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chiefety, souverainety.

“I could wish that in this discourse and in the whole body of your booke wheresoever mention is made of kūpiov, you should give yt the same name. You terme yt sometymes chiefety of dominion, sometymes souverainety, sometimes imperiall power. I thinke theys wordes (souverainety of dominion or souveraine dominion) are the fittest to be alwayes used, and plainest to be understood. If you be of this mynd, you may alter those places before, and make them all alike.’—George Cranmer, MS. Notes on Hooker's Sixth Book. Hooker's Works, ed. Keble, vol. iii. p. 114.

-ion, -tion, -ation, -ition, from the Latin -to, -atto, -iño, genitive -ionis; as coronation, description, region, compassion, contrition.

salutation.

“We behold men, to whom are awarded, by the universal voice, all the honours of a proud and unsullied excellence—and their walk in the world is dignified by the reverence of many salutations—and as we hear of their truth and their uprightness, and their princely liberalities,’ &c.—Thomas Chalmers, Sermon V. (1819.)

The exigency of translation occasionally projects new specimens, as

externalization.

“The utter externalization of the religious consciousness by superstitious usages, and the consequent fading of the sense of moral personality and responsibility.”—Bunsen, God in History. Translated by S. Winkworth, Bk. III. ch. vii.

This is a form upon which new words have been made with great facility, as witness the off-hand words savation, starvation. A gardener once desiring to have his work admired—he had been moving some of the raspberries, to make the rows more regular—“There sir, cried he, “that’s what I call row-tation now !” From this facility it has naturally followed that many have grown obsolete. Jeremy Taylor uses luxation to signify the disturbing, disjointing, disconcerting, shocking of the understanding:

“An honest error is better than a hypocritical profession of truth, or a violent luxation of the understanding”—Liberty of Prophesying, ix. 2.

Perhaps this word is not quite obsolete in its physical sense. It originally meant the putting a limb out of joint, and possibly it is still so employed by surgeons. Dr. Trench, in his pamphlet On Some Deficiencies in our English Dictionaries (1857), has cited the following words now obsolete but once used by good authors, subsannation, coaxation, delinition, conculcation, quadripartition, excarnification, dehonestation. The reader who desires further information on any of these words is referred to the above work. This abstract form is capable of a thundering eloquence, under conditions fitted to exhibit its full effects. When a new ship of war of the most advanced and formidable class of turret-ships was lately announced by the name of ‘The Devastation,’ it might well be said that the new cast of name was an apt exponent of the weight of metal by which the terrors of marine warfare have recently been enhanced. -our; as ardour, servour. In this class of words, derived at secondhand from the Latin in -or, as servor, ardor, the u is a trace of the French medium. This distortion has moreover communicated itself even where there was previously nothing either of French or of Latin, as in the purely Saxon compound neighbour (neh = nigh, gečár = dweller). A partial disposition has manifested itself to drop this French u. Especially is this observable in American literature. But the general rule holds good through this whole series of nouns from the Latin, that what we call “anglicising’ them, is the reducing of them to a set of forms which we borrowed originally from French. And thus it is true that the French influence still accompanies us, even through the course of our latinising epoch. Latin scholarship was, however, continually nibbling away at these monuments of the French reign. . The forms of many of our Romanesque nquns were too permanently fixed to be shaken, but wherever the classical scholar could make an English word more like Latin, he was fain to do it.

Thus the French form parlement was drawn nearer to its Latin form of parliamentum ; and words of old standing, like Cristen, as old in our speech as the national conversion, became re-latinized into Christian.

-al. This form, which is derived from the Latin adjectival formative -alis, -ale, has attached itself not only to words radically Latin, as acquitlal, dismissal, disposal, nuptials, proposal, refusal, rental, but also to others which are purely English, as in the familiar geological term upheaval. Professor Lightfoot in his Paul and Seneca, uses the uncommon word uproofal.

Illustrations:— festimonial.

