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U. C. 538. 'priusquam Iberum transiret, Romanorum Hispaniam fore. A. C. 216. • Nam, præterquam quod nec præsidium, nec ducem ha

'beret, quem relinqueret pro se; eos imperatores esse Ro'manos', quibus vix æquis viribus resisti possit. Itaque si ‘ulla Hispaniæ cura esset, successorem sibi cum valido

exercitu mitterent: cui, ut omnia prospere evenirent, non 28. * tamen otiosam provinciam fore. Hæ literæ quanquam

primo admodum moverunt senatum ; tamen, quia Italiæ cura prior potiorque erat, nihil de Hasdrubale, neque de copiis ejus mutatum est. Himilco cum exercitu justo et aucta classe, ad retinendam terra marique ac tuendam Hispaniam, est missus; qui, ut pedestres navalesque copias trajecit, castris communitis, navibusque subductis et vallo circumdatis, cum equitibus delectis ipse, quantum maxime accelerare poterat, per dubios infestosque* populos juxta intentus ad Hasdrubalem pervenit. Quum decreta senatus mandataque exposuisset, atque edidicisset ipse in vicem, quemadmodum tractandum bellum in Hispania foret, retro in sua castra rediit; nulla re, quam celeritate”, tutior, quod undique abierat, antequam consentirent. Hasdrubal, priusquam moveret castra, pecunias imperat populis omnibus suæ ditionis, satis gnarus, Hannibalem transitus quosdam pretio mercatum: nec auxilia Gallica aliter, quam conducta, habuisse; inopem, tantum iter ingressum, vix penetraturum ad Alpes fuisse. Pecuniis igitur raptim exactis, ad Iberum descendit.

Decreta Carthaginiensium et Hasdrubalis iter ubi ad

1 Eos imperatores esse Romanos.] place in A.U.C. 547, eleven years “ The Roman commanders were after that of Hannibal. Young such men as could scarcely be re- Scipio was then commanding the sisted."

Ruman army in Spain, occupying 2 Cui, ut omnia prospere &c.] the southern coast, and guarding the “ And that he, even though all eastern passes of the Pyrenees. In should go on favourably, would find order to out-manæuvre him, Hasdruhis province no sinecure.”

bal marched across the neck of the 3 Italiæ cura prior potiorque.] peninsula to the western passes near “ The question of Italy had pre- the Bay of Biscay, and took the line cedence in time and importance.” of the modern road through Barce

Per dubios infestosque, &c.] lona and Perpignan, into Languedoc, “Made his way to Hasdrubal, pass- thus entering Gaul through the same ing with equal caution through neu- country which the wars of the last tral and hostile nations."

generation have rendered so memo5 Nullå re, quam celeritate, &c.) rable—the plains of the Adour and “ In no circumstance safer than in the Bidassoa. He then crossed the his rapidity of march, as he had dis- Rhone at Lyons, and the mountains appeared (passed through) every by Hannibal's road, with much less where, before they could organise an opposition, however, on the part of attack.”

the natives, and the help of some 6 l’ix penetraturum ad Alpes, &c.] relics of his brother's engineering; Hasdrubal's march through the Alps, and descending into the valley of the which was prevented on this occasion Po, halted at Placentia, where the by the successes of the Scipios, took gates were shut against him.

A.C. 216.

Romanos sunt perlata, omnibus omissis rebus, ambo duces, U.C. 638. junctis copiis, ire obviam cæptis atque obsistere parant; rati si Hannibali, vix per se ipsi tolerando Italiæ hosti, Hasdrubal dux atque Hispaniensis exercitus esset junctus, illum Romani finem imperii fore. His anxii curis ad Iberum contrahunt copias?; et, transito amne, quum diu consultassent, utrum castra castris conferrent, an satis haberent, sociis Carthaginiensium oppugnandis, morari ab itinere proposito hostem, urbem a propinquo flumine Iberam appellatam, opulentissimam ea tempestate regionis ejus, oppugnare parant. Quod ubi sensit Hasdrubal, pro ope ferenda sociis, pergit ipse ire ad urbem, deditam nuper in fidem Romanorum, oppugnandam. Ita jam cæpta obsidio omissa ab Romanis est, et in ipsum Hasdrubalem versum bellum. Quinque millium intervallo castra distantia habuere paucos

29. dies : nec sine levibus proeliis, nec ut in aciem exirent. Tandem uno eodemque die velut ex composito utrimque signum pugnæ propositum est, atque omnibus copiis in campum descensum. Triplex stetit Romana acies.

