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9. alteris castris, by a second day's march. 14. quoque, $ 41, II. 1. 17. idem (i.e., Parmenio) et=at once.

20. utrum an, § 71. II. ; the double form utrumne is hardly found, except in poetry.

23. prælio; the usual spelling is with ce. Darius was in Syria, with a great superiority in numbers, as well as position ; for his army consisted largely of cavalry, for which this broad plain gave great advantages. If the Greeks waited where they were, on the other hand, the Persians would be able to bring no larger forces into battle than they themselves, on account of the narrowness of the ground.

26. circumiri, § 52, 11. 2. — ancipiti, on two sides.

28. vincerentur, $ 64, III. ; the non does not belong with ne, but corresponds to sed. 45. 1. sede, abl. of price; we should say, had exchanged his native home for exile; see note on p. 32, 1. 20.

7. nobilitate, $ 54, IV.

8. literas ; the singular means a letter of the alphabet, the plural an epistle, writings, or literature.

12. initi, $ 72, 2; of having entered upon. 13. redderetur, $ 62, II. 3. 14. eam, subject of dari. — sigillo, § 54, x. 18. jussu, $ 13, 4; such nouns are most often used in acc. or abl.

24. damnaret, $ 57; in oratio recta, this would be si damnet, by $ 59, iv. 1.

28. fidem, sc. esse.
29. velle, sc. Græcos.
30. diversa, to the enemy. commissum, sc. sibi.

33. futuros, in order that they might be: $ 64, v. 5. 46. 1. sanctus, holy (not sacred), conscientious. — negat is generally used for a negative assertion ; Darius declares that he will not; or, refuses, etc.

4. sibi, $ 51, III. end and iv.- crediturum, § 67, 11. 2. 5. imbuisset, $ 57, III. — neminem, subject of debere. 6. capite, $ 50, iv. 2, end. 9. fidei, § 50, 1. 2. -haberi, sc. eum, § 48, III, note. 11. ipsum quidem, he for his part. 13. Fama, etc., wars depend upon rumor. 18. servato more: if the custom of the ancestors were kept.

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20. obtulerint, $ 66, 1.: who [as they asserted], etc. 21. regem, i.e., Alexander. — sua, i.e., of Darius.

30. verius, § 47, VII. 47. 6. relicta, § 10, 2. — fugerent, $ 65, 11.: were flying, not would fly; the Persians had made a flank movement past the Macedonians, and taken the town of Issus, which Alexander had just left.

8. excepti, left behind. 19. adesset, sc., utrum, § 71, 11. note. 22. campis, $ 55, III. 5. 24. cum: although. incondita : undisciplined.

27. lætus decernendum esse: glad that he was to fight. quod, as; a relative, referring to the clause that follows.

32. nec injuria: and not without reason.

33. esset, $ 57, v.: we should say how fickle she is. 48.

2. majora, sc., esse. — periculis, § 54, v. 3. sicut dubium esset: as it was doubtful, § 66, 1. this use of an for utrum, in a single dependent question, is not common in prose.

4. cum magna laude, $ 54, 11. first note. 6. vigilia: see note on p. 12, 1. 24. 10. The tuba was a long straight horn, with a harsh sound, used for infantry.

13. The stadium, or distance marked out for foot-races, was a Greek measure, of about one eighth of a mile.

14. The agmen (from ago, $ 44, 111. 3) is the army marching ; acies, the line of battle. — Alexander was now retracing his steps towards Issos, and each army was facing towards its own country.

17. etiam, sc., eos, subj. of occurrere.

18. non mediocris: immoderate; this is the figure called litotes, by which a thing is affirmed by denying its opposite.

21. discurrentium, i.e., to give orders and take their positions. 49. 2. destinata, § 47, iv. (1).

11. milibus, § 46; it cannot agree with peditibus ($ 18, 1. 3).

12. For the Macedonian phalanx see Hb. 121; it was the most famous military order that ever existed, for compact and concentrated force.

17. assueta; this verb may be followed by the dative, or by the ablative of means — practised in the office of body-guard.

18. Hyrcania was east, Media south of the Caspian Sea.

17.

22. Quicquid, sc., lo

24. stabant, rested on. 50. 5. et ipsi, these also.

10. illi, the barbarians towards the mountains, opposed by the Agrianians. 14. quod is subj. of incesseretur, depending on timuerat ne.

At first the breadth of practicable road was so confined as to admit only a narrow column of march, with the cavalry following the infantry; presently it widened, enabling Alexander to enlarge his front, by bringing up successively the divisions of the phalanx." Grote.

24. major exercitus numero: louder than the numbers would warrant.

25. circumjecta, § 47, 11. (2).

28. suspensi, exhausted. 51. 3. olim may refer either to past or to future time either, they who had once freed the world [a hyperbolical allusion to the Greek wars of freedom], and whose gods, Hercules and Bacchus, had traversed wide regions; or, that they would now free the world, and make their way to the limits which these gods had once reached. The latter appears to be Crosby's interpretation, and is perhaps best, although there is certainly an inconsistency between liberatores and imposituros jugum.

