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6. Felicitati; Indirect Object of tribuenda esse. Haec extrema, 63 these last events, i. e., his recent reverses.
7. Fortunae, to his misfortune.
8. Alio loco; G. 425, 2. See Chap. VIII., p. 66.
9. Ei; G. 386.- Detracta. Supply esse.
11. Quoniam is est exorsus, since this (i. e., glory) is the beginning, i. e., the first topic. See p. 61, line 34, and p. 62, line 6. Is is attracted to agree with the predicate noun exorsus. G. 445, 4.
12. Suscipiendum. Supply esse.- Putetis; G. 529, I.
14. Injuriosius; G. 444, 1.—Tot milibus. See note on una significatione litterarum, p. 62, line 11.
16. Quo animo; Abl. of Characteristic. G. 419, 2, 4).—Legati ... appellati superbius. This seems to be a very mild statement of the offence. The Roman ambassadors at Corinth, according to Polybius, attempted to address the meeting of the Achaean League, but were insulted and driven from the assembly. The war which followed resulted in the destruction of Corinth and the complete conquest of Greece by the Romans in the year 146 B. C.
17. Corinthum. The celebrated city of Corinth, in Greece. Corinthum is the subject of exstinctum esse, though the participle agrees with the appositive lumen, and not with the subject Corinthum. G. 462.
18. Eum regem; i. e., Mithridates.
19. Legatum consularem. This was Manius Aquilius, consul 101 B. C., sent into Asia 90 B. C., to restore the Kings Ariobarzanes and Nicomedes, who had been dethroned by Mithridates.
20. Excruciatum necavit; G. 549, 5.
21. Libertatem imminutam, an encroachment upon the liberty, lit., the liberty diminished. G. 549, 5, note 2.
22. Vitam ereptam, the taking of life. — Jus violatum, the infringement of the right.
23. Persecuti sunt, avenged. —Legatum interfectum, the murder of an ambassador. G. 549, 5, note 2.
24. Ut illis pulcherrimum fuit, as it was most honorable for them. 28. Quod salus... vocatur. This clause is the object of ferre. — In periculum vocatur, is exposed to danger.
30. Ariobarzanes. See note on regnum Ariobarzanis, p. 61, line 22.- Socius... atque amicus. An honorary title conferred by a decree of the senate.
31. Duo reges. See p. 61, lines 12 to 16. - Toti Asiae; G. 385, II. 33. Cuncta Asia, in all Asia. G. 425, 2, note 2.
35. Imperatorem certum; i. e., any one in particular.-Deposcere; construe with audent.
36. Alium; i. e., Manius Acilius Glabrio. See Introduction, p. 233. 2. Unum virum; i. e., Pompey. - In quo sint; G. 503, II., 1. 3. Propter, near, i. e., in their vicinity. Pompey had just achieved the most signal success in the war against the pirates, and was still in Asia at the head of a large and victorious army.- Quo, for which reason; Abl. of Cause. Carent aegrius, they feel the need of him more keenly.
4. Maritimum bellum; i. e., the war against the pirates who in fested the Mediterranean Sea. See Introduction, p. 232.
7. Ut existimetis; G. 498, II.
8. Dignos quorum salutem...commendetis, worthy of having their safety intrusted to such a man, lit., worthy whose safety you would intrust, etc., i. e., so worthy that you would, etc. G. 503, II., 2.
9. Hoc, on this account; explained by quod ceteros ... differant. Ceteros ejus modi homines mittimus, the other men whom we send are of such a character, lit., we send the other men of such a character. In Chapters XXII. and XXIII., Cicero contrasts the character of Pompey with that of the other Roman commanders.
11. Adventus. Plural, because of its connection with the plural ipsorum.
13. Antea. The fame of his previous military achievements in Italy, Africa, Gaul, and Spain, had already reached them.
VI., VII. The Revenues of the State and the Fortunes of Roman Citizens are in Danger.
17. Propter socios. In behalf of their allies in Greece, the Ro、 mans waged war against the Aetolians, and Antiochus, King of Syria, from 192 to 189 B. C. The Roman arms were crowned with signal success. The war with Philip V., King of Macedonia, was undertaken 200 B. C. in behalf of the Athenians, and ended in the humiliation of Philip 196 B. C. The first Punic War, from 264 to 241 B. C., was undertaken in the interest of the town of Messana, in Sicily; the second, from 218 to 202 B. C., grew out of the capture of Saguntum, in Spain; and the third, from 150 to 146 B. C., was undertaken in support of the Numidian king Massinissa. It resulted in the destruction of Carthage.
21. Cum de... agatur, since your most important revenues are at stake, lit., since it is staked in regard to, etc. Agatur is impersonal. How would this clause read if expressed personally? See p. 62, lines 1 and 2. 23. Tanta sunt, are so inconsiderable, lit., so great, i. e., only so great. Iis; G. 421, III.
25. Ubertate agrorum, magnitudine pastionis, multitudine, etc. Cicero here specifies the three chief sources of revenue
the tithes (decumae) for the use of the public lands under cultivation, the 64 rents (scriptura) for the use of the public pastures, and the duties (portorium) on imports and exports.
27. Facile, unquestionably. — Omnibus terris, all other lands, lit., all lands. G. 386.
28. Belli utilitatem, what is useful in war.
1. Scriptura. So called from the record (writing) kept of all cattle 65 pastured upon the public lands. See note on ubertate agrorum, etc. p. 64, line 25.
3. Quo tandem animo. See p. 63, line 16. - Qui nobis...pensitant, who pay us tribute, and accordingly have a right to expect protection from us.
4. Qui exercent atque exigunt; i. e., the Roman knights and those who have taken contracts under them, or are in their employ. See p. 61, lines 16 to 20.
