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10. Describe briefly four of the following: the Wis., Ill., Ind. and Mich. border on Lake

Nile delta, the cañon of the Colorado, Mich.
.. glacier, Vesuvius, the Great Wall of (See text-books for map.)
China, the St. Gotthard tunnel.

8. (1) Lynn, eastern part of Mass.; (2) the II. Describe each of the following rivers by counties on the southeastern border of the

telling where it rises, the direction in Adirondacks; (3) Geneva, Switzerland; (4) which it flows, the country or countries Belfast in northeastern Ireland; (5) along the through which it passes and the body of Columbia river in Washington and Oregon. water into which it empties: Danube, 9. Havre, situated at the mouth of the Seine Ganges, Zambesi.

in northern France; exports silk and woolens. 12. Write an account of South America, de

Liverpool on western coast of England; exscribing its highlands, lowlands, coast

ports manufactured goods. Valencia in eastline and river systems. Mention the ern Spain; exports silks. Oporto in northchief commercial products of each of

western Portugal; exports port wine. Odessa four sections of the continent.

on the Black sea in southern Russia; exports grain.

10. The Nile delta, at its outlet into the Answers

Mediterranean, occupies an area of nearly 9000

square miles. The sediment of the river, de1. (1) Equator is the imaginary great circle posited over the flood grounds mostly during on the earth's surface, everywhere equally dis inundations, makes this region one of the most tant from the two poles and dividing the fertile in the world. earth's surface into two hemispheres. (2) The Colorado river in its course through The elevations and surface undulations of a Arizona runs for 300 miles in a deep cañon country are called its relief. (3) Metropolis is which is one of the most wonderful objects the chief city of a country. (4) Capital is the in North America. Its rocky walls rise from seat of government of a country or state. one thousand to several thousand feet in hight. 2. Central America, Panama, Venezuela;

Glaciers are ice streams, or rivers of ice. 830 miles.

They have their source in high mountains and 3. Trade winds blow from about 28° N. Lat. descend along the valleys. and S. Lat. obliquely toward the equator, in

Vesuvius is a celebrated volcano on the Bay the northern hemisphere from the northeast of Naples, Italy. It rises to the hight of 3948 and in the southern from the southeast. They feet above sea level. are called trade winds on account of their

The Great Wall of China was built 220 B. C. steadiness and the aid they afford the navi as a protection against the Tartar tribes. Its gator and consequently to trade or commerce. length is 1250 miles; hight, 20 feet; thickness 4. The counties of Livingston and Wyoming

at the base, 25 feet, and at the top, 15 feet. together with the Finger Lake region of New

The St. Gotthard tunnel is constructed York comprise the great salt producing section

through the St. Gotthard mountains. It is of the United States. The salt lies in beds nine miles long, extending from Andermatt forty to seventy feet thick and at a varying

to Airola. depth.

11. The Danube rises in the Black Forest Water is pumped into the salt bed by means

in southern part of German empire, flows of a hole drilled down to the bed. The dis

easterly through Austria and southeasterly solved salt, or brine, is pumped up and evapo

through Hungary, along the boundary between rated by the sun or by artificial heat. In

Hungary and Servia and between Roumania western New York some salt is mined like

and Bulgaria, and thence through Roumania coal. Kansas and Texas extensively produce

into the Black sea. salt.

The Ganges rises in northern Hindustan in 5. New York Central & Hudson River rail the Himalaya mountains and flows southroad; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western rail easterly through Hindustan into the Bay of road. The N. Y. C. & H. R. R. runs north

Bengal. along the east bank of the Hudson river to The Zambezi rises in Angola in southwestAlbany, where it crosses the Hudson and runs ern Africa, flows easterly between British westward through the Mohawk valley and the Central Africa and British South Africa and central plateau to Buffalo. Two cities: Utica, through Portugal East Africa into the MozamPoughkeepsie. Three villages : Peekskill, Her bique channel. kimer, Lyons.