Velitum pars inter antesignanos locata, pars post signa accepta, equites cornua cinxere. Hasdrubal mediam aciem Hispanis firmat: in cornibus, dextro Pænos locat, lævo Afros mercenariorumque auxilia: equitum Numidas' Panorum peditibus, ceteros Afris pro cornibus apponit.

Nec omnes Numidæ in dextro locati cornu, sed quibus, desultorum in modum, binos trahentibus equos inter acerrimam sæpe pugnam in recentem equum ex fesso armatis transsultare mos erat: tanta velocitas ipsis, tamque docile equorum genus est. Quum hoc modo instructi starent, imperatorum utriusque partis haud ferme dispares spes erant. Nam ne multum quidem, aut numero, aut genere militum, hi aut illi præsta bant. Militibus longe dispar animus erat. Romanis enim, quanquam procul a patria pugnarent, facile persuaserant duces, pro Italia atque urbe Romana eos pugnare. Itaque, velut quibus reditus in patriam eo discrimine pugnæ verteretur, obstinaverant animis“, vincere aut mori. Minus

? Ad Iberum contrahunt copias. ] Africans." Gronovius and Draken" Concentrated their forces on the borch would read opponit, which Livy Iberus."

generally constructs with adversus 8 Pro ope ferenda.) “Instead of and an accus. the protection he should have given,” 2 Desultorum.] “Vaulters.” See &c.

Homer, Il. o. 679 sq. 9 Omnibus copiisdescensum.] “A 3 Tanta velocitas ipsis.] “ Such descent of all their forces into the is the agility of the men, and so plain took place.”

docile their breed of horses." 1 Equitum Numidas, &c.] 4 Obstinaverant animis.] “They the cavalry, he placed the Numidians had made up their minds,” &c. Ani. on the flank of the Carthaginian mos occurs in some editions; but the infantry, and the rest on that of the reading above is the more idiomatic,

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U.C. 538. pertinaces viros habebat altera acies. Nam maxima pars A.C. 216. Hispani erant: qui vinci in Hispania, quam victores in

Italiam trahi, malebant. Primo igitur concursu, quum vix pila conjecta essent, retulit pedem media acies, inferentibusque sese magno impetu Romanis terga vertit. Nihilo segnius in cornibus proelium fuit. Hinc Ponus, hinc Afer urget; et velut in circumventos 5 proelio ancipiti pugnant. Sed quum in medium tota jam coisset Romana acies, satis virium ad dimovenda hostium cornua 6 habuit. Itaque duo diversa proelia erant: utroque Romani, ut qui, pulsis tandem mediis, et numero et robore virorum præstarent, haud dubie superarunt. Magna vis hominum ibi occisa : et, nisi Hispani vixdum conserto proelio tam effuse fugissent, perpauci ex tota superfuissent acie. Equestris pugna nulla admodum? fuit; quia, simul inclinatam mediam aciem Mauri Numidæque viderunt, extemplo fuga effusa nuda cornua, elephantis quoque præ se actis, deseruere. Et Hasdrubal, usque ad ultimum eventum pugnæ moratus, e media cæde cum paucis effugit. Castra Romani cepere atque diripuere. Ea pugna, si qua dubia in Hispania erant, Romanis adjunxit: Hasdrubalique non modo in Italiam traducendi exercitus, sed ne manendi quidem satis tuto in Hispania, spem reliquit. Quæ postquam literis Scipionum Romæ vulgata sunt, non tam victoria, quam prohibito

Hasdrubalis in Italiam transitu, lætabantur. 30. Dum hæc in Hispania geruntur, Petelia in Bruttiis,

aliquot post mensibus, quam coepta oppugnari erat, ab Himilcone, præfecto Hannibalis, expugnata est.

