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Punicis oppida (more commonly ex Punicis oppidis), Most of the Carthaginian towns :" quos novissime habuerant,

“ which they (the Carthaginians) had very lately possessed,” viz., at the beginning of the third Punic war: imperitabat, same as imperabat, “ruled,” "governed :" præter nomen cetera, &c., “as to other things except the name ignorant of a stranger to) the Roman people.” Here ignarus has its usual active sense, and is followed by its object in the genitive. $ 107, R. ix. For the accusative cetera, see $ 128, Obs. 1, Exc.

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XX.-1. Diviso regno. Sallust here takes up the history from Ch. XVI.: decessere, “had departed.” § 44, III., 3: præemia sce leris adeptum sese, “that he had obtained the rewards of his villany,”namely impunity, and the half of Numidia, instead of the third : quodacceperat, “ which he had heard.” Ch. VIII. 2. Quer petebat, “At whom he aimed," “whom he designed to attack:”

opportunus injuriæ, "a fit subject for injustice," "who might be injured with impunity,” “ easily trampled upon.”

3. Capit, “Seizes :" dolore permotum, “stung with resentment.” - 4. At ille, scil., Adherbal : - fretus erat, “depended,” lit., “was depending :" amicitia, Numidis. $ 119, R. xxiii. : questum (supine), "to complain :" contumeliosa dicta, “an insulting answer:” tentatum antea secus cesserat, “when attempted before, it had turned out otherwise (than he expected).” 5. Neque eo, “Nor by that,” viz., the complaint of Adherbal: quippe qui, &c., "since he in his mind had already seized on the whole of his [Adherbal's] kingdom.” 6. Vastare, &c., historical infinitives:

prædas agere,

“drove off the booty,” scil., cattle or live stock, such as can be taken off by driving, as the word



XXI.-1. Eo processum, “It had come to that,” “that matters had come to such a pass :" Jugurtho obvius procedit, "advances to meet Jugurtha.” § 111, R. xvi. 2. Prope Cirtam oppidum. $ 136, Obs. 5.

A city of Numidia, once the royal residence, and a place of great wealth under Syphax, situate on the river Ampsagas, about 48 miles from the sea. 3. Processit, “Had advanced.” § 44, III., 3: obscuro etiam tum lumine, “the light being even yet very faint,” i. e., “at early dawn :"


alios alios alios, distributing eos, scil., hostes understood, meaning the soldiers of Adherbal. 4. Togatorum, Of Roman citizens.” The toga was the badge of Roman citizenship, as the pallium was of Greek: manibus prohibuit, “repelled from the walls :" coeptum atque patratum foret, “would have been begun and ended.” . 5. Vineis. The Vinece were sheds erected by the Romans, with a roof of wicker work covered over with earth or raw hides, to prevent theni srom being easily set on fire. They were moved up against the walls on wheels or rollers, and under their shelter the soldiers worked the battering ram (aries), or undermined the walls : turribus. The towers used in the Roman military works were of two kinds, fixed, and movable. They were structures of wood, sufficiently high to overlook and command the enemy's walls; and from them, showers of arrows, darts, and other missiles were thrown by means of engines. When once erected or brought up against a town, it was seldom able to hold out long. See Cæsar, Index, Turris and vinece.

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6. Tempus legatorum antecapere, To anticipate the time (of the return) of the ambassadors.” 7. Accepit. “ Heard :" qui adeant verbis nuntient, “to go to," — "to announce to them * in the words,” &c. $ 141, Obs. 2, 4th. 8. Velle et censere, “That they desired and commanded.” Velle refers to the people, and censere to the determination of the senate after due deliberation :

eos, they,” scil., Jugurtha and Adherbal: jure, “by law:" ita (facere) seque illisque dignum esse, “that to do thus was befitting both the Romans and them.” Se refers to the Roman people and senate, illis, to Jugurtha and Adherbal.

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XXII.1. Clemens erat, “Was mild." 2. Quorum Jugurtha, &c., “Jugurtha, on hearing their commission, replied :" ab optimo quoque, “ by all good men.” § 98, Obs. 13: placuisse-adoptatum (esse). § 47, 2: non malitia, “not by wicked conduct:" ob easdem artes, “that for this conduct,” lit., “for these good quali

3. Quo plura, “The more:” co animum suum, &c., “ the less could his spirit brook injury.” § 132, Obs. 6. 4. Neque recte neque pro bono facturum (esse), “Would act neither justly nor for their own interest :" si ab jure gentium sese prohibuerit, “if they debarred him (Jugurtha) from the right of nations,” namely, to avenge his own wrongs.

5. Utrique digrediuntur, “Both parties (Jugurtha and the ambassadors) separate." 6. Adherbalis appellandi (illis) copia non fuit, “They had not an opportunity of speaking to Adherbal.” § 147, R. lxii.


XXIII.-1. Neque potest,

“ And he could not:”. exstruit, he erects (fixed) towers:” tentare, ostentare, &c. § 144, Obs. 6:

modo formidinem, “sometimes intimidation :" arrigere, “excited :" prorsus intentus, “always on the alert.' 2. Hostem infestum, “That his enemy was implacable," " was bent on his ruin:" una,“ with him:”

miserando casum suum,“ by deploring his own condition ” — with a view to excite their compassion. 3. Litteræ Adherbalis-recitato (sunt), “The letter of Adherbal was read aloud :" sententia, “the purport.”