12. The principal highlands are along the 6. The delta of the Mississippi in Louisiana. west coast, in eastern Brazil, and between the Some sugar plantations comprise several thou Amazon and Orinoco rivers. The remainder sand acres. The cane is planted in rows about of the continent is lowland, consisting mainly six feet apart and is cut soon after the middle of a vast plain extending from Argentina to of October. The stalks are drawn to the sugar the Caribbean sea. The coast of South house, where they are crushed between rollers America is very regular, especially on the to squeeze out the juice, which is placed in west coast, and has few good natural harbors. large vats to evaporate the water, leaving a Chili, on the west coast, exports nitre and residue of molasses and sugar. Sugar maple copper; Argentina, in the southeast, exports and sugar beet. West Indies and Hawaiian · hides, wool and wheat; Brazil, in the central islands.

part, exports coffee, sugar, hides, tobacco and 7. Chicago and Milwaukee are situated on diamonds; Venezuela, in the north, exports the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan. coffee, hides and asphalt.

one of the following groups of items: (1) an old farmhouse, a pond, a brood of ducks with a hen, (2) a street-piano,

children, dancing. 8. Mention two different traits of James Fitz

James's character and narrate an incicent to illustrate each.

Or

Write the history of a letter, telling

the circumstances under which it was written, its stay in the postoffice, its travels, the effect of its contents on the receiver and its treatment after being read.

ADVANCED ENGLISH.

Questions 1. Select from the following quotation (1) a

noun clause, (2) an adjective clause, (3) two adverbial clauses; mention the subdivision of each adverbial clause and give the syntax of each clause selected: “Sir," said the little tome, ruffling his

leaves and looking big, I was written for all the world, not for the bookworms of an abbey. I was intended to circulate from hand to hand, like other great contemporary works; but here have I been clasped up for more than two centuries, and might have silently fallen a prey to these worms that are playing the very vengeance with my intestines, if you had not by chance given me an opportunity of uttering a few last

words before I go to pieces." 2. Parse, from the quotation in question 1, big, might have fallen, me, opportunity.

Or
Give the part of speech and the syntax

of each of the following from the
quotation in question 1: tome, look-
ing, for (line 2), not (line 2), to cir-
culate, works, but, centuries, prey,

vengeance, uttering, words. 3. Give all the essentials of (1) a good busi

ness letter, (2) a friendly letter.

Or

Write a letter to a publishing firm,

ordering at least three different

books. Give all necessary details. 4. Combine the following statements into a

complex sentence:
The evening was far advanced. The
squire would not permit us to
change our traveling dresses. He
ushered us at once to the company.
The company was assembled in a
hall. The hall was large and old-

fashioned. 5. Correct the following sentences and give

the reason for each correction: (1) Douglas said that during the war Ellen and him would go away and hide themselves, (2) About half-past six the wind begun to blow, (3) The whole school took part, each class having one-half hour for their program, (4) These are the two boys whom he thought had gone away, (5) I know you are a great deal wiser than me, (6) The introduction of such beverages as tea and coffee have

not been without effect. 6. Substitute for each italicized adjective an

adjective phrase but do not change the general meaning of the sentence: (1) Stone houses were built by the early Dutch settlers, (2) He carried a very beautiful gold-headed cane, (3) He ran till he was breathless, (4) The count lives in his ancestral halls, (5) The poor child's clothing was ragged, (6) The president considered him a strictly

honest man. 7. Describe the scene suggested to you by

Answers 1. (1) I was written, noun clause object of said. (2) that are playing, adjective clause, modifies worms. (3) you had given adverbial clause of condition, modifies might have fallen; I go, adverbial clause of time, modifies uttering.

2. Big is a descriptive adjective, positive degree; compared-big, bigger, biggest, predicate use after looking

; might have fallen, irregular, intransitive verb; prin. parts-fall, fell, falling fallen; active, potential pluperfect, first person and singular number to agree with its subject I. Me, personal pronoun, first person, singular number, objective case, indirect or dative object of had given. Opportunity is a common noun, third person, singular number, objective case, direct object of had given. Tome, noun, nominative case, subject of said; looking, present participle (verb), modifies tome; for, preposition, shows relation between was written and world; not, adverb, modifies was written (understood); to circulate, verb (infinitive), modifies was intended, expresses purpose; works, noun, objective case, dative after adj. like; but, conjunction, connects was intended and have been clapsed and might have fallen; centuries, noun, objective case, object of for; prey, noun, predicate nominative after fallen; vengeance, noun, object of playing; uttering, verbal noun or gerund, object of preposition of; words, noun, object of uttering.

(1) A business letter should be formal in tone and exact in form. It should be as concise and brief as clearness and fullness in statement will permit. (2) The tone of the letter of friendship is determined by the degree of familiarity between the writer and his correspondent. In general, it is best to write in a simple, easy and natural style. We should write as we would speak to the person addressed if he were present.