7. Familias maximas, the very numerous households of servants; object of habere. In saltibus, in the pasture-grounds.
8. Custodiis, custom-houses.
10. Illis rebus; i. e., the revenues. G. 421, I. — Qui vobis fructui sunt, who secure the enjoyment for you; i. e., both those who pay the revenue and those who farm it. G. 390.
13. Illud quod, that which; explained by quod ad multorum...pertinet.
14. Extremum, as the last topic. See p. 62, line 4; aguntur bona, etc. Observe, also, the four topics embraced under the general division of the Character of the War (genus belli), as presented in the latter part of Chapter II.: 1. Agitur gloria; 2. Agitur salus; 3. Aguntur vectigalia; 4. Aguntur bona. Cicero, having completed the discussion of the first three points, now takes up the last.- Cum essem dicturus; G. 496, note 2.
15. Quod pertinet, that it (the war) pertains. Quod seems to be the conjunction, rather than the relative.
16. Quorum habenda est ratio, whose interests ought to be regarded.
17. Et publicani. The et finds its correlative in deinde in the next paragraph. Omit it in translating.
18. Rationes, business, plans for business.
19. Per se, of themselves.
22. Recte; construe with dicemus.
24. Ex ceteris ordinibus, of the other classes; i. e., of all classes except the publicani just mentioned. See line 17 above. Here ordinibus seems not to be used in its technical sense to denote the three orders in
65 the state
-the senate, the knights, and the people — but in a more general sense to denote the various classes and professions.
25. Partim, partim, some, others. — Ipsi, themselves, i. e., in person, in distinction from those who remained in Rome, and only sent their money into the province.
27. Collocatas, invested. — Humanitatis. G. 402.
28. Magnum . . . civium, this large number of citizens.
29. A re publica, from that of the republic. G. 398, 1, note 1.
32. Redimendi facultas, the means of contracting for them.
35. Initio belli Asiatici, in the beginning of the Asiatic War, i. e., of the Mithridatic War, 88 B. C. G. 429.
36. Memoria, in memory; Abl. of Means.
1. Romae; G. 425, II.-Solutione impedita, etc., credit fell in consequence of a suspension of payment. Capitalists in Rome were so involved in the heavy losses sustained in Asia that they could not meet their payments.
3. Ut non trahant, without drawing, lit., so as not to draw. G. 500. Instead of ut non, quin might have been used. G. 504, 3.
5. Id quod ipsi videtis,, as you yourselves see, lit., that which. Id represents the statement which follows: haec fides atque . et cohaeret. 6. Haec ratio pecuniarum, this system of banking.
8. Illa, the latter, lit., those things, referring to pecuniis Asiaticis. G. 450, 1. On gender, see G. 445, 5.
10. Gloria, salus, vectigalia, fortunae. Recapitulation of the four topics which comprise the first general division, viz., that on the Character of the War. See note on extremum, p. 65, line 14.
12. Conjunctae cum re publica, joined with the public weal.
VIII., IX. The Extent and Importance of the War.
14. Hoc, this; explained by belli genus esse ita . . . pertimescendum. 17. Vobis contemnenda, unworthy of your attention, lit., deserving to be despised by you.
19. Viro, homini. See Syn. L. C. 239, II.
20. Debeatur; Subj. in an Indirect Clause. — Adventu; G. 429. This was in the year 74 B. C.
21. Ornatas fuisse. obsessam esse. Direct Discourse would 66 be ornatae erant. . . obsidebatur.
23. Cyzicenorum. See note on urbem Cyzicenorum, p. 55, line 28. 24. Quam L. Lucullus liberavit, but L. Lucullus delivered it. G. 524, 2, 2).
26. Classem magnam depressam. This naval victory is evidently the same as that mentioned on p. 55, lines 30 to 33.
27. Ducibus Sertorianis, under commanders sent by Sertorius; Abl. Absol. It will be remembered that Sertorius, then commanding in Spain in the interest of the Marian faction, was in correspondence with Mithridates. See p. 62, lines 30 to 36; also note on ad eos duces, p. 62, line 32.-Studio, by party-strife.
30. Legionibus; Dative.
31. Ex omni aditu, at every avenue of approach.- Sinopen atque Amisum; cities on the Euxine.
34. Permultas; construe with ceteras urbes. Uno aditu, by his mere approach, lit., by his approach only, i. e., without any actual attack.
35. Alios reges... gentes. He went first to Tigranes, king of the Armenians, and afterward to Arsaces, king of the Parthians.
1. Integris vectigalibus, the revenues unimpaired; Abl. Absolute. 67 2. Laudis; Partitive Genitive with satis.-Atque ita, and so bestowed, i. e., so liberally, lit., and in such a manner. Perhaps dicta or some similar participle is to be supplied.
3. Hoc, this, i. e., a nullo.. ... esse laudatum. - Nullo; G. 457, 2. Istorum. This refers especially to Catulus and Hortensius. See Introduction, p. 233.
7. Reliquum bellum, what remains of the war, or the remaining part of the war. G. 440, note 1.
10. Medea. Medea, daughter of Aeëtes, King of Colchis, eloped with Jason, the leader of the Argonautic expedition. Being pursued by her father, she resorted to the expedient described in the text. Colchis, though not strictly a part of Pontus, is here included under that general name; hence ex eodem Ponto.
11. Fratris. The name of her brother was Apsyrtus or Absyrtus. 12. Eorum collectio dispersa, the collection of them thus scattered. G. 438, 7.
14. Maximam vim omnem, the whole of the very great quantity; object of reliquit.
16. Bello superiore. See p. 62, line 8.
19. Illum, the former; i. e., Aeëtes, the father of Medea. - Hos, the latter; i. e., Roman soldiers.