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8. cæruleos, dark blue, the color of the sea; applied therefore to the gods of the sea. -Tritona, a Greek form of the acc., § 11, III. 4, note; Triton was the companion of Neptune. Proteus was a sea-god, who had the power of assuming different shapes. immania, § 78, III. 5, VII. — Ægæon was another name for Briareus, the hundred-handed giant; Doris, a seagoddess, wife of Nereus, and mother of the Nereids or sea-nymphs. - natas, $ 78, III. 3. — videntur, $ 49, 1. end. — mole, a rock, $ 78, III. 5, iv. quædam, sc. videntur.
15. Terra answers to unda in v. 8; the carved work is described. -imago, $ 78, 111. 5, III. — signa, the signs of the zodiac.
19. acclivo, $ 78, III. 5, ix. Clymeneia, § 47, 5, v. ferebat, i.e., could not bear. - Dies, etc., the personified deities of these divisions of time; the Horæ are usually the seasons in mythology, but here the word is used in its prose meaning. calcatis; in allusion to the custom of treading out the wine.
28. spicea, § 44, III. 1. novitate, $ 78, III. 6, iv. 33. publica, common to all.
40. Deposuit; see v. 22. — amplexu, $ 78, 11. 9. — negari depends upon dignus, by an exception to § 65, Iv. 1. — es, $ 78, II. 3, exc. - edidit, id. III. 3, exc.; and 4. - quodvis, from quivis, any you please. — me, § 78, II. 1.-juranda, § 51, 1. second note. — palus, the Styx, by which the gods swore their most solemn oaths. — incognita, because the sun's beams never reach the lower world. — jus, $ 78, 11. 3, exc.
50. tua, sc. voce. — dare, $ 78, III. 2, exc. negarem, sc. si possem, § 59, iv. 2; confiteor is used parenthetically. istis, thy; § 20, II. - conveniant, § 65, 1. — superis, those above, i.e., the gods. — fas is what is permitted by divine law. – nescius, ignorantly, $ 47, vi. — Placeat, $ 64, iv.; the meaning
- $ is, let each of the gods have his fancy, still, &c.
the axle is put for chariot, by the figure called synecdoche, by which the part is put for the whole. — rector, i.e., Jupiter. agat, $ 60, 2; this is one of the few cases in which the subj. may be rendered can.
65. The subject of fit is videre. Tethys was wife of Oceanus (god of the ocean), and mother of Clymene the mother of Phaëthon.
- cetera, sc. sidera. — orbi, $ 51, 1. -Finge, suppose. axis, i.e., cæli. — illic, i.e., in the heavens. - delubra, $ 78, III. ; 5, 11. — formas, i.e., the constellations of the zodiac, eight of which represent animals.
78. ut, although. — adversi, fronting you. - Hæmonios, i.e., Thessalian ; the archer was represented as a centaur, a race which had its home in Thessaly: - aliter, in another direction. ignibus limits animosus. — in promptu, easy. — ut, when.
89. sanguine, $ 54, VIII. — -timendo, i.e., for your safety.
100. ne dubita, 58, III. - qua licuit, as long as it was permitted. - summæ rotæ, the outside of the wheel. — Phobo Sole; this is the figure called metonymy, by which a word is put for another to which it stands in some relation, as of cause and effect, or here that of ruling and guiding.
113. agmina cogit, bring up the rear. — Lucifer, the morning star. quæ, subject of petere, depending on vidit, which agrees with Titan
Phæbus ; the Titans were an early race of gods, and Phæbus was son of the Titan Hyperion. extremæ, fading. - ambrosiæ ; the food of the gods, and so of their horses.
121. ora, the countenance ; patientia agrees with it, able to endure. -flammæ, $ 50, III. — directos, straight across the five circles ; i.e., the equator, tropics, and poles ; the sectus in obliquum limes is the Ecliptic, which touches only the torrid and temperate zones. que, after polum, both.
131. preme (also pressam below) means to bear down, so as to be towards the horizon. — juvet, § 68, 11. note. — Aurora, goddess of the morning. - quæ relates to lumina ; dare depends on sine (from sino).
150. contingere; the regular construction after gaudet would be contingere, by $ 70, III., or quod contingit, by $ 70, iv. The names of the horses mean fiery, of the dawn, burning, flaming. — repagula, the barriers of a race-course.