Homer, N. Y., June 12, 1906. New York Education Co.,

Albany, N. Y. Gentlemen:

Kindly send by express to my address the following: I copy Stories from Plutarch..........$ .25

Stories from Wagner..........
Stories of King Arthur and His

Knights .......

I enclose postal order for amount of the bill. Very truly yours,

James Brown. 4. Since the evening was far advanced, the squire would not permit us to change our traveling dresses, but ushered us at once to the company assembled in a large, old-fashioned hall.

5. (1) Substitute he for him. The subject of a finite verb should be in the nominative. (2) Substitute began for begun. Do not use the past participle for the past tense. (3) Substitute its for their. A personal pronoun should agree with its antecedent in number. (4) Substitute who for whom. Subject of a finite verb should be in the nominative. (5) Substitute I for me, nominative, because subject of am wise (understood). (6) Substitute has for have. A verb agrees with its subject in number.

6. (1) Stone houses-houses of stone, (2) very beautiful gold-head cane-gold-headed cane of great beauty, (3) breathless out of breath, (4) his ancestral halls-halls of his ancestors, (5) ragged-in rags, (6) strictly honest man-man of strict honesty.

7. Answers will vary.

8. James Fitz-James was sympathetic, kindhearted and just. Illustration : His promise to poor dying Blanche to avenge the murder of her husband.

He was also courageous. Illustration: When Rhoderick Dhu's men suddenly appeared in answer to a bugle blast, Fritz-James said: “ Come one, come all, this rock shall fly from its firm base as soon I.”

how he should behave, he appears to have written it down in this book, so as to impress it on his

memory. 2. Change the conversation in the following

to direct discourse with correct para-
graphing and punctuation:
A gourd once wound itself around a

lofty palm tree and in a few days
climbed to its very top. The new-
comer asked the palm how old he
was. The palm tree replied that he
was about 100 years old. The gourd
expressed surprise that the palm
was 100 years old and no taller and
told him to "only see” that he had
grown as tall as the palm tree in
fewer days than the palm could
count years. The palm's answer
was that well enough he knew that
fact because every summer of his
life a gourd had climbed up around
him, as proud as this gourd and as
short lived as he would be.

Or
Write an imaginary conversation be-

tween a lost child and a policeman
or between John and James about a

lesson. 3. Answer either a or b:

a Write the following notice correctly: An Irish setter, a dark tawny red

with a brass trimmed collar lost, last seen in park Monday morning, answers to name of Blarney, which is engraved on collar, a small white star on breast, reward for return to

9 Swan st. b Write the following correctly: As he reaches the deserted house he

saw unmistakable signs that some one had just preceded him. Here at last was the person he has so long been tracking. He peeps cautiously through the window. There sat the man; his clothes are torn and muddy and he himself was a melancholy object as he sits there so

lonely before the smoking fire. 4. Answer either a or b: a Write (1) a formal invitation asking

Miss Lee to dinner, (2) Miss Lee's

acceptance. b Write a letter ordering four different

books or pictures, giving necessary

details. 5. Answer either a or b:

a They found themselves in a low im

mense room running at right angles to the passage they had just quitted. The long diamond paned window, filling almost half of the opposite wall, faced the door by which they had come in; the heavy carved mantelpiece was to their right; an open door way on their left, closed at present by tapestry hangings,

seemed to lead into yet other rooms. Imitate the above description, writing

a paragraph describing the room in which you are sitting or one with which you are familiar.

ENGLISH COMPOSITION.

Questions 1. The following has too many paragraphs ;

indicate, without writing out the whole selection, how it may be combined into three good paragraphs, and give the central thought of each paragraph: Washington's school education was

very limited. He was taught only a few of the

things that boys now study; but what he did learn he learned thoroughly and well. There were but a few books which he

could find to read; but those few he read attentively, so that he un

derstood them perfectly. Many of the copy books that he used

are still in existence. They are very neatly kept. In some are the rules of arithmetic

with the most difficult sums under them, written out in full; in another copies of the notes, receipts, and other papers used by lawyers and merchants; and in another several

pieces of poetry. In one of these books are several pages

containing what he calls rules of behavior in company and in con

versation. Whenever in his reading he came

across a good piece of advice as to

. ; b Describe either (1) Rowena's apart

ment at Rotherwood and her interview with the palmer or (2) Isaac's apartment at Ashby and his inter

view with Gurth. 6. Answer either a or b: a Name, from Ivanhoe, the leading

characters that were present at the tournament. Relate an incident that took place during the tourna

ment. b Mention in order four of the most

important events in Ivanhoe. Relate

briefly any one of them. NOTE-Students not familiar with Ivanhoe may write a story on the following topic: An Experience with a Burglar. 7. Write an outline for a newspaper article

on a fire, basing your topics arranged in order of time, on the topics given below; indicate paragraph divisions and add details if necessary to show clearly what you intend to include in the article: relative loss by fire and water; the smothered spreading of the fire; bursting out of flames; amount of loss; crowd assembled; the fire under control; progress of the fire; an amusing incident; praise due to policemen and the chief of fire department; probable cause of fire; the arrival of fire department; a brave fireman; the discovery of smoke; the alarm of fire.

