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resve fuerant: tum ex iis, qui magistratus non cepissent, U. C. 538. qui spolia ex hoste fixa domi haberent, aut civicam coronam A. C. 216. accepissent. Ita, centum septuaginta septem cum ingenti approbatione homnium in senatum lectis, extemplo se magistratu abdicavit, privatusque de Rostris descendit, lictoribus abire jussis: turbæque se immiscuit privatas agentium res, tempus hoc sedulo terens, ne deducendi sui causa populum de foro abduceret. Neque tamen elanguit cura® hominum ea mora, frequentesque eum domum deduxerunt. Consul nocte insequenti ad exercitum rediit, non facto certiore senatu, ne comitiorum causa in urbe retineretur.

Postero die consultus a M'. Pomponio prætore senatus 24. decrevit, dictatori scribendum, uti, si e republica censeret esse, ad consules subrogandos veniret cum magistro equitum et prætore M. Marcello, ut ex iis præsentibus noscere Patres possent, quo statu respublica esset, consiliaque ex rebus caperent. Qui acciti erant, omnes venerunt, relictis legatis, qui legionibus præessent. Dictator, de se pauca ac modice locutus, in magistrum equitum, Ti. Sempronium Gracchum, magnam partem gloriæ vertit; comitiaque edixit, quibus L. Postumius tertium absens, qui tum Galliam provinciam obtinebat, et Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, qui tum magister equitum et ædilis curulis erat, consules crearentur. Prætores inde creati, M. Valerius Lævinus, Ap. laudius Pulcher, Q. Fulvius Flaccus, Q. Mucius Scævola. Dictator, creatis magistratibus, Teanum? in hiberna ad exercitum rediit, relicto magistro equitum Romæ : qui, quum post paucos dies magistratum initurus esset, de exercitibus scribendis comparandisque in annum Patres consuleret.

Quum eæ res maxime agerentur, nova clades nuntiata, aliam super aliam? cumulante in eum annum fortuna: L. Postumium, consulem designatum, in Gallia ipsum atque exercitum deletos. Silva erat vasta, (Litanam Galli vocabant) qua exercitum traducturus erat. Ejus silvæ dextra lævaque circa viam Galli arbores ita inciderant, ut immotæ starent“, momento levi impulsæ occiderent. Legiones duas

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8 Elanguit cura.] “But the en- Appian road. thusiasm of the people did not die ? Aliam super aliam.] away (cool down),” &c.

stant succession.” 9 Comitiaque - quibus--consules 3 Litanam Galli vocabant.] This crearentur.] If this reading be re- forest was the scene of a defeat tained, the sentence would imply, inflicted on the Gauls, some years that the election of the two indi- afterwards, by Valerius Flaccus, on viduals named was part of the pro- which occasion they lost 8,000 men. clamation, which would be incon- 4 Ut immote starent, &c.] “That sistent with the principle of free they stood while unshaken, and election. There can be scarcely a when moved by a slight impulse doubt that Livy wrote creantur. would fall." 1 Teanum.] sc. Sidicinum, on the

U.C. 538. Romanas habebat Postumius, sociûmque ab supero mari A.C. 216. tantum conscripserat, ut viginti quinque millia armatorum

in agros hostium induxerit. Galli oram extremæ silvæ5 quum circumsedissent, ubi intravit agmen saltum, tum extremas arborum succisarum impellunt: quæ, alia in aliamo, instabilem per se ac male hærentem, incidentes, ancipiti strage arma, viros, equos obruerunt, ut vix decem homines effugerent. Nam quum exanimati plerique essent arborum truncis fragmentisque ramorum, ceteram quoque multitudinem, inopinato malo trepidam, Galli, saltum omnem armati circumsedentes, interfecerunt; paucis e tanto numero captis, qui, Aluminis pontem petentes, obsesso ante ab hostibus ponte interclusi sunt. Ibi Postumius, omni vi, ne caperetur, dimicans, occubuit. Spolia corporis caputque ducis præcisum Boii ovantes templo, quod sanctissimum est apud eos, intulere. Purgato inde capite, ut mos iis est, calvam auro cælavere?: idque sacrum vas& iis erat, quo sollennibus libarent: poculumque idem sacerdoti esse, ac templi antistitibus. Præda quoque haud minor Gallis, quam victoria, fuit. Nam etsi magna pars animalium strage silvæ

