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And all on board was still as death,

She moved without life or sign, The crew were flickering human shapes,

Like mists in the pale moonshine.

"I have here made only a nosegay of culled flowers, and have brought nothing of my own, but the string that ties them."--Montaigne.

Now struck the wreck the galley's side,

But none could hear or see, But the maid who saw from the lonely deck

The stars shine tremulously.

Then a whisper came, “O fair Gunhild,

Thy lover thou fain wouldst find,; He does not sleep in a foreign land,

But is rock'd by sea and wind.

" And cold and lone is his watery grave,

Down in the deep sea laid; And thus, alas! must thine own one dwell,

Apart from his plighted maid.” “ Full well do I know thy gentle voice,

O thou in thy sea grave laid, And, oh! no niore shall mine own one dwell

Apart from his plighted maid.”

“No! Gunhild, no! thou art yet too young,

And thou must remain behind,
I will not weep, and I will not sigh,

When pleasure gilds thy mind.

“ The plighted p'edge of thy fond true heart

I give back again to thee;
And. oh! let another love be thine,

While the ocean grave hath me.?

No associations are stronger than those connected with a garden. It is the just pride of an emigrant, settled on some distant shore, to have a little garden, as like as he can make it to the one he left at home. A pot of violets, or mignonette, is one of the highest luxuries to an Anglo-Indian. In the bold and picturesque scenery of Batavia, the Dutch can, from feeling, no more dispense with their little moats round their houses, than they could, from necessity, in the flat swamps of their native land. Sir John Hobhouse discovered an Englishman's residence on the shore of the Hellespont, by the character of his shrubs and flowers. Louis XVIII., on his restoration to France, made in the park of Versailles the fac-simile of the garden at Hartwell; and there was no more amiable trait in the life of that accomplished' prince. Napoleon used to say that he should know his father's garden in Corsica, blindfold, by the smell of the earth : and the hanging gardens of Babylon are said to have been raised by the Median queen of Nebuchadnezzar, , on the flat and naked plains of her adopted country, to remind her of the hills and woods of her childhood. — Quarterly Review, No. 139.

CRUELTY to dumb animals is one of the distinguishing vices of the lowest and basest of the people. Wher. ever it is found, it is a certain mark of ignorance and meanness; an- intrinsic mark, which all the external advantages of wealth, splendour, and nobility cannot obliterate. It will consist neither with true learning 'nor truc civility; and religion disclaims and detests it as an insult upon the majesty and the goodness of God, who, having made the instincts of brute beasts minister to tlie improvement of the mind, as well as to the convenience of the body, hath furnished us with a motive to mercy and compassion toward them very strong and powerful, but too refined to have any influence on the illiterate and irreligious.-Jones of vayland.

There are certain interests which the world supposes every man to have, and which therefore are properly chough termed worldly: but the world is apt to make an erroneous estimate: ignorant of the dispositions which constitute our happiness or misery, they bring to an indistinguished scale the means of the one, as connected with power, wealth, or grandeur, and of the other, with their contraries. Philosophers and poeis have often protested against this decision ; but their arguments have been despised as declamatory, or ridiculcd as romantic.-- Mackenzie's Man of Feeling.

“ I will be thy dear and faithful wife,

My oath I still must hold; And is there not room for both of us,

Dear love, in thy grave so cold P”

« The wild wide sea for many hath room,

But dark are its depths of woe: When the bright sun shiveth above in the sky

We slumber still below;

“ And only, alas ! in the midnight hour,

When the cold pale moonbeams fleck The sea, can we rise from our dreary sleep,

And float on our shadowy wreck."


“Let the bright sun shine above in the sky,

I'll sleep in tly dear lov'd breast, And there forgetting the ills of life

Will I take my gentle rest.

" Stretch forth thy hand, my own dear love,

Thy plighted virgin take;
And I will dwell in thine ocean grave

With thee, for love's sweet sake.

“ And only, love, in the midnight hour,

When the moon and star-beams fleck The waves, shall we rise from our gentle sleep,

And float on our shadowy wreck.”