b (See answer to question 3, Advanced English.)

5. Isaac's apartment was small, but richly furnished with decorations of an Oriental taste. A heap of embroidered cushions, piled along a low platform that surrounded the chamber, served instead of chairs and stools.

On entering the apartment, Gurth told the Jew that he had been sent by his master, the disinherited knight, to pay for the suit of armor and horse that the latter had used that day in the tournament. After some bantering the Jew accepted eighty zechens. Gurth counted them out and the Jew receiving them, wrapped up the first seventy pieces, his hand trembling with joy. As he counted the last ten pieces his better nature seemed to struggle with his avarice and to incline him to restore some part of the money to his benefactor or his servant, but avarice won and as he dropped the last coin into his purse he said: “Eighty completes the tale and I trust thy master will reward thee handsomely."

6. (a) King Richard (Black Prince); Prince John; Cedric; Athelstane; Ivanhoe; Lady Rowena; Isaac, the Jew; Rebecca; BoisGuilbert; Front-de-Boeuf; Prior Aymer, Locksley.

Since the Disinherited Knight was declared victor of the first day's tournament, it became his duty as well as privilege to name the . fair lady who, as Queen of Honor and of Love, should preside over the next day's festival.

At the bidding of Prince John, he raised his lance to receive upon its point a coronet of green satin with a circlet of gold. Then riding around the lists past the beauties seated in the gallery, he paused at length before the balcony in which Lady Rowena was placed. After a moment's pause, lowering the point of his lance, he deposited the coronet at her feet and thus designated her as his choice.

(6) Meeting of Bois-Guilbert with the palmer at Rotherwood;; the tournament at Ashby; the capture of Cedric, Athelstane, Lady Rowena and their attendants on their return from the tournament; the contest between Bois-Guilbert and Ivanhoe when the latter appeared as the champion of Rebecca.

De Bracy, hoping to secure the hand of Lady Rowena in marriage, planned the capture of Cedric and his party on their return from the tournament; with the aid of BoisGuilbert he carried out this plan. The Norman followers disguised as Saxon outlaws, attacked Cedric and Athelstane, and soon made them and their company prisoners. With little delay De Bracy and his armed men hurried with the prisoners to the strong castle of Front-de-Boeuf.

Answers 1. End the first paragraph with perfectly. Central thought is Washington's education.

End the second paragraph with poetry. Central thought is Washington's copy books.

The third paragraph comprises the remainder of the selections. Central thought is Washington's book of rules.

2. A gourd once wound itself around a lofty palm tree and in a few days climbed to its very top.

The newcomer said to the palm, “How old are you?” The palm tree replied, “I am about 100 years old.” “I am surprised,” said the palm, " that you are 100 years old and no taller. Only see, I have grown as tall as you in fewer days than you count years."

The palm answered, “I know that well enough, because every summer of my life a gourd has climbed up around me, as proud as you and as short lived as you will be."

3. (a) Lost-A dark tawny red Irish setter with a small white star on breast; answers to name of Blarney, which is engraved on brass trimmed collar. Last seen in park Monday morning. Reward for return to 9 Swan St.

(6) Make the tenses all past by changing reaches to reached, has to had, peeps to peeped, are to were and sits to sat.

4. a (1) Mrs. B. requests the pleasure of Miss Lee's company at dinner on Saturday, the sixteenth, at seven o'clock. Lakewood, October sixth.

(2) Miss Lee accepts with pleasure Mrs. B's invitation for Saturday, the sixteenth, at seven o'clock. October tenth.

7. A DESTRUCTIVE FIRE IN ALBANY.

Paragraph I a The discovery of smoke.

The alarm of fire. c The arrival o department. d Crowd assembled. e An amusing incident.

