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be evident that the expense of it, divided necessary to its success as a business between all the tenants, must be so small enterprise. Nothing is more dangerous as not to make a material addition to the to the whole system and better calcurent of each. It must also be considered lated to bring it into disrepute than the that the elevator is mainly for the bene- liability of an apartment house to being fit of tenants above the third story. “run down.” To prevent this will reTaking all these things into considera- quire more than usual watchfulness on tion, it will be seen that the introduction the part of the owner or his agent. The of elevators, which, to most people, building must be kept clean and in good seems simple enough, is a somewhat repair, and the porter must be compelled complex matter, and one of considerable strictly to perforın his various duties, so risk to the owner as far as expense is that the tenants may not be annoyed by concerned. When used in hotels and his derelictions. The character of the business houses the interests involved owners of such houses will go far in are large, and it has been demonstrated determining the character of the tenants that for business purposes they “pay” they get. No respectable family would well. It concerns us now to inquire how live in a building owned by a speculator, the community can be supplied with who miglit sell out at any time to some cheaper and better lodgings than they person incapable of appreciating any have been accustomed to, and any thing degree of refinement or respectability. which increases their expense must be Second. An apartment house must be approached with caution. The steam

built to accommodate a class of tenants elevator can only be employed with who are in a nearly uniform social scale. economy in an apartment house of the It would make the lower stories very largest size, and in such it should be undesirable to divide the upper floors introduced, if only for the purposes of into small apartments, to be disposed of making the fifth, sixth, or seventh stories at cheap rents. Any one who does this inhabitable. It is essential, too, that will be quite certain to have his lower there should be four apartments to a apartinents quickly vacated. It would floor, at least. The cost of a passenger

be the death-blow to the whole system elevator, including motive-power, is not in New York, certainly, however it less than $10,000, and the expense of might work in European cities. It was running it is about $3,000 a-year, which, the dread of such a state of affairs that with interest on the investment, would so long created a prejudice against the make the total cost about $4,000 a-year. system. The possibility of it has been At this rate the rent of four apartments, avoided in the Stuyvesant Apartment or an entire floor, of such a building as Ilouse, where all the apartments are of we have described, would be required to the same size and arranged and finished pay for running it, or, considered in an- in the same matter, differing only in other way, if divided among twenty- position. This is the true system, and four tenants, would cost each of them the only one that will be successful in $166. In a smaller building this amount New York. would be increased to such an extent as The third consideration is that the to make it an extravagant luxury. porter in such a house must be thorough

ly competent for the performance of his It remains only to consider some of duties. The qualifications required in the conditions upon which the success such a person are rarely found, for he of the apartment system will depend. ·must be at times both a servant and

First. In order that tenants may have a master, and must perform no inconthe assurance of a permanent home, it is siderablo amount of police duty. He essential that such houses be owned by should be responsible for his conduct to parties who hold them as a permanent the owner of the house alone; his duties investment, and feel that the mainte- should be strictly defined, and he should nance of the good name of the house is receive no compensation or perquisites from the tenants for the performance of for which the public have clamored so his regular duties, or for the doing of long and lustily. Now that the experiany thing that would prevent their per- ment has been tried and has succeeded, forrnance. The position of the porter is let them no longer delay to meet the so important in its relation to the tenants popular demand. It needs no argument that improper conduct on his part, if not now to prove that the money thus inrebuked by the owner, would result in vested will speedily bring the desired depopulating the house in a very short return. Whole blocks of new houses in time. Nothing would drive the tenants the city of New York now stand idle away so quickly as an attempt of the for want of tenants. Disgusted houseporter to practice petty impositions or keepers who are tired alike of enormous to speculate on his office, either of rents and the annoyances attendant upon which can be so easily done by an un- the care of a city-house, will not have principled person. Against such things them, but seek temporary rest, if such it the tenant can have no redress except can be called, in hotels and boardingthrough the landlord.

houses. The throngs who must soon That the apartment system is a success, return from their raral pastimes to so far as it has been tried, there can be plunge again into this vortex of city-life, no manner of doubt. It is only to be will join in the universal cry. It is to wondered at that capitalists have been be hoped they may soon find relief from so slow in investing in a class of property their troubles.



