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and it long continued in the heroic or mock-heroic style, as we see in the following, from the eighteenth century. “In every village mark'd with little spire, Embower'd in trees and hardly known to fame, There dwells, in lowly shed and mean attire, A matron old, whom we Schoolmistress name, Who boasts unruly brats with birch to tame; They grieven sore, in piteous durance pent, Aw'd by the power of this relentless dame, And oft times, on vagaries idly bent, For unkempt hair, or task unconn'd, are sorely shent.’ William Shenstone (1714–1763), The Schoolmistress. In the ordinary paths of the language, however, the personal inflections were reduced nearly to their present simplicity before the Elizabethan epoch. The tenacity of which we spoke displays itself most conspicuously in the tense-forms; that is to say, the forms used for expressing varieties of time. The boldest feature which is found among the verbs of our family, is the formation of the preterite by an internal vowel-change, without any external addition. This character supplies a basis for the division of the verbs into three classes, the Strong, the Mixed, and the Weak.

I. STRONG VERBs.

The strong are of the highest antiquity, are limited in number, are gradually but very slowly passing away, as one by one at long intervals they drop out of use and are not recruited by fresh members. They are characterised by the internal formation of the preterite, and by the formation of the participle in N. This latter feature has however been less constant than the preterite. The following list comprises most of them. Only those forms which are given in the ordinary type are in full use. Those in black letter flourished in mediaeval times; those in thick type are chiefly of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; and those in italics are negligent forms which were mostly current in the eighteenth century. The few which are in SMALL CAPITALs are Saxon forms. Those in spaced type are from a collateral language or dialect. Only the simple verbs are given, and not their compounds. The list contains come, hold, get; but not become, behold, beget; bid but not forbid; give but not forgive, &c. On the other hand, those compounds whose simples no longer exist in the language, are here given, as abide, begin, forsake.

PRESENT. PRETERite. PARTICiPLE. abide abode [a]bidden" bake be uk # baken

bear bore, bare borne and born beat beat beaten, beat begin began begun

BELGAn BEALh BoLGEN, bowln * BEON - - - been bid bade, bid bidden, bid bind bound bounden, bound bite bote *, bit bitten, bit

blow blew blown

bow BEAH bowne *

break broke, brake broken

burst burst bursten, burst Carve Carf * CORFEN

Cast coost + casten +

chide chid, chode * chidden, chid choose chose chosen

cleave clove, clave cloven

climb clomb

cling clung clung

Came Comen”, come

Conle

PRESENT. creep crow delve dig draw drink drive eat fall fight find fling fly forsake freeze get give glide gnaw go GRAFE. grind grow heave help hing * hold lade Ieşc lie melt plat ride ring rise run seethe shake shape

PRETERITE. trope *, crap * crew Dalft + dug drew drank, drunk drove ate fell fought found flung flew forsook froze got, gat gave glot * gnew * GROF ground grew hove holp hang, hung held

lay

plet” rode, rid + rang, rung rose

tan

PARTICIPLE.

cropen", cruppen " dolven

dug

sod * shook shope

drawn drunken”, drunk driven

eaten

fallen, fell”
fought, foughten"
found
flung

flown

forsaken frozen

gotten, got

given

gnawn”

gone

graven”

ground

grown

holpen, holp *
hung

holden +
laden, loden"
lorn
lain, lien"
molten

ridden, rid
rung
risen, rose *
run

sodden
shaken, shook ".
shapen

PRESENT.

shave shear shew shine shoot shrink sing singe sink sit slay slide sling slink slit smite speak spin spring steal stick sting stink STRICAN stride strike string strive SWear swell swim swing take tear thrive throw tread wake wash

PRETERITE.

shore
shone

shot
shrank, shrunk
sang, sung
sank

3ats, sat

slew
glot, *, slid
slang”, slung
slunk
slat, slit
Smote
spoke, spake
span

sprang

stole

stuck

stung
stank and stunk
STRAC

strode

struck

strung

strove
swore, sware
3tual

swam

swung

took
tore, tare
throve

threw

trod

woke
wush (Scots)

PARTICIPLE.
shaven
shorn
shewn -

shone

shotten."

shrunken, shrunk

sung

sung *

sunken, sunk

5tttzm

slain

slidden, slid

slung

slunk

slit

smitten

spoken, spoke *

spun

sprung

stolen

stuck

stung

stunk

stricken or striken"

stridden

stricken

strung

striven

sworn

swollen

swuin

swung

taken, took ".

torn

thriven

thrown

trodden, trod

washen

PRESENT. PRETERITE. PARTICIPLE. Wax bjør - waxen” wear wore worn Weave" wove woveil WESAN was [Germ. gewesen] win won Won wind wound wound wreak - - - ywroken + wring wrung wrung write wrote, wrat *, writ written, writ, wrote *

Remarks on the Forms signed with an Asterisk.

[a]bidden. We find the simple form in Eger and Grime,

line 555 :— “He might full well haue bidden att home.’ beuk. Gentle Shepherd, act ii. Sc. i. bowln. A relic of a forcible word in Saxon poetry, GEBOLGEN = ‘swollen, generally with anger. It is found in Surrey's Translation of the Second Book of the Aeneid, and there it simply means physically swollen:—

“Distained with bloody dust, whose feet were bowln
With the strait cords wherewith they haled him.”

bote. Eger and Grine, 992. bowne.

“And now he is bowne to turne home againe.’ Eger and Grine, 948. Here also must be put the expression “Homeward bound' —though there is a great claim for the Icelandic buinn. tarf. “And carf biforn his fader at the table.” Chaucer, Prologue, Ioo. chode. Genesis xxxi. 36; Numbers xx. 3. COO St. ‘Maggie coost her head fu' high,

Looked asklent and unco skeigh,
Gart poor Duncan stand abeigh.”

Robert Burns, Duncan Gray.

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