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ā, ǎb, abs, prep. with abl. A is used only before consonants; ab, before vowels and consonants; abs, only with te. I. OF SPACE from, away from, on the side of, in the direction of, on, in; Gallia attingit ab Sequanis Rhenum, on the side of the Sequăni, i. 1; a dextro cornu, on the right wing, i. 52; a fronte, in front, ii. 23; ab millibus passuum octo, eight miles off or away, iv. 22. II. OF TIME: from, after; ab cohortatione, after exhorting, ii. 25. III. OF OTHER RELATIONS: from, by, by means of, in respect to, among, from with an accessory idea of against; ab iis defendere, to defend against (from) them, i. 11; ortus est a tribunis, arose among or had its origin from, i. 39; ab re frumentariā laborare, to suffer in respect to provisions, vii. 10.

abditus, a, um, part. from abdo. ab-do, děre, didi, ditum, v. tr. To remove, put away; to conceal; sese in silvas, to hide away in the forests, i. 12.

ab-dúco, ĕre, xi, ctum, v. tr. To lead away, take away, withdraw.

ǎb-eo, ire, ivi or ii, itum, v. intr. To go away, depart.

ǎbesse. See Absum. abfūtūrus, a, um. Sce Absum. abies, ětis, f. The fir-tree, v. 12. ǎbisse for abiisse, from abeo. abjectus, a, um, part. from abjicio. ab-jício, ère, jēci, jectum, v. tr. (jacio.) To throw away, cast from, cast off, throw down; to hurl.

abjunctus, a, um, part. from abjungo.


ab-jungo, ĕre, xi, ctum, v. tr. loose from the yoke; to separate, remove; abjuncto Labieno, Labienus having been detached, vii. 56.

abreptus, a, um, part. from abripio. ab-rĭpio, ĕre, ripui, reptum, v. tr. (răpio). To snatch away, take away by violence, tear off or away.

abs-cido, ĕre, cidi, cisum, v. tr. (caedo). To cut off or away.

ab-scindo, ĕre, scidi, scissum, v. tr. To tear or break off, rend.

abscīsus, a, um, part. from abscido. absens, entis, part. (absum). Absent, being away; se absente, in his absence, v. 7.

ab-similis, e, adj. Dissimilar, unlike; formā, of a form not unlike that of, iii. 14.

ab-sisto, ĕre, stiti, v. intr. To withdraw; to keep off from, v. 17.

abs-tineo, ere, ui, tentum, v. tr. (těneo). To hold from, keep from. Intr. to refrain from, abstain from; to spare, vii. 47.

abstractus, a, um, part. from abstraho.

abs-trăho, ĕre, xi, ctum, v. tr. To drag away, take or carry away by force.

To be ab-sum, esse, fui, v. irr. n. absent or away from, to be distant from; longe iis abesse, to be far away from them, i. e., to be of no service to them, i. 36; to be exempt from, vi.



ǎb-undo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. intr. | (unda, a wave). To flow over, abound in, be well provided with.

ac, conj. See Atque.

accēdo, ère, cessi, cessum, v. intr. (ad, cédo). To go near to, approach; to be added. Accedebat, quod, it was added, that, i. e., moreover, iii. 2.

accělĕro, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. and intr. (ad, cělěro, to quicken). To hasten; to make haste, vii. 87.

ăcerbus, a, um, adj. (ācer). Sour or disagreeable to the taste. Fig., severe, hard, disagreeable.

acceptus, a, um, 1), part. from accipio; 2), adj. Pleasant, welcome, agreeable; maxime plebi acceptus, very much beloved by the people, i. 3.

acerrime, adv. sup. of ācriter. ăcervus, i, m. A heap, pile, collection.

accido, ère, cidi, v. intr. (ad, că- ăcies, ei, f. (gcn. ăcie, ii. 23, for do). To fall, fall upon; to befall, oc-ăciei, G. 119, 4). A sharp edge; cur, happen. Accidit, impers. it hap-sharpness of the sight, fierce exprespens. sion, keen looks; a line of battle, an army in line of battle, i. 22.

accido, ère, cidi, cisum, v. tr., (ad, caedo). To cut off, cut down, fell.

ăcerbe, ăcerbius, ăcerbissime, adv. (ăcerbus). Roughly, bitterly, harshly, sharply; with pain, with discontent, vii. 17.