Paragraph 2 a The smothered spreading of the fire. b Bursting out of flames. c Progress of the fire. d The fire under control

Paragraph 3 a Praise due to policemen and 19. By drawing and description show how

the hammer of an electric bell is kept in

motion. 20. Show by diagram the proper arrangement

of three sal ammoniac cells to overcome the greatest external resistance. Give the name applied to this arrangement.

the chief of the fire department. b A brave fireman..

Paragraph 4 a Probable cause of the fire. b Amount of loss. c Relative loss by fire and water.

PHYSICS.

· Questions 1. State Pascal's law. In a hydrostatic press

the diameters of the cylinders are in the ratio of 1:7; what is the advantage

gained in its use? 2. Describe the sinker method of finding the

specific gravity of bodies lighter than

water. 3. Describe the bulb method of finding the

specific gravity of liquids. 4. Make a diagram of a force pump, showing

the position of the dome and the direc

tion in which each valve opens. 5. A body is moved 25 feet by the joint

action of two forces at right angles to each other; one of these forces acting alone would have moved the body 15 feet. How far would the other force have moved it if acting alone? (Make

diagram.] 6. A body starting from a state of rest and

moving with uniform acceleration passes over 484 meters in 11 seconds: find the

acceleration. 7. Distinguish between power and work.

Illustrate each and mention units of

each.

8. Describe the method of determining the

fixed points on a mercurial thermometer and of graduating and marking the thermometer according to the Fahrenheit

scale. 9. Distinguish between conduction and con

vection of heat. Illustrate each. 10. Find the number of heat units required

to convert 400 grams of water at 30° C. into steam at 130° C. (Latent heat of

steam=537; specific heat of steam=.5] 11. If a locomotive blowing its whistle ap

proaches rapidly and passes an observer, what two changes in the sound of the whistle are noticed ? Explain how each

change is produced. 12. Contrast stopped pipes with open pipes as

to wave-length and position of nodes. 13. Assuming the velocity of sound as 1120

feet a second, find the rate of vibration

of an open pipe 2 feet long. 14. Distinguish between a real image and a

virtual image. State the conditions under which a convex lens produces (1)

a real image, (2) a virtual image. 15. Show by diagram and explanation what

is meant by “critical angle" in the dis

cussion of total reflection. 16. Describe, using diagram, an experiment to

show how light is affected in passing obliquely from one medium to another

of different density. 17. Define five of the following: magnetic field,

ampere, electrolysis, watt, ohm, volt,

joule. 18. Describe a tangent galvanometer and state

its use.

Answers (See standard text-books for diagrams called for in these answers.)

1. Pressure exerted upon any part of an inclosed liquid is transmitted undiminished in all directions. This pressure acts with equal force upon all surfaces and at right-angles to them. The ratio of (1)?: (7)? or 1: 49.

2. Weigh the given body in air, then weigh a sinker both in air and in water. Tie the sinker to the body and find the loss of weight of the two in water. Divide the weight of the given body in air by the difference between the loss of weight of the body and the sinker together in water and the loss of weight of the sinker alone in water and the result is the specific gravity.

3. Weigh some heavy body in air (a), then in water (b) and then in the liquid (c) whose specific gravity is required. The

a- C gravity of the liquid will be —

a-b 4. At the base of the cylinder of a force pump are two valves, one opening inward from the supply pipe and one opening outward into a pipe leading to the dome from which the delivery pipe leads. 5. (25)–(15)=400; V 400=20, or 20 ft.

121 6. l=12 at; 4845- a; a=8 ft., ans.

7. Work is the overcoming of resistance of any kind. It implies a change of position, and is independent of the time taken to do it. Ex. Lifting a weight.

Power is the average rate of doing work and is equal to the work done in a given time divided by the time. Ex. In computing the power of an engine, the time required to do the work is to be considered.

Units of work: Foot-pound, erg. Units of power: Horse power, watt.

8. The two fixed points are the freezing and the boiling points of water. The thermometer is packed in finely crushed ice as far up as the mercury extends. The containing vessel has an opening at the bottom to let the water drain away. After standing in the melting ice for several minutes the point at which the mercury comes to rest is marked 32 and is called the freezing point on Fahrenheit scale. The boiling point is found by observing the position of the mercurial column when the thermometer is suspended in the steam of pure water boiling under an atmosphere pressure of 76 centimeters of mercury. The bulb should be at least an inch above the water and the dish should be tall enough to allow the mercury to come only just above the stopper by which it is suspended. Mark the highest point to which the mercury rises 212, the boiling point. The distance between the freezing and the

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