Then she gave the dead her lily-white hand

Fair Gunhild be not shy, Quick, quick, dear love! the morning breaks

Aloft in the dappled sky."
The maiden descended down on the wreck,

It drifted away again;
And the galley's crew woke up in fear,

The Dead Ship began to wane.
Pale and cold stood the galley's crew,

Gazing like maddened men;
They raised a prayer to God in heaven-

The Dead Ship vanishi'd then.

N.B.--A Stamped Edition of this Periodical can be forwarded free of postage, on aplication to the Publisher, for the convenience ci pures residing at a distance, prile 28. 6d. per quarter.




Page Oliver Cromwell, (with Il- Country Sketches, No. I.

lustration by Dalziel)....... 225 The Grave of Isaac WalEras of English Civilization 226

236 Frank Fairlegh; or, Old

The Inaccessible Isle........ 237 Companions in New Scenes, Chap. VIII.--The POETRY: Riddle Solved...

22s Nuremberg

The Ballad of Gunhild,

230 The Last Days of Eton Mon

or, the Phantom Ship...... 2.39 tem

233 Miscellaneous................. 240

PRINTEN by RICHARD Clay, of Nes. 7 and 8, Bread Street Hill, in the

Parish of St. Nicholas Olave, in the City of London, at bis Printing Office at the same plaer, and publisher! by Thomas BOWIESHARPE, of So, is, Skinner Street, in ihr Parish u St. Sepulchre, in the City of London. Saturday, August 7, 1847.

London Magazine:



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THE DRAMA IN THE MIDDLE AGES. | monks and priests. Others, equally religious in their Or all the remarkable periods of history, not the least tendency, in which a visible and cdifying paraphrase of

some portion of the liturgics was set before the ignorant interesting is that comprised in the so-called middle multitude, were acted in some public place within the ages. With the downfal of the Roman empire every sacred precincts, by pious laics, under the sanction of vestige of civilisation seemed to be lost in the moral the clergy. chaos by which that event was succeeded. Dark, how

These dramas were highly relished by the populace, ever, as the period in question is generally supposed to especially when the decline of the feudal system, with

its joustings, tilts, and tournaments, left them no other have been, it was pregnant with the formless elements public amusement. In our own country, the Chester of modern society, floating amid confused recollections Mysteries, or Whitsun Plays, were frequently acted in of bygone customs, laws, and achievements—uncertain that city during the thirteenth century, to the great attempts in a new direction-dependent in a greater delight of all classes of spectators. In the programme degree on the past than the rude intellect of the time or proclamation we are told that “Done Rondali, moonke was willing to acknowledge. Christianity had found a

of Chester Abbey,” was the author :

“This moonke, moonke-like, in scriptures well seene, resting place in the world, and was silently, though

In storyes travelled with the best sorte; surely, sapping the outworks of ignorance. Printing,

In pagentes set fourth, apparently to all eyne, gunpowder, the mariner's compass, the telescope, owe The Olde and Newe Testament with livelye comforte; their discovery to the middle ages. In tie marked dis- Intermynglinge therewith, onely to make sporte, tinctions which then prevailed between the various

Some things not warranted by any writt,

Which to gladd the hearers he woulde men to take yt.” orders of society, the lower classes were reduced to a state of moral and physical degradation. Possessing the clerical actors were not averse to the introduction of

The concluding lines afford a strong presumption that but very few, if any legal rights, they were entirely at

some lighter topics among the grave matter of the the mercy of the lords of the soil; a position from drama, which may probably account for the great degree which they made many desperate, and, in the end, suc- of public favour they received. So much, indeed, were cessful attempts to free themselves. When unable to the plays to the taste of the populace, that they divided use more offensive weapons, they satirized and ridiculed attention with the favourite ballads of Robin Hood.1 their masters in their ballads, songs, and rude dramatic The collection known as the Towneley Mysteries contains

many curious instances of chronological error, which representations. In fact, satire is one of the great cha- may take their place by the side of those committed by racteristics of the period ; it shows itself everywhere - Shakspeare, and Beaumont and Fletcher. In one of the in the metrical romances, fabliaux, and tales; seizing plays by the latter writers, Demetrius fires a pistol long upon councils, sermons, architecture, religious ceremo- ere gunpowder was thought of; and the former makes nies, and all the weak points in the character of the Hector quote Aristotle. In the Mysteries, however, the nobles and the clergy, as fair game. It was one of the high-priest Caiaphas is made to sing mass; Noah's wife

is earliest scintillations of that intelligence which has Virgin Mary; the Shepherds in the Nativity talk of

acquainted with “Stafford blew," and swears by the since effected such mighty changes.