The morning of December 13th dawn- red log-house as we passed, and waved ed clear, cold, and still, with a tempera- us a last good-by with his fur hood as ture of thirty-one degrees below zero; we swept out upon the great level steppe but, as the sun did not rise until half- behind the town. past ten, it was nearly noon before we It was just mid-day; but the sun, could get our drivers together, and our though at its greatest altitude, glowed dogs harnessed for a start. Our little like a red ball of fire low down in the party of ten men presented quite a southern horizon, and a peculiar gloomy novel and picturesque appearance in twilight lung over the white wintry their gayly-embroidered fur coats, red landscape. I could not overcome the sashes, and yellow fox-skin hoods, as impression that the sun was just rising, they assembled in a body before our and that it would soon be broad day. house to bid good-by to the Ispravink A white ptarmigan now and then flew and the Major. Eight heavily-loaded up with a loud whir before us, uttered sledges were ranged in a line in front a harsh “querk, querk, querk” of afof the door, and almost a hundred fright, and, sailing a few rods away, dogs were springing frantically against settled upon the snow and became sudtheir harnesses, and raising deafening denly invisible. A few magpies sat howls of impatience as we came out of motionless in the thickets of trailing the house into the still, frosty atmos- pine as we passed, but their feathers phere. We bade every body good-by, were ruffled up around their heads, and received a bearty“God bless you, they seemed chilled and stupefied by boys !” from the Major, and were off in the intense cold. The distant blue belt a cloud of flying snow, which stung our of timber along the Geezhega River faces like burning sparks of fire. Old wavered and trembled in its outlines, Paderin, the Chief of the Geezhega as if seen through currents of heated Cossacks, with white, frosty hair and air; and the white, ghost-like mounbeard, stood out in front of his little tains, thirty miles away to the southward, were thrown up and distorted by ever, marked 35° below zero, and we did refraction into a thousand airy, fantastic not venture out of doors except when an shapes, which melted imperceptibly, unusually loud burst of laughter anone into another, like a series of dis- nounced some stupendous Siberian joke solving views. Every feature of the which we thought would be worth hearscenery was strange, weird, arctic. The ing. The atmosphere outside seemed to red sun rolled slowly along the south- be just cool enough to exert an inspiritern horizon, until it seemed to rest on a ing influence upon our lively Cossacks, white, snowy peak far away in the but it was altogether too bracing for southwest; and then, while we were yet unaccustomed American constitutions. expecting day, it suddenly disappear- With a good fire, however, and plenty of ed, and the gloomy twilight deepened hot tea, we succeeded in making ourselves gradually into night. Only three hours very comfortable inside the yourt, and had elapsed since sunrise, and yet stars passed away the long evening in smokof the first magnitude could already be ing Circassian tobacco and pine bark, plainly distinguished.

singing American songs, telling stories, We stopped for the night at the house and quizzing our good-natured but unof a Russian peasant who lived on the sophisticated Cossack Mereneff. bank of the Geezhega River, about fif- It was quite late when we finally teen versts east of the settlement. crawled into our fur bags to sleep; but While we were drinking tea a special long afterward we could hear the songs, messenger arrived from the village, jokes, and laughter of our drivers as bringing two frozen blueberry pies as a they sat around the camp-fire and told parting token of regard from the Ma- funny stories of Siberian travel. jor, and a last souvenir of civilization. We were up on the following mornPretending to fear that something might ing long before daylight; and, after a happen to these delicacies if we should hasty breakfast of black bread, dried attempt to carry them with us, Dodd, fish, and tea, we harnessed our dogs, as a precautionary measure, ate one of wet down our sledge-runners with water them up to the last blueberry; and, from the tea-kettle to cover them with. rather than have him sacrifice himself a coating of ice, packed up our camp to a mistaken idea of duty by trying to equipage, and, leaving the shelter of eat the other, I attended to its preserva- the tamarack forest around the yourt, tion myself, and put it forever beyond drove out upon the great snowy Sahara the reach of accidental contingencies. which lies between the Malmofka River