Multo sanguine ac vulneribus ea Pænis victoria stetit: nec ulla magis vis obsessos, quam fames, expugnavit. Absumptis enim frugum alimentis, carnisque omnis generis quadrupedum, sutrinæ postremo coriis, herbisque et radicibus, et corticibus teneris, strictisque rubis vixere; nec, antequam vires ad standum in muris ferendaque arma deerant, expugnati sunt. Recepta Petelia, Pænus ad Consentiam copias traducit: quam, minus pertinaciter defensam, intra paucos

and the infinitives following can be any) cavalry battle.”
scarcely left without the direct go- Si qua dubia in Hispania, &c.]
vernment of a verb.

Alltheundecided (neutral) interests
5 Velut in circumventos.] “When in Spain."
apparently surrounded.” They had 9 Multo sanguine, &c.) “Much
repulsed and broken the enemy's bloodshed and wounds (many killed
centre, and his wings closed in and wounded).”
(collapsed) into the vacant space. | Sutrinæ] (sc. tabernæ.)

- The 6 Dimovenda hostium cornua.] hides of a leather-store,” i. e. tanned “To keep the enemy's wings asun- leather. Some commentators proder."

pose to substitute scutorum, which ? Equestris pugna nulla admodum, presents a more natural association &c.] “There was really no (scarcely of ideas.

dies in deditionem accepit.

lisdem ferme diebus et Brut- U. C. 638. tiorum exercitus Crotonem?, Græcam urbem, circumsedit, A.C. 216. opulentam quondam armis virisque, tum jam adeo multis magnisque cladibus afflictam, ut omnis ætatis minus viginti millia civium superessent.

Itaque urbe a defensoribus vasta: facile potiti sunt hostes: arx tantum retenta, in quam inter tumultum captæ urbis e media cæde quidam effugere. Et Locrenses + descivere ad Bruttios Poenosque, prodita multitudine a principibus. Rhegini tantummodo regionis ejus, et in fide erga Romanos, et potestatis suæ ad ultimum manserunt. In Siciliam quoque eadem inclinatio animorum pervenit: et ne domus quidem Hieronis tota ab defectione abstinuit. Namque Gelo maximus stirpis, contempta simul senectute patris, simul post Cannensem cladem Romana societate, ad Ponos defecit: movissetque in Sicilia res, nisi mors adeo opportuna', ut patrem quoque suspicione aspergeret, armantem eum multitudinem, sollicitantemque socios absumpsisset. Hæc eo anno in Italia, in Africa, in Sicilia, in Hispania vario eventu acta.

Exitu anni Q. Fabius Maximus a senatu postulavit, ut ædem Veneris Erycinæ, quam dictator vovisset, dedicare liceret. Senatus decrevit, ut Ti. Sempronius consul designatus, quum primum honorem inisset, ad populum ferret, ut Q. Fabium duumvirum? esse juberent ædis dedicandæ

Et M. Æmilio Lepido, qui bis consul augurque fuerat, filii tres, Lucius, Marcus, Quintus, ludos funebres per triduum, et gladiatorum paria duo et viginti per triduum in foro dederunt. Ædiles curules C. Lætorius, et Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, consul designatus, qui in ædilitate magister equitum fuerat, ludos Romanos fecerunt, qui per triduum instaurati sunt. Plebeii ludi ædilium M. Aurelii Cottæ et M. Claudii Marcelli ter instaurati.

Circumacto tertio anno Punici belli, Ti. Sempronius U. C. 539. consul Idibus Martiis magistratum iniit. Prætores Q. A.C. 215. Fulvius Flaccus, qui ante bis consul censorque fuerat, urba

causa.