“the foles of Gotham," swear by “Sant Thomas of From the very dawn of civilisation, dramatic genius, Kent,” and are engaged in beating a man who had in some shape or other, has been continually reproduced. stolen one of their sheep, when the angel appears singing Even the rudest tribes delighted in theatrical amuse-the Gloria in excelsis. These incongruities, which ments, in which deities or demons sustained the principal would afford “food for laughter” to a modern audience, characters. In common with other arts, it rose to the passed unnoticed by the superstitious spectators of highest degree of perfection among the Greeks, by whom former days. In another of these Mysterics, the it was transmitted to the Romans. On the subjugation Processus talentorum, we have an example of the of the latter power by the Teutonie hordes, the drama admixture of Latin with the vulgar dialect. Pilate disappeared; the spread of Christianity also tended to enters, declaiming somewhat in the style of the suppress it. The emperor Theodosius the younger pub. “bashful” Irishman :lished laws forbidding shows at Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost. The Fathers, too, denounced plays in the

“Myghty lord of alle, me, Cæsar magnificavit ;

Downe on knees ye fallé, greatt God me sanctificavit ; severest terms ; Tertullian, in his work De Spectaculis,

Me to obey over alle, reyi reliquo quasi David, animadverts on the evil and profane tendency of theatres.

Hanged be, that he salle, hoc jussum qui reprobavit. But the spirit of mimicry was not to be repressed ;

I swere now, it manifested itself in palaces, feudal castles, abbeys and

But ye your hedes cathedrals, and in the public thoroughfares, adapting

Bare in thes shedes itself necessarily to the vicissitudes of time and custom,

Redy my swerde is refinement or barbarism. The antiquary of our day

Of thaym to shere now.” regards the manuscripts of old plays as some of his

But the greatest variety of these religious dramas is rarest treasures ; and the philologist finds in them many perhaps to be found in the ancient literature of France. curious and valuable illustrations of the earliest speci- Whether more importance was attached to the due mens of modern idiom. Notwithstanding the au- observance of festivals in that country than on this side thority of the Fathers, we find that after a time the the channel, or from some other cause, we find numeauthorities of the Church availed themselves of the

rous short pieces written, to be played on certain feasts drama, to impart instruction to the populace, and at the and saints' days. At Christmas, for instance, the Mys. same time to confirm their own power and authority. tery of the Nativity, of the Star, or the Adoration of The sacred plays, called Mysteries, were written in rude the Magi, was given; while at Easter were represented rhyming Latin ; but, as the common people were not the Scenes of the Crucifixion, the Tomb, the Three well acquainted with this language, many popular Marys, or the appearance of Christ to the disciples at words and phrases gradually crept in, forming a strange Emmaus. The Suscitatio Lazari, or the Resurrection contrast to the sonorous original, until at length, in the of Lazarus, was a favourite piece for occasional performfourteenth century, the plays were spoken in the current

ance; and the anniversary of Saint Nicholas was cele. dialect of the day. Some of the old Latin dramas were so strictly connected with the ceremonies of the Church, (1) Two lines in the Vision of Piers Plowman, mark the poputhat they were never represented but in the interior of larity of the ballads :

"I cannot parfitly mi Pater noster as the Priest it syngeth: sacred edifices, by performers chosen from among the

But I can Rymes of Robenhode, and Randof erl of Chester.”