ăcerbitas, ātis, f. (ăcerbus). Harshness, sour or disagreeable taste. Fig., severity, rigor, unkindness, harshness of conduct; sorrow, trouble, calamity, hardship, bitter fatc.

acer, acris, acre, adj. (ăceo, to be sour). Sharp, pungent; disagreeable, violent.

acquiro, ère, sīvi, situm, v. tr. (ad, quaero). To procurc, get, obtain, acquire.

accípio, ĕre, ēpi, eptum, v. tr. (ad, căpio). To receive, take, accept; to attain, get; to learn; to approve of.

acriter, acrius, acerrime, adv.

acclīvis, e, adj. (ad, clīvus). As-(ācer). Sharply, vigorously, eagerly, cending, rising, sloping upwards; lo- violently, courageously, zealously. cus, paulatim ab imo acclivis, a place actuārius, a, um, adj. (ăgo). Earising gradually from the plain, iii. 19. sily moved, swift, fleet. acclivitas, ātis, f. (acclīvis). An ascent, steepness, upward slope.

actus, a, um, part. from ago. ǎcūtus, a, um, adj. (ăcuo, to make sharp). Sharp, pointed.

Acco,ōnis, m. A general of the Senones, vi. 4, 44.

accommodātus, a, um, 1), part. from accommodo; 2), adj. Suitable, fitted; accommodatiora, better fitted, more adapted, iii. 13.

ad, prep. with accus. I. OF SPACE: to, towards, in the direction of, in, at, near, among. II. OF TIME: towards, to, till, at; ad multam noctem, until late into the night, i. 26. III. OF OTHER RELATIONS. 1) With numerals: towards, about. 2) Of purpose: to, for; ad largiendum, i. 18. 3) In respect

accommodo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (ad, commodum). To adjust, fit, put on, arrange.

accurro, ère, curri, and cucurri, cursum, v. intr. (ad, curro). To run to, hasten to.

accurate, accūrātius, accūrātissi- | to, for, in, according to, after, in conme, adv. (ad, cūra). With care, care-formity with; ad hunc modum, after fully, exactly, attentively. this manner, ii. 31; ad certum pondus, according to a fixed weight, v. 12. ădactus, a, um, part. from ădigo. ăd-aequo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. To make equal; to equal, make level with; to keep up with, i. 48.

accuso, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (ad, causa). To accusc, blame, reproach, censure, find fault with.

ǎd-ǎmo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. Το love greatly, covet.

ǎd-augeo, ere, auxi, auctum, v. tr. To increase, enlarge.

A brave


Adcantuannus, i. m. chief of the Sontiates, iii. 22. ad-do, děre, didi, ditum, v. tr. add, join to, annex, mingle with. ad-dūco, ère, xi, ctum, v. tr. lead or conduct to, bring, convey to, draw towards, iii. 14. Fig., to induce, lead, influence.




ǎd-eo, ire, ivi or ii, itum, v. intr. To go to, approach; to attack, en


ǎdemptus, a, um, part. from ădi- A servant, assistant, attendant.

ǎd-eo, adv. (is). To that point, so far, to such a degree, so much. ǎdeptus, a, um, part. from adipis


ǎd-ĕquito, āre, āvi, ātum, v. intr. (éques). To ride towards or up to, i. 46. ǎd-haeresco, ĕre, haesi, haesum, v. intr. To stick to, adhere.

ǎd-hibeo, ĕre, ui, itum, v. tr. (hăbeo). To bring to, summon, invite, admit, receive, bring, call in; to use, employ, iii. 20.


adjūtor, ōris, m. (adjuvo). Helper, aid, assistant.

ăd-hortor, āri, ātus sum, v. dep. To encourage, incite, exhort.

ǎd-huc, adv. Up to this time, hitherto, thus far, as yet, still.

ǎd-igo, ĕre, ēgi, actum, v. tr. (ăgo). To drive in, conduct; to compel, force.

ăd-imo, ère, ēmi, emptum, v. tr. (ěmo = accipio). To take away, deprive of, remove.

ad-jŭvo, āre, jūvi, jūtum, v. tr. To help, assist, aid; to avail, profit, be of use.

ad-mātūro, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. To bring to maturity, ripen; to hasten. administer, tri, m. (ad, mănus).

ad-ministro, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (administer). To be at hand, assist, serve; to take in hand, manage, guide, direct.

ad-mīror, āri, ātus sum, v. dep. To wonder at, admire.

ad-mitto, ère, misi, missum, v. tr. To permit, allow; to commit; to give reins to; equo admisso, at full speed, i. 22.

admodum, adv. (ad, modus). Very, exceedingly; with numerals : about, fully, at least.

ad-moneo, ere, ui, itum, v. tr. To admonish, warn, advise; to remind, suggest.

ǎdolescens, tis, m. and f. (ădŏlesco). A youth, a young man or woman. ǎdolescentia, ae, f. (ădolescens). Youthful age, youth.