- copia, power over or entrance to.. euros (Hb. § 211).
165. inani, sc. currui. - quo ordine refers to eo understood, § 48, III, note. -si sciat; we should expect the imp. sciret, $ 59,
170. Triones (septem), the seven stars which mark the constellation of the Great Bear; it had been forbidden Callisto, who was changed into this constellation, ever to rest. — Bootes, now Arcturus, a constellation near the Great Bear.
174. penitus penitusque, deeper and deeper below. - tenebræ, i.e., from dizziness. - Meropis, sc. filius; Merops was the husband of Clymene. — pinus, i.e., navis, by synecdoche ; see note on axe, v. 58. — frena; this is a metaphorical use of the word, the ship being spoken of as a horse.
195. que connects cauda and lacertis ; the Scorpion originally occupied double space; afterwards Libra was inserted where its claws had been. — madidum; heated by the sun, and sweating poison ; cuspide, the pointed tail, where the sting lies. — expatiantur, leave the road. qua and hac, sc. via, $ 55, IV.
207. Luna; Artemis (Diana) was goddess of the moon, as her brother Apollo of the sun. ut quæque=whatever (parts). Tellus, a poetical word meaning the earth as a heavenly body.arbos; the figure by which one part of a word is used for another (here the sing. for the pl.) is called enallage.
216. Scythia, Tartary; Caucasus, the mountains between the Euxine and Caspian Seas. – Ossa, Pindus, and Olympus are in Thessaly. - Apenninus ; this is a spondaic verse, $ 82, 1. note.
224. calido, § 45, v. 2.
227, in corpora summa, to the surface of the bodies. -passis from pando; dishevelled. - Dirce, Amymõne, and Pirēne are fountains in Thebes, Argos, and Corinth (the old name of which was Ephyre). — sortita, possessing (by lot). — Tạnăis, Don; the Alphēos and Sperchēos are rivers in Greece. The Tagus, in Spain, was a gold-bearing stream. — Mæonia was the ancient name of Lydia, the chief river of which was the Cayster, famed for its
The source of the Nile was a problem to the ancients, as it has remained until our own day.
243. Regem, Pluto. — The Cyclades are a group of islands in the Ægean Sea, so called because they form a rude circle about the sacred island Delos. — Cycladăs, Delphiněs; these are Greek endings, see $ 78, note; final as and es are usually long by § 78, II. 3.- Nereus was the husband of Doris. — aquis, § 54, VI.
255. fontes, § 46. — viscera, § 42, III. - collo, § 56, 1. 5. opposuit manum, i.e., to shield her face. — infra inferius, i.e., crouching. — perituræ, sc. mihi. auctore; it would be a consolation to perish by the thunderbolt of Jove.
271. vobis, i.e., Dis. — fac, grant. — frater, sć. tuus, i.e., Poseidon (Neptune). - Quod, § 52, IV. — fratris limits gratia.
mea, § 50, 11. 1, end. — utrumque, in each direction.
278. Atlas, one of the Titans, who sustained the heavens on his shoulders. neque enim ; i.e., she spoke no more, for, &c. - os, $ 78, 11. 2. — Manibus ; the manes were the spirits of the departed, and are put by metonymy for the infernal regions. 291. nubes ; the clouds and showers had been all dried up.
expulit; this word properly applies only to rotis (put by synecdoche for curru); the figure by which it is joined also with vita (with which privavit would be the right word) is called zeugma.
305. diverso, i.e., in the west. - Eridanus, the Po; it has also been identified with the Rhone. — Naides (naiades), rivernymphs ; Hesperia was the poetic name of Italy. - corpora, by enallage for corpus. - SITVS; v and u were the same letters anciently.
318. mox, i.e., when the limbs themselves had perished.
324. Heliades from Helias, daughter of the sun; a feminine patronymic, § 44, 1. 3. morti put for mortuo by metonymy. adsteruntur, § 23, 3, prostrate themselves. — junctis cornibus, i.e., the crescent had joined its horns and become the full moon.
- Phaethusa and Lampetie; these names, signifying bright and shining, are well suited to the daughters of the sun. — maxima, $ 17, III. end. — cum vellet, wishing; the subjunctive with cum may often be rendered by the present participle.