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brated by the Ludus super iconia Sancti Nicholai. The Mysteries, that a little humour was sometimes thrown two latter pieces were written by Hilary, a disciple of in, to enliven the solemnity of the play; so here we Abelard.

have Rifllard, the wag of the piece, whose name literally From the titles of many of these old dramas we rendered signifies jack-plane, saying :obtain a glimpse of the religious feeling of the day, in

“ I grey-bearded crying still — which the worship of the Virgin was strangely mingled

Shepherds, I with you agree, with singular and romantic notions. Some of them

When of bread I have my fillwould doubtless draw an audience in the present day.

Fie for care and covetrie. What a treat for the lovers of the marvellous would be

Pellion. Some vannt of grand seignorie, “ The Miracle of Amis and Amilla, the which Amilla

With donjon towers and weaponry killed her two children to cure Amis her husband, who

Delight is none more true, than yields was leprous; and afterwards our Lady restored them

The sight of pleasant fields, again to life!" The title of another is, “ The miracle

Lambs leaping on the glad prairie.” of our Lady, how the King of Hungary's daughter cut the above quotation displays some appreciation of the off her hand, for that her father wished to marry her, real value and beauty of rural pursuits : the scene, how and a sturgeon kept it (the hand) seven years in his ever, between Judas and Lucifer in the same play, shows stomach.” A third relates to the conversion of one of that the old authors could also be serious and tragical the early Gaulish kings from paganism; " The miracle when it suited their purpose in the long evangelical of our Lady, how king Clovis made himself to be dramas. The wrathful demon appears to the despairing christened at the request of Clotilda his wife, for a disciple, and asks :battle which he had against the Alemans and Senes (Germans and Saxons), and won the victory, and at the

“ Wretch, what shall be done to thee?

Whither wilt thou now depart ? christening descended the holy ampulla.”?

Judas. I know not; for eye of mine In the fourteenth century, however, a change took

Dares not to look upon the heavens. place; a collection was made of all the principal events

Demon, Desirest ihon to ask my name? of gospel history, and formed into one vast and single

Briefly shalt have demonstration. representation, no longer played, as formerly, on par

Judas. Whence comest thou ? ticular days and festivals, but continuing throughout


From the nether hell. several days, and sometimes for weeks, and at any period

Judas. What is thy name? of the year. The most celebrated of these comprehen

Demon. Despair. sive dramas was called, the Mystery of the Passion :

Judas. Terribility of vengeance ! the first portion or act took in one day of the scripture

Horribility of danger! narrative; to the second, extending from the baptism

Approach, receive my allegiance,

If death will abate my misery.” to the crucifixion, four days were allotted; and to the third and concluding portion, six days. On its first This passionate and abrupt dialogue was well calculated performauce in 1398, it was received with the greatest to make a powerful impression on the minds of the enthusiasm, and speedily became a popular favourite ; spectators, and bears evident proofs of dramatic genius. so much so, that it led to the establishment of a per- The Miracle of Theophilus is another of the religious manent' theatre, in which daily representations took dramas based upon the supernatural and the terrible. place.

Originating in the East about the sixth century, such Amid much that is rude and quaint, this Mystery of was its effect upon the popular mind, that the guilds the Passion contains some germs of poetry, and delicacies and corporations of every trade painted the walls of of expression, the more remarkable when contrasted their halls, the windows, and panels, with the exemplary with the rough setting by which they are surrounded details of the legend, in which a priest, seduced by It is, however, somewhat difficult to account for the pride and ungovernable ambition, denies his faith, and prodigious favour in which these spectacles were held, devotes himself to the service of the evil one : the devoid as they are of the scenery and decorations which, dénouement, however, records his penitence and rein the present day, constitute the principal attraction conciliation with the church. On some occasions the of the drama. Perhaps the superstitions of the age, auditors were entertained by an exhibition of ventrilocombined with an unreflecting religious feeling, may quism; one of the plays, entitled, “The Discourses of have contributed to excite popular admiration for what the Three Quick and the Three Dead," was recited by would now be wearisome to all. The traces of poetry a single actor, who changed the tone of his voice in to which we have referred, are found in the scene of the accordance with the change of characters. In the Shepherds, of whom three hold a rhymed dialogue, Mystery of the Resurrection we meet with errors simiexpressive of the delights and pleasures of a pastoral lar to those quoted from the Towneley Mysteries. One lite, and their superiority to the pursuit of arms, or of the soldiers is made to say that, whether he obtain wealth which bringeth care. Aloris, the first speaker, absolution from the priest or not, he will kill the first says :

who approaches. The solecism of introducing a Romish “ For shepherds now is season sweet,

priest in the days of Herod is not the only one, for in Heav'n be thanked, as is meet.”

another place Caiaphas is called a bishop.