“And thus it is, that there is a morality of this world, which stands in direct opposition to the humbling representations of the Gospel; which cannot comprehend what it means by the utter worthlessness and depravity of our nature; which passionately repels this statement, and that too on its own consciousness of attainments superior to those of the sordid and the profligate and the dishonourable; and is fortified in its resistance to the truth as it is in Jesus, by the flattering testimonials which it gathers to its respectability and its worth from the various quarters of human society.’— Thomas Chalmers, Sermon V. (1819).

approval, refusal.

“I well remember his [O'Connell's] smile as he nodded good-humouredly to us as we passed him, and I must say it was one of approval rather than otherwise at our refusal to do him homage.”—W. Steuart Trench, Realities of Irish Life, p. 39.

A word which does not belong here, but which has assumed the guise of this set, is bridal, from the Saxon BRYD (= bride), and EALo (= ale), so that it really meant the ale or festivity of the bride. One or two other compounds on this model, Such as church-ale, scof-ale, have become obsolete.

Another word, which has an equally deceptive appearance of being formed with the Latin -al is burial. This is a pure Saxon word from its first letter to its last. The Saxon form is byrigels, a form which is of the singular number, though it ends with s. The plural was byrigelsas.

The termination -ary, direct from the Latin -arius (French -aire), is, like the former, originally adjectival; but it has Some substantives.

Examples:–contemporary, fiduciary.

“Under no circumstances whatever can a trustee appropriate to himself the property of which he is the fiduciary.”—House of Commons, March 18, 1869. -tude, from the Latin substantives in -fudo, -fudini's. Examples:—gratitude, disquietude, latitude, longitude, magnitude, multitude, solicitude, surpitude, vicissitude.

turpitude.

“There is ever with you, lying folded in the recesses of your bosom, and pervading the whole system both of your desires and of your doings, that which gives to sin all its turpitude, and all its moral hideousness in the sight of God. There is a rooted preference of the creature to the Creator.— Thomas Chalmers, Sermon III. (1819).

disquietude.

‘Look around this congregation. We are all more or less the children of sorrow. There is not one of us who has not within him some known or secret cause of disquietude.”—Charles Bradley, Clapham Sermons, 1831. Sermon VII.

solicitude. “The excellent breed of sheep, which early became the subject of legislative solicitude, furnished them with an important staple.”—William H. Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, vol. i. p. 29 (ed. 1838). The substantives in -ite must be reckoned among the Latin ones, as we received the form through the Latin; but it is Greek by origin. It was of European celebrity in the middle ages as a

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class-word, especially for sects and opinions. The followers of the early heresies were thus designated, as Ophites, Cainiles, Monothelites, Maronites, Marcionites, Monophysites. Yet the odium which now attaches to this form cannot have been felt in the sixteenth century, or our Bible would not show the form so generally as it does, not only in such cases as the Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, but also in the Levites, Gadifes, Mamassites, and Bethlehemise. Already, however, at the close of the seventeenth century, we find the ecclesiastical historian Jeremy Collier, using the term Wicliffsts, as if with purpose to avoid writing Wiclifite. And thus in our own time the alumni of Winchester are justly sensitive about being called Wykehamites instead of Wykehamists. The fact is, that with our sensitiveness about religious differences, this form has become almost odious; and we scruple to quote instances of its application out of respect for names that may be embodied. Suffice it for illustration to put down such as Joanna-Southcotites and Mormonites. Still, there are terms of speech in which it may come in harmlessly or even pleasantly:— “Whilst the trial was going on, and the issue still uncertain, I met Coleridge, who said, “Well, Robinson, you are a Queenite, I hope 2"—“Indeed I am not.”—“How is that possible 7"—“I am only an anti-Kingite.”— “That's just what I mean.”’—H. C. Robinson, Diary, 1820. A considerable number of Latin and Greek words have been adopted in their original and unaltered forms. Such are, abacus, animus, apparatus, arcana, area, arena, basis, census, chaos, circus, cosmos, compendium, deficit, epitome, equilibrium, sungus, index, interest, item, medium, memento, memorandum, minutiae, modicum, oasis, odium, onus, overplus (Numbers iii. Contents), phenomenon, requiem, residuum, stigma, stimulus, terminus, vortex.

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