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10. Num quid. Supply factum est. - Ex disciplina, in accord-112 ance with the usage.

16. Acta res criminose est, the thing done furnishes matter for an accusation; Ironical.-Vomere. With epicures, this was the usual method of avoiding the effects of an imprudent gratification of the appetite.

19. Perduint; G. 240, 3.-Fugitive. Phidippus is meant.
24. Ille, he, i. e., Deiotarus.

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VIII. XII. Reply to the other Allegations against

34. In speculis, on the watch. - Animo alieno; G. 419, II.

4. Antea; i. e., before Caesar deprived him of a part of his realm. 113 5. Misit, attempted to send.—-Caecilium nescio quem, one Cae

cilius. Q. Caecilius Bassus, a partisan of Pompey, is meant.

11. Causam illam, that cause, i. e., the cause of Pompey.

14. Addit. Castor adds, as a separate charge, that Deiotarus, when he aided Caesar against Pharnaces, did not send his best cavalry. 21. Alexandriae. Alexandria was the capital of Egypt.

23. Ei quem .

same, p. 110, line 5.


praefeceras. Cn. Domitius. See note on the

24. Ad periculum, etc. This refers to the expedition against


25. Secutum... Africanum. This war, which began 47 B. C., was brought to a close by Caesar's victory at Thapsus, on the sixth of April of the following year.

30. Nicaeam Ephesumque, to Nicaea and Ephesus; the former a city in Bithynia, the latter in Ionia.

32. Domitium. Cn. Domitius, mentioned in line 23 as quem Asiae praefeceras. The report that he had perished at sea was false. - Te in castello circumsederi. In the winter of 47 and 46 B. C., Caesar was obliged to intrench himself, and to act only on the defensive.

33. Eadem sententia; Abl. of Characteristic; so also qua. 35. Pereant, etc. The authorship both of the original Greek and of the Latin version is unknown. - Amici. In the application of this verse, amici refers to Domitius, and inimici to Caesar.

1. Qui; G. 188, II., 2.

6. Furcifer, the culprit, i. e., Phidippus. Slaves were often compelled to bear upon their necks the furca, an instrument of punishment in the form of the letter V.






7. Vino se obruisse, surfeited himself with wine.

8. Nudum, in his tunic, i. e., having thrown off his outer garment. For the host, or for any of his guests, thus to dance at a feast, was at least exceedingly undignified.

14. Fortem, etc. Supply dici.

20. Equitibus Romanis. The equestrian order, it will be remembered, included the bankers, the merchants, the farmers of the revenue, and, in fine, the business men of the Roman world.

22. Regium nomen, the title of king.

23. Quidquid a... vacabat, when he was not occupied in. G. 379. 24. Res rationesque = rerum rationes, business relations.

25. Tetrarches, tetrarch, his official title, before the Romans made him king.

27. Qui. The antecedent is the pronoun is.-Adolescens. G. 363, 3.

34. Illam aetatem, his advanced age.—Quibus studiis, ea= ea studia quibus.

36. Ut uteretur. Utendi might have been used.

3. Adolescens. Castor. Cicero here takes occasion to rally him a little for his ostentatious display of skill in horsemanship. He served under Cicero when the latter was Proconsul of Cilicia, in Asia Minor.

4. Commilito. Cicero and Castor were both with Pompey in Greece.

6. Pater. The father was Castor Saocondarius, who had married the daughter of Deiotarus. —Quos concursus, what crowds, i. e., of spectators.

13. Ista domus, that family of yours, addressed to Castor.

19. Sint inimicitiae, grant that there is enmity, i. e., between your

self and Deiotarus.

21. Antea; construe with quam.

24. Gerere poteratis, non, you might have conducted, and not. 26. Adeone, ut, is it, moreover, to be conceded that? Supply concedatur.

29. Domum, to your house. G. 380, 2, 1).

32. A tanta auctoritate, by so high authority, i. e., by Caesar. 34. Id, quod intus est. Cicero refers thus contemptuously to the slave Phidippus.

35. Fit in dominatu, etc., the slave becomes the master, the master

the slave.

1. Cn. Domitius. Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, tribune of the people 104 B. C., consul 96 B. C.

3. M. Scaurum. M. Scaurus Aemilius, consul 115 B. C.—In ju


dicium populi, to trial before the people. Scaurus was accused of hav-116 ing neglected certain religious rites.

6. Ad Scaurumque; G. 569, III., 4.

12. At, but, it may be said.-Semel, only once.- Esset productus, he had been brought forward, i. e., as a witness.

14. Cn. Domitium. Cn. Domitius Calvinus, already mentioned. See p. 110, line 5. Hunc implies that he is present at the trial. — Ser. Sulpicio. Servius Sulpicius Rufus, one of the most learned jurists of the age.