The mystery of the Wise and Foolish Virgins is an To this Ysambert adds :

interesting specimen of the transition state of the “ When shepherds meet in reason,

language ; many of the primitive French words are It is ever sweet scason.”

introduced among the rude and barbarous Latin : it is Pellion, the third shepherd, continues-

of the time of Henry I., the early part of the eleventh

century. The prologue was originally spoken by one “ In the house I could not stay,

of the priesthood, who afterwards called out in a loud And behold this joyous day.

voice the names of the actors, as they successively Aloris. Fie for care and covetrie, No lite, pampered though it be,

entered and took part in the proceedings. This perIs worth the life of pastorie.

sonage answers to our modern stage director ; when the Pellion. Shepherds, who can happy be,

performance took place insi a church, he stood in the Fie for care and covetrie.”

middle of the gallery, surrounded by the musicians.

The other characters, priests and monks, clothed in the We have already seen, in the prologue to the Chester costume of their paris, sat in the stalls, waiting the

moment to rise and advance to the middle of the (1) For a long period it was popularly believed in France, that

At the ampulla, (vessel of consecrated oil,) used at the coronation of choir, where they sang or chanted their stanzas. Clovis, was brought down from heaven by a dove.

the opening of the Wise and Foolish Virgins, a priest


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recites some Latin verses by way of prologue, and to conventionally termed being "in love," is, to say the give a general outline of the subject. Then enter the least, a very doubtful kind of happiness; and poets have Wise Virgins, whom the angel Gabriel, in old Latin therefore, with great propriety, described it as “ pleasing French, warns to “ Watch, and sleep not.” They con- pain,” “ delicious misery,” and in many other terms of a tinue their share of the dialogue in the sanie idiom, like equivocal character; nor is it possible that this when the Foolish Virgins enter, deploring their negli- should be otherwise : love is a passion, wayward and gence, with moving appeals to the compassion of the impetuous in its very nature,-agitating and disquieting others, and ending each of their three stanzas with the in its effects, rendering its votary the slave of circhoral complaint :-Dolentas! chuitivas ! trop i avem cumstances,--a mere shuttlecock alternating between the dormit." Miserable, unhappy ones, too long have we extremes of hope and fear, joy and sorrow, confidence slept !" The Wise refuse, and bid them despatch and and mistrust ;-a thing which a smile can exalt to the buy oil; at the same time retorting upon them the highest pinnacle of delight, or a frown strike down to chorus, Dolentas,&c. After many fruitless and the depths of despair. But in the consciousness that we despairing entreaties, the Foolish Virgins go to the mer- are beloved, there is none of this questionable excitechants, who receive them by saying, “ Domnas gentris.” | ment; on the contrary, we experience a sensation of deep

—“ Gentle ladies, it is not beseeming that you tarry calm joy, as we reflect, that in the true affection thus here so long ; we cannot give what you ask ; hasten bestowed, we have gained a possession, which the cares back to your wise sisters ;” and in turn quote the and struggles of life are powerless to injure, and which complaint, Dolentas," &c. The piece finished with death itself

, though it may interrupt it for a while, will the seizure and carrying off of the Foolish Virgins by fail to destroy. demons, after their rebuke by the bridegroom. In These thoughts, or something like them, having addition to the characters enumerated, Nabuchado-entrenched themselves in the stronghold of my imaginosor, the Sybil, and Virgil, are introduced to help out nation, for some time held their ground gallantly against the moral. "We shall conclude this brief sketch of the the attacks of common sense; but at length, repulsed popular religious drama with a specimen of the bar on every point, they deemed it advisable to capitulate, barous Latin text quoted from the mystery above or (to drop metaphor, a style of writing I particularly referred to:

abominate, perhaps because I never more than half “ Venit talis

understand what it means) in plain English, I, with a Solea nobis

sort of grimace, such as one makes before swallowing a Cujus non sum etiam.

dose of physic, set myself seriously to work, to reflect Tam benignus Ut sim ausus

upon my present position, and decide on the best line Solvere corrigiam.”

of conduct to be pursued for the future.