5 Oram extremæ silvæ.] “ The to assassinate him. The conspiracy outskirts of the forest."

was successful; but she was even6 Quæ, alia in aliam, &c.] “And tually compelled to take flight in these, as they fell successively company with one of the murderers. against the others which were un- The skull of Cunimund was presteady and slightly attached, buried served for 200 years among the arms, horses, and men under the Lombards. surrounding ruin, so that, &c.” The popularity of this practice

9 Calvam auro cælavere.] “Em- among the northern nations may be bossed the skull with gold.” A inferred from the fact, that it was more recent period of Italian history anticipated as one of the enjoyments furnishes a similar story of a skull, of the Valhala, and that they numthe desecration of which was followed bered their victories by such trophies, by tragical consequences. Alboin, as the North-American Indians by king of the Lombards, (in the reign scalps. In the translation of the of Justin 11. the nephew of Justinian,) song of Lodbrog, in an Edda, we having slain Cunimund king of the find the lines; Gepida in battle, made a drinkingcup of his skull, according to the national custom, and at the same

To him, great sire, my deeds are known;

For me he has prepared a throne, time, strange to tell, married his Where richest ale for ever flows

In the hollow skulls of foes." enemy's daughter, Rosamond, by whose beauty he had been captivated. 8 Idque sacrum vas &c.] Either, Some time after, on the capture of “such was (usually) their consePavia, he sent to the queen,

from crated cup;" or, "this (particular his own table where he was cele- skull) became,” &c. The ancient brating his victory, her father's skull Scythians also held a periodical filled with wine, together with an festival, where those who had slain insulting message. Dissembling her enemies drank from their skulls; resentment for the moment, she the quantity of wine allowed to immediately entered into a conspi- each being proportioned to the numracy with two of the king's officers ber of his trophies.

« Bliss eternal shall be mine

Where the halls of Odin shine:

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oppressa erat, tamen ceteræ res, quia nihil dissipatum fuga U. c. 538. est, stratæ per omnem jacentis agminis ordinem inventæ sunt. A. C. 216.

Hac nuntiata clade', quum per dies multos in tanto pavore 25. fuisset civitas, ut, tabernis clausis, velut nocturna solitudine per urbem acta, senatus ædilibus negotium daret, ut urbem circumirent, aperirique tabernas, et mæstitiæ publicæ speciem urbi demi juberent; tum Ti. Sempronius senatum habuit, consolatusque Patres est, et adhortatus, 'ne, qui • Cannensi' ruinæ non succubuissent, ad minores calamita*tes animos summitterent. Quod ad Carthaginienses hostes 'Hannibalemque attinet, prospera modo essent, sicut spe‘raret futura, Gallicum bellum et omitti tuto: et differri

posse: ultionemque eam fraudis in deorum ac populi Ro'mani potestate fore. De hoste Pono* exercitibusque, per quos id bellum gereretur, consultandum atque agitandum.' Ipse primum, quid peditum equitumque, quid civium, quid sociorum in exercitu esset dictatoris, disseruit. Tum Marcellus suarum copiarum summam exposuit. Quid in Apulia cum C. Terentio consule esset, a peritis quæsitum est. Nec, unde consularesó exercitus satis firmi ad tantum bellum efficerentur, inibatur ratio. Itaque Galliam, quanquam stimulabat justa ira, omitti eo anno placuit. Exercitus dictatoris consuli decretus est. De exercitu Marcelli, qui eorum ex fuga Cannensi essent, in Siciliam eos traduci, atque ibi militare, donec in Italia bellum esset, placuit. Eodem ex dictatoris legionibus rejici militem minimi quemque roboris, nullo præstituto militiæ tempore, nisi qui stipendiorum legitimorum esset. Duæ legiones urbanæ

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9 Hac nuntiatâ clade.] “On the during the war, though the lost announcement of this loss, when the army was not replaced.