16. T. Torquato. Who this young man was is not known.

20. Domestica immanitate, with the ferocity characteristic of your own home, i. e., of a barbarian land, in contrast with Rome (nostrae civitatis).

22. Quam acute, etc. This is addressed to Caesar. Notice the irony. - Blesamius. One of the ambassadors of Deiotarus.

25. Statua inter reges posita. By the decree of the senate, Caesar's statue was placed among those of the seven kings of Rome. 26. Plaudi tibi; G. 301, 1.

29. Multorum enim, etc. Ironical.

4. Si locus affert invidiam... clarior. Here Cicero touches 117 the real objection, but answers it only in part. The objection was not so much to the statue itself, or to its conspicuous position, as to the fact that it stood among the statues of the kings (inter reges). Caesar had two statues also upon the Rostra.

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16. Multatum. Caesar had taken some of the possessions of Deiotarus and given them to his own followers.

17. Multis tibi... tribuenda; i. e., that you must reward your numerous followers. Multis, Indirect Object; tibi, Dative of Agent. 19. Antiochus. Antiochus III., surnamed the Great. He reigned from 223 to 187 B. C. -Rex Asiae. This was his title before he was conquered, 190 B. C., by Scipio, and deprived of his possessions west of Mount Taurus. He was afterward called King of Syria.

20. L. Scipione. Lucius Scipio, the brother of Scipio Africanus Major.Tauro. Mount Taurus, in the southeastern part of Asia


21. Asiam, quae..... provincia. See note on Asiam, p. 61, line 15. 25. Multam sustulerat, had suffered punishment. Multam, and not poenam, is used, because the punishment consisted in the loss of a portion of his empire.



31. Habere in... virtute; i. e., that he has in himself, in his own mind and character, a possession which cannot be taken from him.

36. Asia, Cappadocia... Syria. These countries were the sccre of the bloody wars which the Romans had so long been waging in Asia. In this list, Cicero uses the term Asia simply of the Roman province of that name, which did not include Cappadocia, Pontus, Cilicia, and Syria. 118 6. Summa... sola bona. The former was the doctrine of the Peripatetics, the latter of the Stoics.


15. Tarracone, at Tarraco, a city in Spain.

21. Res publica, public service, explained by magna ejus officia... meum, which refers to the service which Deiotarus rendered Cicero during the proconsulship of the latter in Cilicia.

25. Quibus semel ignotum esse oportet, to whom pardon should have been granted once for all, i. e., the pardon which has been granted should be valid forever.

32. Ipsa; i. e., misericordia tua.

33. Duos reges. King Deiotarus and his son are meant. See p. 117, line 26.

34. Id quod, that influence which, i. e., though he had refused to be influenced by anger, he will yield to a feeling of compassion.

3. Sociorum regum et amicorum, of kings who are our allies and friends.

11. Regum amicissimi, most faithful friends of the kings, i. e., of these two kings.

12. Exquire de Blesamio, ascertair in regard to Blesamius. See p. 116, lines 22 to 28.

26. Alterum, alterum, the one, i. e, sententiam... pestem importaturam esse regibus, the other, i. e., sententiam... famam cum salute importaturam, etc. - Illorum, of those men, i. e., of the accusers, Castor and Phidippus.




CAESAR was assassinated on the fifteenth of March, in the year 44 B. C. Mark Antony, his colleague in the consulship, at once sought safety in concealment, while the conspirators, but feebly supported by the people, fled to the capitol for shelter. For a time, general consternation prevailed, but a compromise was speedily effected. On the seventeenth of March the senate decreed a general amnesty, appointed a public funeral for Caesar, and confirmed all his acts. Quiet was happily restored, but it was destined to be of short duration. The funeral oration pronounced by Antony over the body of Caesar so wrought upon the feelings of the people that, refusing to allow the remains to be removed to the Campus Martius, they proceeded to burn them with funeral honors in the Forum itself. The wildest excitement prevailed; party spirit was again aroused. Antony, not yet prepared to defy the senate, adopted conciliatory measures, and even proposed the abolition of the dictatorship. In the mean time he was carefully maturing his ambitious designs. He was already in possession of Caesar's papers, and, professing to carry out the measures which he found in them, he began to remit taxes, distribute honors, and recall exiles. In all this he was supported by his colleague, P. Cornelius Dolabella, who had succeeded to the consulship made vacant by the death of Caesar.

In the mean time Cicero, in deep despondency, had left Rome. The bright visions of the restored republic which gladdened his heart on the Ides of March had forever vanished. For the next few months he remained comparatively inactive, and at length embarked for Greece by way of

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