. Crotonem.) (Now Crotona.) A from the promontory Zephyrium, on full description of the city is given which it stood. The celebrated laws below, (1. xxiv. c. 3.) The losses of Zeleucus, the disciple of Pythaand calamities mentioned here, had goras, constitute its principal claim been sustained in the Tarentine war. to celebrity. It was restored to

3 A defensoribusvasta.] (sc.vacuá,) Rome, toward the close of the war, “ destitute of defenders.”

by Scipio. (l. xxix. c. 6.) 4 Et Locrenses.] (Seel. xxiv.c. l.) 5 Mors adeo opportuna, &c.] “So The site of Locri is believed to be critieally timed, that it even cast covered by the modern town Gerace. suspicion upon his father.”. It was founded, about the same time 6 Hæc eo anno.] sc. A.U.C. 539. with Croton and Syracuse, by a The third year of the war. colony of the Locri Ozolæ, and 7 Duumvirum.]

«« One of two named for distinetion Epizephyrii, commissioners.”

U. C. 539. nam, M. Valerius Lævinus peregrinam sortem in jurisdicA. C. 215. tione habuit. Ap. Claudius Pulcher Siciliam, Q. Mucius

Scævola Sardiniam sortiti sunt. M. Marcello pro consule imperium esse populus jussit, quod post Cannensem cladem

unus Romanorum imperatorum in Italia prospere rem ges31. sisset. Senatus, quo die primum est in Capitolio consultus,

decrevit, ut, quo eo annos duplex tributum imperaretur, simplex confestim exigeretur, ex quo stipendium præsens omnibus militibus daretur, præterquam qui milites ad Cannas fuissent. De exercitibus' ita decreverunt, ut duabus legionibus urbanis Ti. Sempronius consul Cales ad conveniendum diem ediceret: inde eæ legiones in castra Claudiana supra Suessulam deducerentur: quæ ibi legiones essent, (erant autem Cannensis maxime exercitus) eas Ap. Claudius Pulcher prætor in Siciliam trajiceret; quæque in Sicilia essent, Romam deportarentur. Ad exercitum, cui ad conveniendum Cales edicta dies erat, M. Claudius Marcellus missus; isque jussus in castra Claudiana deducere urbanas legiones. Ad veterem exercitum accipiendum deducendumque inde in Siciliam, T. Metilius Croto legatus ab Ap. Claudio est missus. Taciti primo exspectaverant homines, uti consul comitia collegæ creando haberet. Deinde, ubi ablegatum, velut de industria, M. Marcellum viderunt, quem maxime consulem in eum annum ob egregie in prætura res gestas creari volebant, fremitus in curia est ortus. Quod ubi sensit consul, Utrumque, inquit, 'e republica 'fuit, Patres conscripti, et M. Cîaudium ad permutandos ' exercitus in Campaniam proficisci, et comitia non prius ' edici, quam is inde, confecto, quod mandatum est, negotio, • revertisset; ut vos consulem, quem tempus reipublicæ

postularet, quem maxime vultis, haberetis.' Ita de comitiis, donec rediit Marcellus, silentium fuit. Interea duumviri creati sunt Q. Fabius Maximus et T. Otacilius Crassus, ædibus dedicandis, Menti Otacilius, Fabius Veneri Erycinæ. Utraque in Capitolio est, canali uno discretæ. Et de trecentis equitibus Campanis, qui, in Sicilia cum fide stipendiis emeritis, Romam venerant, dein latum ad populum, ut cives Romani essent: item, uti municipes Cumani essent, pridie quam' populus Campanus a populo

6

8 Quo eo anno.] “In order that, nies, and the private guerilla which during this year, a double tax might the publicani would naturally mainbe imposed, the ordinary tax should tain, by means of their own servants, be collected at once,” (i. e. in ad- on the Bruttian lands and forests in vance.)

the occupation of the enemy. 9 De exercitibus.] The Roman 1 Municipes Cumani essent, pridie levies at this time amounted to about quam, &c.] “They were to be free 140,000 men, exclusively of the gar- citizens of Cumæ from the day prerisons in the Latin and other colo- ceding that on which the Campa

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