On the following day we reached the and Penzhinak Gulf. It was a land of little log yourt on the Malmofka, where desolation. A great level steppe, as we had spent one night on our way to boundless to the weary eye as the ocean Geezhega ; and, as the cold was still itself, stretched away in every direction intense, we were glad to avail ourselves to the far horizon without a single tree again of its shelter, and huddle around or bush to relieve its white, snowy surthe warm fire which Yagor kindled on face. Nowhere did we see any sign of a sort of clay altar in the middle of the animal or vegetable life, any suggestion

There was not space enough on of summer or flowers, or warm sunshine the rough plank-floor to accommodate to brighten the dreary waste of stormall our party, and our men built a huge drifted snow. White, cold, and silent, fire of tamarack logs outside, hung over it lay before us like a vast frozen ocean, their tea-kettles, thawed out their frosty lighted up faintly by the slender cresbeards, ate dried fish, sang jolly Russian cent of the waning moon in the east, songs, and made themselves so boister- and the weird blue streamers of the ously happy, that we were tempted to aurora, which went racing swiftly back give up the luxury of a roof for the sake and forth along the northern horizon. of sharing in their out-door amusements Even when the sun rose, huge and fiery and merriment. Our thermometers, how- in a haze of frozen moisture at the



south, it did not seem to infuse any ing a long line of shadowy dog-sledges warmth or life into the bleak, wintry moving swiftly through the air, a short landscape. It only drowned, in a dull, distance ahead, at a height of eight or red glare, the blue, tremulous stream- ten feet from the ground. The mock ers of the aurora, and the white radi. sledges were inverted in position, and ance of the moon and stars, tinged the the mock dogs trotted along, with their snow with a faint color like a stormy feet in the air, but their outlines were sunset, and lighted up a splendid mi- almost as clear as those of the real rage in the northwest, which startled sledges and real dogs underneath. This us with its solemn mockery of familiar curious phenomenon lasted only a moscenes. The wand of the Northern ment, but it was succeeded by others Enchanter touched the barren, snowy equally strange, until, at last, we lost steppe, and it suddenly became a blue faith in our eyesight entirely, and would tropical lake, upon whose distant shore not believe in the existence of any thing rose the walls, domes, and slender mina- unless we could touch it with our rets of a vast Oriental city. Masses of hands. Every bare hillock or dark obluxuriant foliage seemed to overhang ject on the snow was a nucleus around the clear, blue water, and to be reflected which were formed the most deceptive in its depths, while the white walls images, and two or three times we above just caught the first flush of the started out with our rifles in pursuit of rising sun. Never was the illusion of wolves or black foxes, which proved, summer in winter, of life in death, more upon closer inspection, to be nothing palpable or more perfect. One almost