It was also public were for several days in such a strange coincidence, that those alarm that, as the shops were closed same Gauls, though in arms before and a loneliness as if of night over- and after, had remained quiet during hung the city, the Senate com- the first Punic war.

It would apmissioned," &c.

pear that there must have been | Ne, qui Cannensi &c.] “ That, some understood reason for this as they had not bowed beneath the forbearance, as the words attributed calamity of Cannæ, they should here to Sempronius would imply not bend their courage to smaller that he calculated upon it. losses."

4 De hoste Peno.] (emphasis) 2 Quod-attinet &c.] The ob- “ It was for the Carthaginian enemy liqua oratio requires that we should and the armies &c. that it was nesubstitute attineret. “ With respect cessary to,” &c. to the Carthaginians and Hannibal, 5 Nec, unde consulares &c.] if things turned out favourably as “ But no expedient was adopted by he hoped they would."

which the consular armies could be 3 Gallicum bellum et omitti tuto made sufficiently strong,”' &c. &c.] It is remarkable that, after 6 Nullo præstituto &c.] No term the destruction of Posthumius and of service being defined, except for his army, the Gauls did really re- those who had completed their full frain from any further hostilities time.”

quam minui.

U.C. 538 .alteri consuli, qui in locum L. Postumii suffectus esset, deA. C. 216. cretæ sunt: eumque, quum primum salvis auspiciis posset,

creari placuit. Legiones præterea duas primo quoque tempore ex Sicilia acciri : atque inde consul, cui legiones urbanæ evenissent, militum sumeret quantum opus esset. C. Terentio consuli propagari in annum imperium: neque

de eo exercitu, quem ad præsidium Apuliæ haberet, quic26. Dum hæc in Italia geruntur apparanturque, nihilo

segnius in Hispania bellum erat: sed ad eam diem magis prosperum Romanis. P. et Cn. Scipionibus inter se partitis copias, ut Cnæus terra, Publius navibus rem gereret; Hasdrubal Ponorum imperator, neutri parti virium satis fidens, procul ab hoste, intervallo ac locis tutus, tenebat se: quoad multum ac diu obtestanti quattuor millia peditum et quingenti equites in supplementum missi ex Africa sunt. Tum, refecta tandem spe, castra propius hostem movit: classemque et ipse instrui pararique jubet ad insulas maritimamque oram tutandam. In ipso impetu movendarum' de integro rerum perculit eum præfectorum navium transitio: qui, post classem ad Iberum per pavorem desertam graviter increpiti, nunquam deinde satis fidi aut duci, aut Carthaginiensium rebus fuerant. Fecerant hi transfugæ motum in Carpesiorum’ gente, desciverantque iis auctoribus urbes aliquot: una etiam ab ipsis vi capta fuerat. In eam gentem versum ab Romanis bellum est; infestoque exercitu Hasdrubal ingressus agrum hostium, pro captæ ante dies: paucos urbis manibus, Galbum, nobilem Carpesiorum ducem, cum valido exercitu castris sese tenentem, aggredi statuit. Præmissa igitur levi armatura, quæ eliceret hostes ad certamen, peditum partem ad depopulandum per agros passim dimisit, ut palantes exciperent. . Simul et ad castra tumultus erat, et per agros fugaque et cædes ; deinde undique diversis itineribus quum in castra se recepissent, adeo repente decessit animis pavor, ut non ad munimenta modo