Before our conference came to an end, I had made

Clara acquainted with my knowledge of Cumberland's FRANK FAIRLEGH;

former delinquencies, as well as the reputation in which

he was now held by such of his associates as had any OR, OLD COMPANIONS IN NEW SCENES. 1

pretension to the title of gentlemen, and added my con

viction, that, when once these facts were placed before CHAP. IX.

Mr. Vernon, he must see that he could not, consistently

with his duty as guardian, allow his ward to marry a man FreddY COLEMAN was cheated of his walk that after- of such character. Cumberland had no doubt contrived noon; for an old maiden lady in the neighbourhood, to keep his uncle in ignorance of his mode of life, and having read in a Sunday paper that the cholera was

it would only be necessary to enlighten him on that raging with great fury at Trincomalee, thought it as

point, to ensure his consent to her breaking off the well to be prepared for the worst, and sent for Mr. Cole- engagement. Clara appeared less sanguine of success, man to receive directions about making her will,- and even hinting at the possibility of Mr. Vernon's being as he, being particularly engaged, sent Freddy in his stead, well-informed in regard to his nephew's real character who set out on the mission in a state of comic ill. as we were ; adding, that his mind was too firmly set on humour, which bid fair to render Mrs. Aikenside's will the match, for him to give it up lightly. It was finally a very original document indeed, and foreboded for that agreed between us, that she was to let me know how good old ludy herself an unprecedented and distracting attairs went on after Mr. Vernon's return, and, in the afternoon.

mean time, I was to give the matter my serious conI had assisted Mr. Coleman in placing Clara Saville sideration, and decide on the best course for us to follow. in the carriage which arrived to convey her to Barstone, The only person in the establishment whom she could and had received a kind glance, and a slight pressure of thoroughly trust, was the extraordinary old footman, (the the band in return, which I would not have exchanged subject of Lawless's little bit of diplomacy.) who had for the smiles of an empress, when, anxious to be alone served under her father in the Peninsula, and accomwith my own thoughts, I started off for a solitary walk, panied him home in the character of confidential por did I relax my pace till I had left all traces of human servant-he had consequently known Clara from a child, habitation far behind me, and green fields and leafless and was strongly attached to her, so that she had hedges were my only companions. I then endeavoured learned to regard him more in the light of a friend in some measure to collect my scattered thoughts, and than a servant. Through this somewhat original subto reflect calmly on the position I had placed myself in, stitute for a confidante, we arranged to communicate

with each other. by the avowal into which the unexpected events of the morning had hurried me. But so much was I excited,

As to my own line of conduct, I very soon decided on that calm reflection appeared next to impossible. Feel that. I would only await a communication from Clara to ing flushed with the victory it had obtained over its assure me that Mr. Vernon's determination with regard old antagonist, Reason seemed, in every sense of the to her remained unchanged, ere I would seek an inter. word, to have gained the day, and, despite all the diffi- view with him, enlighten him as to Cumberland's true culties that lay before me-difficulties which I knew character, acquaint him with Clara's aversion to the would appear all but insurmountable, whenever I should match, and induce him to allow of its being broken off venture to look them steadily in the face, the one idea I should then tell him of my own affection for her, and that Clara Saville loved me, was ever present with me,

of my intention of coming forward to demand her hand, and rendered me supremely happy.

as soon as by my professional exertions I should have The condition of loving another better than oneself, As to Clara's fortune, if fortune she had, she might

realized a sufficient independence to enable me to marry. (1) Continued from p. 230.

build a church, endow a hospital, or buy herself bonnet


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