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XXIV. -1. In animo habeat, “He regards in his mind,” or simply, “he regards :" malit, “he would rather have.” 2. Mihi-auxiliantur, “ Afford relief to me:”

3. Plura de Jugurtha, &c., “My unhappy con

urguear, ancient

form of urgear.

dition discourages me from writing more concerning Jugurtha." 4. Nisi tamen intellego, “But still (this I may say) I understand,” &c.

5. Utrum gravius existimet, “Which of the two he thinks the more important” (scil., your friendship or my kingdom). This clause is the subject of est. He means to say, it is clear to every one that Jugurtha prefers his kingdom to the friendship of the Roman people.

6. Quæ ($ 99, Obs. 8.) sane fuerint, “Whatever indeed may have been our injuries,” i. e., “injuries done to us :" nihil ad vos, “it did not concern you.” - 7. Quanti fecerit, “How much he valued.” $ 133, Exc. This clause is the object of declarant. 8. Quid reliquum, &c., What is there left by which he can be moved :" vana forent, were groundless:” fidem verbis faceret, “should gain credit to my words." 9. Eo, “To this end,” “to this fate :"

ut Jugurthæ scelerum ostentui (aliis) essem, “that I should be a spectacle (to others) of the villanies,” &c., i. e., “that I should serve to display (to others) the villanies of Jugurtha.” § 114, R. xix. : uti libet, as you please,” lit., “as it pleases you.”

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XXV.-1. Fuere, qui censerent, $ 141, Obs. 1, "Some gave it as their opinion :" Adherbali subveniundum (esse), “that assistance should be rendered to Adherbal.” § 112, R. v.: de Jugurtha, &c.,n “ that in the meantime it should be deliberated;" i. e., “ that the senate should deliberate concerning Jugurtha;” in other words, “that the conduct of Jugurtha should be taken into consideration." 2. Summa ope enisum (est), — impers.— “Every effort was made.” It appears the effort too was successful. 3. Majores natu, Young

(adolescentes) had been sent before, Ch. XXI.; now “elderly men” are sent; i. e., men of more influence and weight of character :

M. Scaurus. Ch. XV., 4: in senatu princeps, “the leader in the senate.” The senator was called princeps whose name was first marked in the censor's list of senators. This, though it bestowed no privilege, was esteemed a high honor, carrying with it the judgment of the censor, that he was the most worthy. 4. Res in invidia erat, “The affair was involved in great odium :" navim ascendere, “embarked.” § 144, Obs. 6:

quam ocissime, as speedily as possible.” § 134, Obs. 6, 3d : ad provinciam accedat, “to come to the province,” scil., of Africa. The expression litteras mittunt implies a command, hence the subjunctive following it; ut being understood. $ 145, Obs. 5, 3d. Before the clause seque ad, &c., supply dicentes, “saying." 5. Metu atque libidine diversus ($ 98, Obs. 10.) agita

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batur, “Was variously agitated by fear and ambition :" cupidine cæcus, “ blinded by his eagerness (for dominion):” ad inceptum, &c., “urged him on to the wicked enterprise already begun.” 6. Vicit, “ Prevailed:” exercitu circumdato, “his army being posted around (on every side):” Cirtam, i. e., in Cirtam. This ellipsis is nearly peculiar to Sallust: diducta manu hostium, “ the force of the enemy being divided,” viz., to meet the troops of Jugurtha making an attack on every side : casuin victoria, chance of victory.” 7. Quod ubi, “When this." 8. Multa tamen oratione consumpta, “Yet after a long debate,” lit., many words being wasted :" frustra, “without having accomplished their object."


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XXVI.--1. Italici, the same as togati. Ch. XXI. : defensabantur, were wont to be vigorously defended.” Observe the force of the frequentative, and the imperfect. § 44, II., 1: deditione facta, “if (or when) a surrender should be made.” § 146, Obs. 9: tantum ab eo vitam paciscatur, “ that he should stipulate with him only for his life:” fore, used impersonally, “ that it would be.” 2. Potiora fide, “ More to be relied on than the promise :" penes eosdem (erat), “he was in their power.” 3. In primis, “ Among the first things:” excruciatum necat excruciat et necat, “tortures and puts to death,” lit., “puts to death after being tortured:”

negotiatores, “the merchants,” viz., the Italici above. This took place B. c. 112.

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2. Vir acer,

XXVII.-1. Quod postquam, After this." 99, Obs. 8: ministri regis, “ tools of the king” (scil., of Jugurtha); i. e., those senators who, by the bribes of Jugurtha, had been induced to defend him at all hazards: interpellando, " by interrupting” the course of business:

jurgiis,“ by altercations :" leniebant, “endeavored to soften.” § 44, II., 2.

“A spirited man:" id agi, “ that it was in agitation,” i. e., that the plan was:”

profecto omnis invidia, &c., “undoubtedly all indignation (against the conduct of Jugurtha) would have passed away by protracting the debates." 3. Delicti conscientia, From a consciousness of guilt.” 4. Lege Sempronia. Previous to this law provinces were assigned by the senate to the consuls after their election, or after they entered on their office. This gave rise often to corrupt intriguings with the senators, on the part of the consuls, for particular

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