause. 8. Ingeni=ingenii. Sallust always employs this contracted form of the genitive in -ii. Virium, of the bodily powers. 11. Formae, of beauty. 12. Habetur, is possessed is a possession. The meaning " is esteemedseems quite admissible. 13. Mortales homines. Vine, i. e. vi, and ne interrogative. Virtute, energy, vigor. 14. Procederet, succeeded : subjunct. of indirect question. A. & S. § 265; H. 525; B. 1182; A. 67, I. 1. In translating the subjunctive mood, use those auxiliary verbs (when such are needed) which best convey the real meaning. Very frequently the subjunctive requires to be rendered by the indicative. A. & S. 2 260, I.; H. 486, III. 2; A. 24, I.

15–26. Incipias, you begin: subjunct. of time and purpose. A. & S. & 263, 3; H. 521, II. ; B. 1241; A. 62, II. Consulto (lit. of its being deliberated), of deliberation : a perf. part. used as a noun in the ablat. limiting opus. A. & S. % 243, and Rem. 1 (a); H. 419, V. 3, 1); B. 923, 926; A. 54, VII. Mature facto (of its being done quickly), of early action. “'T were well it were done quickly.” 16. Utrumque, sc. est. 17. Auxilio. A. & S. & 250, 2. (2); H. 419, III. ; B. 907; A. 54, VI. 18. Igitur, then ; with a resumptive rather than an illative force. Initio, ablat. of time when. 19. Divorsi, not “ different" but (lit. “ turned in different directions ") pursuing different courses. Pars — alii, some others : in partitive apposition with reges. 21. Sua, his own affairs, what each one had. Cuique =him. 22. Cyrus, the elder. 24. Lubidinem the later form libidinem. Habere, to regard, consider. 25. Maxumam =the later form maximam. 26. Periculo, by proof, experiment. Compertum est = the discovery was made :

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Page 93 impersonally, i. e. without an expressed subject, the subject and

verb being apparently contained together in a single form. In such cases it is often best to form a subject out of the substantive iden

(discovery, disclosure, etc.) implied in the verb. 94 1-17. Plurumum posse =was the most powerful. Quod si but if. 2. Virtus, energy. Ita ut

3. Valeret – haberent, subjunct. of condition (in protăsis and apodõsis). A. & S. Ở 261, 1; H. 502-4; B. 1267; A. 59, IV. 2. 4. Aliud — ferri = one thing carried in ne direction, another in another ; thought whose explanation is found in the following clause. 6. Artibus, means, practices, qualities. 7. Pro, in place of. 8. Invasere, have made inroads. 10. Optumum quemque =the best, the most deserving. A. & S. § 207, Rem. 35 (6); H. 458, 1; B. 1052; A. 17, V. 4. 11. Quae – arant. An odd expression ; meaning the ploughing that men do. What Sallust here gains in conciseness he loses in clearness. Virtuti, energy. 13. Sicuti peregrinantes, i. e. merely as spectators, without taking part in the real duties of life, or promoting the welfare of their fellow-men. 14. Quibus voluptati. A. & S. 227; H. 390; B. 848 ; A. 51, VII. 16. Juxta, equally, i. e. I make no account of either. 17. Siletur =sin lence is maintained. See note on compertum est, line 26, p. 93.

17-39. Verum enimvero =yes truly, in truth. 18. Negotio, ablat. of cause, 19. Artis, profession, talent. 20. Aliud alii iter, one road to one, another to another. 23. Bene dicere, to speak well, to be gifted as an orator : absolutely. Pace, ablat. of time when. 24. Clarum agrees with the implied subject (se, one) of fieri. 25. Mihi limits videtur. 27. In primis (=imprimis), especially. 28. Res gestas =history, historical events. Dictis, by the words, manner of expression, style: ablative. The facts must be fairly and fully represented. 29. Quae delicta ea delicta quae. 30. Reprehenderis, perf. subjunct. (of possibility). Dicta (esse). 31. Virtute – gloria, the merit and the renown. Memores, you make mention. Subjunct. of condition, ubi being here nearly the same as si. “A clause introduced by a relative conjunction (when, since, and the like), may be considered as equivalent to a conditional clause." A. & S. 261; Rem. 2; H. 513; A. 59, II. 32. Factu, to do. The supine in u may be used either actively or passively. Aequo animo = with composure, i. e. he does not question them. 33. Supra ea = beyond that, i. e. what he can do himself. Veluti ficta, like things (really or professedly) fictitious. 35. Ibique, i. e. in my political career.

Page 37. Quae = these things. A. & S. & 206, (17); H. 453 ; B. 701 ; A. 94 21, II. 39. Artium, practices, limits insolens. A. & S. & 213; H. 399; B. 765; A. 50, III. 3.

1-20. Corrupta agrees with aetas. Cum, although ; hence 95 followed by concessive subjunct. dissentirem. A. & S. § 263, 5; H. 518, I.; B. 1282; A. 61, 2. 2. Nihilo minus = nevertheless, nihilo being ablat. of specification. 3. Quae ceteros, sc. vexabat. Fama – invidia, on account of the abuse and envy (to which it gave rise) : ablat. of cause. The reading of the MSS. is various. 6. Requievit, found rest, and bad leisure for reflection. Mihi, dat. of the agent after habendam (esse). A re publica,

from public affairs, public life. 8. Bonum otium, my fair leisure. 9. Colendo, a gerund in the dat. governed by intentum (which agrees with me understood). Servilibus officiis. The sentiment here expressed shows the degeneracy and luxury to which the Romans were tending. The earlier Romans delighted to remember that Cincinnatus, when invested with the dictatorship, was guiding the plough. 10. Studio, pursuit. 12. Carptim, in detached portions. “From this passage of Sallust, it appears that the history of Catiline's conspiracy was his first literary production.An. Ut quaeque, as they severally, according as each. 13. Eo, on this account, for this reason : ablat. of cause. 14. Partibus, the political parties ; or, the party spirit. 17. In primis (=imprimis), particularly, especially. 18. Novitate, on account of the strangeness, unusual nature . ablat. of cause. Cujus = this, of this. 19. Moribus, character. Prius and quam, though often written priusquam, are really separate words (prius = 800ner, quam = than). 20. Faciam, I make: subjunct. A. & S. & 263, 3; H. 521, II.; B. 1241; A. 62, II.

21-39. Genere = family. A. & S. & 246; H. 425; B. 918; A. 54, VIII. Vi, ablat. of quality. A. & S. & 211; Rem. 6; H. 428; B. 888; A.54, II. 24. Grata. In what gender and number ? A. & s. 2 205; Rem. 2, (2); H. 439, 2, 3); B. 654; A. 47, II. (2). Ibique =et in eis, and in these. 26. Supra

27. Cujus lubet (libet) = cujuslibet, from quilibet. 28. Alieni, of (for) what belonged to others. Sui, of what was his own. From suus. 29. Satis. sc. ei erat = he had. 30. Vastus, his insatiable, prodigious. 31. Luci Lucii. 32. Rei - capiundae, of seizing the govern

33. Adsequeretur, indirect question. Dum, provided; hence pararet, subjunct. of condition. A. & S. % 263, 2 ; H. 503, I.; B. 1259, in fin.; A. 61, 3. 34. Quicquam -- habebat, did he

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