337. faciat, § 60, 3. — trahat, § 66, II. — eat, $ 59, iv. 1.
sole qualifies rigescunt. - electra; mythology divined the true origin of amber, as a gum from trees, which was long a puzzle to naturalists. gestanda; amber was a favorite material for necklaces, &c., among the Roman ladies; they carried balls of it in their hands for coolness.
“The Fasti of the Romans," says Ramsay, "corresponded very closely to a modern almanac, and the Fasti of Ovid may be considered as a poetical • Year-Book’or Companion' to the Roman Almanac." This work was commenced before Ovid's banishment; whether it was ever completed is uncertain, as only six books are extant. Each of these is devoted to one month, describing the festivals of the months, and interweaving much historical and mythical matter. The Fasti did for Roman mythology what the Metamorphoses did for Greek. The metre of the Fasti is the Elegiac ($ 82, 11.).
Book 111. of the Fasti, devoted to the month of March, is here given, with such omissions as bring it within reasonable limits; it contains, complete, eight hundred and eighty-four
The following is the calendar of this month, — the first day being the Kalends, the seventh the Nones, and the fifteenth the Ides :
1. D. (KAL. MAR.) NP. ; -2. (vi. Non.) E.F.; -3. (v. Non.) F.C.;-4. (iv. Non.) G.C.; -5. (II. Non.) H.C.;- 6. (prid. Non.) A.NP. HOC. DIE. CAESAR. PONTIF. MAXIM. FACT. EST. -7. (Non.) B.F;-8. (viii. Id.) C.F.; -9. (vii. Id.) D.C.; 10. (vi. Id.) E.C.; — 11. (v. Id.) F.C.; — 12. (iv. Id.) G.C.;
13. (III. Id.) H.EN.; -14. (prid. Id.) A. EQ. NP.; -15. (EI.) B. NP.; -16. (XVII. Kal. Aprilis) C.F.;--17. (xvi. Kal. Apr.) D. LIB. NP.; — 18. (xv. Kal. Apr.) E.C.; — 19. (xiv. Kal. Apr.) F. Qvin. N. ;-20. (xii. Kal. Apr.) G.C.;-21. (XII. Kal. Apr.) H.C.; — 22. (xi. Kal. Apr.) A.N.; 23. (x. Kal. Apr.) B. TVBIL. NP.; -24. (Ix. Kal. Apr.) C.Q. Rex. C.F.;25. (VIII. Kal. Apr.) D.C.; — 26. (vii. Kal. Apr.) E.C.; — 27. (vi. Kal. Apr.) F.NP. HOC. DIE. CAESAR. ALEXAND. RECEPIT ; 28. (v. Kal. Apr.) G.C. ; -29. (iv. Kal. Apr.) H.C.; – 30. (III. Kal. Apr.) A.C. (N.P.); -31. (prid. Kal. Apr.) C.C.
The letters A, B, &c., standing first, represent the days of the Roman week of eight days: on whichever of these letters the first Nundinæ, or market day, of the year sell, the others came on the same through the whole year. The letters standing next indicate the character of the day (Hb. § 210). F., Fastus, on which the prætor could hold his court; N., Nefastus; C., Comitiales, when the comitia could be held; NP., Nefastus priore, i.e., in first half; EN., Endotercisus (intercisus), half fastus, half nefastus; the 24th day is quando rex comitiavit fastus, fastus when the rex sacrificulus (Hb. § 147) has performed sacrifice in the Comitium; EQ. (14th day) is the equiria, or annual horserace; TVBIL (23d day) is the purification of trumpets, tubilustrium; Qvin (19th day) is the Festival of Minerva.
3. roges, $ 60, 4. — poetæ, $ 51, VI. Minervæ; i.e., although she is the goddess of wisdom and industry. — ingenuis, worthy of a freeman. — vacat, i.e., for that reason. - Pallas was an epithet of the Grecian Athena, who was identified with the Roman Minerva.
9. ter senos, $ 18, 11. 3. — proles ; Romulus and Remus, sons of Mars by the priestess Rea Sylvia (or Ilia); they had been exposed in their infancy, in order to perish, but found by the shepherd Faustulus, who brought them up as his own children. actos=abactos, i.e., a prædonibus. — genus ; their mother was daughter of Numitor, the rightful king of Alba, who had been dispossessed by his brother Amulius. -- pater editus ; i.e., Mars, declared their father.