ǎdolescentulus, i, m. dim. (ădŏlescens). A very young man, stripling. ǎd-ŏlesco, ĕre, olēvi, ultum, v. intr. To grow up, come to maturity.

ǎd-ŏrior, iri, ortus sum, v. dep. To attack, fall upon; to attempt, undertake.

ǎd-Ĭpiscor, i, eptus sum, v. dep. (ăpiscor, to reach after). To obtain, get, acquire, attain by effort; nanciscor, to obtain by accident.

ădĭtus, us, m. (ǎdeo). Approach, access, admittance; permission to approach, right of access or interview.

ad-jǎceo, ēre, cui, v. intr. To lie at or near, be contiguous, border upon. adjectus, a, um, part. from adjicio. ad-jício, ĕre, jēci, jectum, v. tr. (jacio). To cast or throw to, hurl, send; to add, join to.

ad-jūdĭco, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. To vi. 32, 35. adjudge; to award, assign.

ad-jungo, ĕre, xi, ctum, v. tr. To join to, add, bind to, annex, unite.

ǎdortus, a, um, part. from adŏrior. ad-scisco, ère, scīvi, scītum, v. tr. (scio). To take, receive, admit, join to.

To ad-sisto, ĕre, stiti, v. intr. stand by or near, be present, appear, in publico, vi. 18.

ad-sum, esse, adfui or affui, v. irr. n. To be present or at hand; to aid, assist.

Aduātŭca, ae, f. A fortress in the country of the Eburones, now Tongres,

Aduătăci, ōrum, m. A people of Gallia Belgica, ii. 4, 16, 29, 31; v. 27, 38, 39, 56; vi. 2, 33.

adventus, us, m. (ad, věnio). Arri- | ity; justice, equity, impartiality; with val, approach, coming. animi, composure, calmness, contentment, vi. 22.

adversarius, a, um, adj. (adversus). Hostile, opposed. Subs. An opponent, adversary, enemy.

adversus, a, um, adj. (adverto). aequus, a, um, adj. 1) Even, level; Turned to, opposite, over Of favorable, suitable. 2) Equal, like; rivers: up or against the stream, aequo Marte, in an equal contest, vii. 19. 3) Just, right, honorable, reasonablc. 4) Calm, composed; aequiore animo, with greater composure, v.52.

flumine adverso, vii. 61. Of winds: adverse, unfavorable. Of persons: hostile, unfriendly; and in general, unfavorable, opp. to secundus; res adversae, unfavorable circumstances, calamities; adversa nox, an unfavorable, stormy night, iv. 28; in adversum os, full in the face, v. 35.

aerārius, a, um, adj. (aes). Relating to copper or brass; aerariae secturae, copper mines, iii. 21.

aes, aeris, n. 1) Brass, copper. 2) Money, as the first Roman coins were

adversus, prep. with acc. (adver- of copper. Aes alienum, debt; lit., to). Against, opposite to. the money of another, hence,' the money which one owes to another. aestas, ātis, f. The summer. aestimatio, ōnis, f. (aestimo). Apprisal, valuation, esteem; worth, price, value.

ad-verto, ère, ti, sum, v. tr. To turn to or towards; with animum, to turn one's mind to, perceive, observe. Sometimes animum is understood.

ad-voco, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. To call to; to summon, call.

ad-volo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. intr. To fly to, hasten to or towards; to rush upon, v. 17.

aedificium, i, n. (aedifico). Edifice, building, residence.

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aequo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (aequus). To make equal.

aegre, aegrius, aegerrime, adv. (aeger). With difficulty, hardly, scarcely, ill.

aestĭmo, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (aes). To estimate the value of; to esteem, regard, consider; to judge, determine, estimate; litem, v. 1.

aequinoctium, i, n. (aequus, nox). The equinox; the time when the days and nights are of equal length.

aestivus, a, um, adj. (aestas). Relating to summer; tempus, summer time, vi. 4.

aestuārium, i, n. (aestus). An cstuary, marsh, creek, frith, inlet.

aeger, gra, grum, adj. Sick, indis-nus, posed; feeble, suffering, faint.

aestus, us, m. 1) Heat, burning heat. 2) The ebb and flow of the sea, the tide.

aetas, atis, f. (for aevitas, aevum, age.) The period of life, age; old age. aeternus, a, um, adj. (for aeviteraevum, age). Everlasting, eternal, perpetual.

affĕro, ferre, attēli, allātum, v. tr. irr. (ad, fero). To bring to, impart, offer, present; to contribute, afford; to occasion, cause, effect, produce.