9. gladio, § 54, VII. 10. The umbo, boss, was a metallic point projecting centre of the shield.

11. The Athenians and Bæotians had been vanquished by Alexander's father, Philip, in the great battle of Chæronea, five years before: B.C. 338.

12. Bootiæ and urbis (i.e., Thebes) both limit species.

19. The invasion of Darius was B.C. 490, that of Xerxes in 480. The Persian kings sent ambassadors to Greece, demanding of each city earth and water, as symbols of absolute submission.

22. ruinis, from ruo: by tearing down. 24. rapto: upon what they stole.

27. Irent, $ 67, 11. 1; in oratio recta it would be ite; for the tense, see § 57.— feminis, $ 51, v. note.

33. decernere, $ 68, 11. The oriental nations excelled greatly in cavalry, which was the weak point of the Greeks and Romans. The battle upon the Greek left was vigorously contested.

52. 2. dextrum: can this mean lævum ? We have seen (p. 50, 1. 10) that the enemy had been driven on Alexander's right.

8. conjungi, $ 23, 3.

9. ipsi, i.e., the troops of Parmenio, on the left centre. 12. simul, sc. atque, § 43, 9.

15. Fighting at a distance, with arrows, javelins, etc., was called eminus (e manus); with the sword, cominus. It will be remembered that the Greek mercenaries of Darius were upon this wing, towards the sea, so that “Greek met Greek.”

20. dimicarent, $ 61, 1.

27. Alexander is : here described as making for Darius himself, in the centre of the line; but the romantic details given here by Curtius are not substantiated by the best authorities.

28. opimum, in allusion to the spolia opima, Hb. 56. 53. 2. in parcissimis, one of a few.

6. similis ruinæ, as if they had been swept down. 9. adverso corpore, in front. 27. in illud cornu: on that wing; the fight had been severe at this point, until Darius himself fled. Meanwhile, the Thessalians, on the Greek left, had likewise succeeded in putting their antagonists to flight.

28. serie laminarum, plate armor.

30. agmen moliebantur, formed into column. 54. 1. utrimque, on both wings.

8. partibus; the plural, partes, often means party, side.
10. haud sane, etc., i.e., in good order.
12. qua, $ 55, IV.

20. quibus, $ 51, v. note. — quo: in proportion as ; understand eo with violentius, § 54, v. end.

26. impotentis (sc., sui, powerless over itself): arrogant.

30. ita very frequently is used with ut following; it need not be translated at all.

31. ut... exciperent, $ 70 and II.

33. semet; met is an emphatic addition, $ 19, III. end. 55. 1. illa, the former; hæc, the latter: $ 20, 11.

11. decoris, from decor (not decoris, from decus). - veris quondam is contrasted with tunc alienis.

13. calamitatis, $ 50, iv. 1. 21. im endio, $ 54, ix. —stetit: cost.

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25. assueverat, was intimate.

32. pavoris, panic; fear is timor, dread, metus. 56. 10. Sardis, $ 11, 1. 2. — primo, $ 41, 11. 4.

17. The subj. of nuntiari is missum se a rege.
18. actum est means it is all over.
21. possent, $ 63, II.
28. Itaque, § 43, 5.
31. officio, § 54, III.

33. apparatu: in respect to the splendor. 57. 5. haberi, to be rendered.

Of Calif raia 6. sepeliret, $ 64, iv., after permitti. 7. pro habitu, in a manner suited to the condition. 11. justis, regular or due ceremonies.

14. “ It is certain (from the extract now remaining of this letter [written by Alexander after the battle]) that he never saw, nor ever entertained the idea of seeing, the captive wife of Darius, said to be the most beautiful woman in Asia; moreover, he even declined to hear encomiums upon her beauty.” (Grote.)

17. et hic; referring to their close intimacy.

31. vellem, $ 60, 2, note. 58. Within three years after the battle of Issus, the empire of Darius was utterly overthrown, and he himself was assassinated. Alexander was now at the height of human power ; but, in becoming an Asiatic sovereign, he lost the generous and poble qualities of his youth, and became a passionate and treacherous tyrant. His treatment of his early friend, Clitus, the brother of his nurse, in B.C. 228, is an illustration of this change of character. His

army

had penetrated far to the east of the Caspian Sea, to Maracanda, the modern Samarcand.

8. receptacula, $ 46, in apposition with turres.
9. ætatibus, generations ; $ 55, 1. 2.
12. Lysimachus was one of the generals of Alexander, who
divided his empire after his death ; he became king of Thrace.

14. quo, i.e., Lysimachus.
15. adjecit, added. — tam, as well.
21. Nam, $ 43, 4.
24. crediderim, $ 60, note, and 2.

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