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? Atque inde.] And that, out &c.] “ Amid the actual exciteof these, the consul should,” &c. ment of renewing operations, the

Neque de eo exercitumquicquam desertion of some commanders of minui.] And that no draft should ships startled him; but these, havbe made from the army which,” &c. ing been severely reprimanded after

9 In Hispanid bellum.] The abandoning the fleet &c. had never great importance of the war in Spain been,” &c. was, that it kept a large Cartha- 2 Carpesiorum.] It has been ginian force occupied, which would suggested that this name might be have been otherwise set free for advantageously replaced by Taroperations in Italy, at the same tessiorum. time that it deprived Hannibal of 3 Pro captæ ante dies &c.] “Unhis best nursery of soldiers.

der the walls of a city taken a few 1 In ipso impetu movendarum days previously."

defendenda satis animorum esset, sed etiam ad lacessendum U.C. 538. hostem proelio. Erumpunt igitur agmine e castris, tripu- A.C. 216. diantes more suo; repentinaque eorum audacia terrorem hosti, paullo ante ultro lacessenti, incussit. Itaque et ipse Hasdrubal in collem satis arduum, tutum flumine etiam objecto, tum copias subducit, et præmissam levem armaturam equitesque palatos eodem recipit: nec aut colli aut flumini satis fidens, vallo castra permunit. In hoc alterno pavore certamina aliquot sunt contracta : nec Numida Hispano eques par fuit; nec jaculator Maurus cætrato, velocitate pari, robore animi viriumque aliquantum præstanti. Post- 27. quam neque elicere Ponum ad certamen obversati castris poterant, neque castrorum oppugnatio facilis erat; urbem Ascuam, quo, fines hostium ingrediens, Hasdrubal frumentum commeatusque alios convexerat, vi capiunt, omnique circa agro potiuntur. Nec jam, aut in agmine, aut in castris, ullo imperio contineri. Quam ubi negligentiam ex re, ut fit, bene gesta oriri senserat Hasdrubal, cohortatus milites, ut palatos sine signis hostes aggrederentur, degressus colle, pergit ire acie instructa ad castra. Quem ut adesses tumultuose nuntiavere fugientes ex speculis stationibusque, ad arma conclamatum est. Ut quisque arma ceperat, sine imperio, sine signo, incompositi, inordinatio in proelium ruunt. Jam primi conseruerant manus, quum alii catervatim currerent, alii nondum e castris exissent. Tamen primo ipsa audacia terruere hostem. Deinde, rari in confertos illati, quum paucitas parum tuta esset, respicere alii alios, et undique pulsi coire in orbem ; et dum corporibus applicantur', armaque armis jungunt, in artum compulsi, quum vix movendis armis satis spatii esset, corona hostium cincti, ad multum diei cæduntur. Exigua pars, eruptione facta, silvas ac montes petit: parique terrore et castra sunt deserta, et universa gens postero die in deditionem venit.

Nec diu in pacato mansit. Nam subinde ab Carthagine allatum est, ut Hasdrubal primo quoque tempore in Italiam exercitum duceret. Quæ vulgata res per Hispaniam omnium ferme animos ad Romanos avertit. Itaque Hasdrubal extemplo literas Carthaginem mittit, indicans, quanto fama profectionis suæ damno fuisset. 'Sive vero inde pergeret,

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Nec.] The compound negative out system and arrangement.” is to be resolved, here and in the ? Corporibus applicantur.) (mid. following sentence, into, “but not.” voice.) Placing themselves in

perQuem ut adesse &c.] And sonal contact, taking close order." when they hastily announced his 8 In pacato.] (sc. agro.] The usual arrival, as they fled from the ob- ellipsis. Gronovius reads pacata servatories and outposts, the cry to (sc. gens); "in repose." arms' was raised."

9 Que vulgata res.] “And the 6 Incompositi, inordinati.] “With. publication of this news.”

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