Aemilius, i, m. Lucius, a decurion of Gallic cavalry, i. 23.

affício, ère, feci, fectum, v. tr. (ad,

aequaliter, adv. (aequus). Equal- făcio). To affect, influence, treat; ly, uniformly.

beneficio, to influence by kindness, vii. 37; poenā, supplicio, to punish.

affīgo, ère, xi, xum, v. tr. (ad, figo, to fix). To fix, fasten upon, attach

aequitas, ātis, f. (aequus). Equal-to; longuriis, iii. 14.

affingo, ère, inxi, ictum, v. tr. (ad, | iii. 21. 5) To drive in, iv. 17. II. To fingo). To assert falsely, add falsely. pursue a course of action. 1) To exaffīnītas, ātis, f. (affinis, near to). press, state; gratias, to give thanks, i. Connection, nearness; relationship 41; cum Caesăre, to treat with, i. 13; (by marriage), i. 18. to negotiate, v. 37. 2) To perform, affirmatio, ōnis, f. (ad, firmo). Af-manage, pursue, transact, do, i. 20; firmation, assurance; assertion, decla- conventus, to hold the assizes, i. 54. 3) ration, vii. 30. To pass, spend. Intr., to act, vii. 17. agricultūra, ae, f. (ăger, còlo). Ag

affixus, a, um, part. from affigo. afflicto, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. freq.riculture, cultivation of the soil, tillage. (affligo). To agitate, toss, trouble, vex, afflict, injure, damage. Of ships: in vadis, to strand, iii. 12.

ălăcer, cris, cre, adj. Lively, animated, brisk, quick; cheerful, elated; eager, active, fierce.

ǎlacritas, ātis, f. (ălăcer.) Live

ness; gladness.

afflictus, a, um, part. from affligo. afflīgo, ère, xi, ctum, v. tr. (ad, fli-liness, ardor, zeal, eagerness, promptgo, to strike.) To strike or dash against; to cast down, prostrate. Of ships to shatter, injure, collide, v. 10. affõre,―affùtūrum esse (ad, fõre). See Adsum. G. 204, 1.

africus, i, m. The south-west wind. Agendicum, i, n. A town in Gallia Celtica, the capital of the Senones, now Sens, vi. 44; vii. 10, 57, 59, 62.

ǎger, agri, m. Land, territory, field, country, district.

agger, ĕris, m. (ad, gero). A mound, rampart; the materials for a mound.

aggrego, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (ad, grěgo, to collect in a flock.) To collect, assemble; to join, unite, attach.

ǎgīto, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (āgo). To put in motion, drive; to revolve in mind, talk about, discuss, deliberate upon.

agmen, inis, n. (for ăgimen, ǎgo). An army on the march, the line of march; a march; a troop, band; primum agmen, the van; novissimum, the


aggredior, ědi, essus sum, v. dep. (ad, grădior, to go). To go to or against, attack; to attempt, undertake. | nus). To change; to estrange, alien

ǎliēno, āre, āvi, ātum, v. tr. (ăliē

ate; to take away.

ǎliēnus, a, um, adj. (ălius). Bclonging to another, foreign to; estranged, hostile; unfavorable, unfriendly; foreign to the subject, vi. 11.

ǎlio, adv. In another place, elsewhere.

ǎgo, ère, ēgi, actum, v. tr. I. To put in motion, drive. 1) To drive away, carry off, convey away; praedam, vi. 43. 2) To drive before one's self, pursue, iv. 12. 3) Of war machines: to push forward, move nearer; vineas, ii. 12. 4) Of mines: to extend, conduct,

ālārius, a, um, adj. (āla, wing). Stationed on the wings. Subs. pl. The auxiliaries, as they occupied the wings of the army.

albus, a, um, adj. White; plumbum, tin, v. 12.

alces, is, f. The elk, vi. 27. Alésia, ae, f. A fortified town of the Mandubii, in Gallia Celtica, modern Alise, vii. 68, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 84.

ǎlias, adv. (ălius). At another time, otherwise; alias... alias, at one time ... at another time; sometimes... sometimes.

ǎlíquamdiu, adv. For some time. ǎliquando, adv. (ăliquis). Sometimes; at length.

ăliquanto, adv. (ăliquantus). ▲ little, somewhat.

ǎlíquantus, a, um, adj. (ălius, quantus). A little, some, somewhat.

ăliquis, or ălíqui, qua, quod or quid, pron. indef. (ălius, quis). Some one, any one, some, any, anything.

ăliquot, indef. num. indecl. (ălius, quot). Some, several, a few.

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