I had never before known instinctively glanced around to assure the light and atmosphere to be so fahimself, by the sight of familiar ob- vorable to refraction, and had never jects, that it was not a dream ; but, been so deceived in the size, shape, and as his eye turned again to the north- distance of objects on the snow. west across the dim blue lake, the vast, The thermometer at noon marked 35°, tremulous outlines of the mirage still and at sunset it was 38°, and sinking. confronted him in their unearthly beau- We had seen no wood since leaving the ty, and the “cloud-capped towers and yourt, on the Malmofka River, and, not gorgeous palaces” seemed, by their daring to camp without a fire, we travmysterious solemnity, to rebuke the elled for five hours after dark, guided doubt which would ascribe them to a only by the stars and a bluish aurora dream. The bright apparition faded, which was playing away in the north. glowed, and faded again into indis- Under the influence of the intense cold, tinctness, and from its ruins rose two frost formed in great quantities upon colossal pillars, sculptured from rose- every thing which was touched by our quartz, which gradually united their breaths. Beards became stiff, tangled capitals, and formed a Titanic arch, like masses of frozen iron-wire, eyelids grew the grand portal of heaven. This, in heavy with long white reins of frost, turn, melted into an extensive fortress, and froze together when we winked, with massive bastions and buttresses, and our dogs, enveloped in dense clouds flanking towers and deep embrasures of steam, looked like snowy polar and salient and reëntering angles, whose wolves. Only by running constantly shadows and perspective were as natu- beside our sledges could we keep any ral as reality itself. Nor was it only at sensation of life in our feet. About a distance that these deceptive mirages eight o'clock a few scattered trees loamseemed to be formed. A crow, standing ed up darkly against the eastern sky, upon the snow at a distance of perhaps and a joyful shout from our leading two hundred yards, was exaggerated drivers announced the discovery of wood. and distorted beyond recognition; and, We had reached a small stream called once having lingered a little behind the the Ooseénova, seventy-five versts east rest of the party, I was startled at see- of Geezhega, in the very middle of the great steppe. It was like coming to an after midnight, by cold feet, and, raising island after having been long at sea. myself upon one elbow, I pushed my Our dogs stopped and curled them- head out of my frosty fur bag to see by selves up into little round balls on the the stars what time it was. The fire snow, as if conscious that the long day's had died away to a red heap of smouljourney was ended, while our drivers dering embers. There was just light proceeded to make, rapidly and sys- enough to distinguish the dark outlines tematically, a Siberian half-faced camp. of the loaded sledges, the fur-clad forms Three sledges were drawn up together, of our men lying here and there in so as to make a little semi-enclosure groups about the fire, and the frosty about ten feet square; the snow was all dogs, curled up into a hundred little shovelled out of the interior, and bank- hairy balls, upon the snow. Away beed up around the three closed sides, like yond the limits of the camp stretched a snow-fort, and a huge fire of trailing the desolate steppe in a series of long pine branches was built at the open end. snowy undulations, which blended gradThe bottom of this little snow-cellar ually into one great white frozen ocean, was then strewn to a depth of three or and were lost in the distance and darkfour inches with twigs of willow and ness of night. High overhead, in a sky alder, shaggy bearskins were spread which was almost black, sparkled the down to make a warm, soft carpet, and bright constellations of Orion and tlie our fur sleeping-bags arranged for the Pleiads - the celestial clocks which night. Upon a small table extempo- marked the long, weary hours between rized out of a candle-box, which stood sunset and sunrise. The blue mysteriin the centre, Yagor soon placed two ous streamers of the aurora trembled cups of steaming hot tea and a couple in the north, now shooting up in clear, of dried fish. Then stretching our- bright lines to the zenith, then waving selves out in luxurious style upon our back and forth in great majestic curves bearskin carpet, with our feet to the over the silent camp, as if warning back fire and our backs against pillows, we the adventurous traveller from the unsmoked, drank tea, and told stories in known regions around the pole. The perfect comfort. After supper the driv- silence was profound, oppressive. Nothers piled dry branches of trailing pine ing but the pulsating of the blood in upon the fire until it sent up a column my ears and the heavy breathing of the of hot, ruddy flame, ten feet in height; sleeping men at my feet broke the uniand then, gathering in a picturesque versal lull. Suddenly there rose upon group around the blaze, they sang for the still night-air a long, faint, wailing hours the wild, melancholy songs of the cry, like that of a human being in the Kamtchadals, and told never-ending sto- last extremity of suffering. Gradually ries of hardship and adventure on the it swelled and deepened, until it seemed great steppes and along the coast of to fill the whole atmosphere with its the “icy sea.” At last the great con- volume of mournful sound, dying away, stellation of Orion marked bed-time. at last, into a low, despairing moan. Amid a tumult of snarling and fighting It was the signal-howl of a Siberian the dogs were fed their daily allowance dog, but so wild and unearthly did it of one dried fish each ; fur stockings,

but crows.

seem in the stillness of the arctic midmoist with perspiration, were taken off night, that it sent the startled blood and dried by the fire, and, putting on bounding through iny veins to my very our heaviest fur “ kookhlankas," we finger-ends. In a moment the mourncrawled, feet first, into our bearskin ful cry was taken up by another dog bags, pulled them up over our heads, upon a higher key, two or three more and slept.

joined in, then ten, twenty, forty, sixty, A camp in the middle of a clear, dark eighty, until the whole pack of a hunwinter's night presents a strange, wild dred dogs howled one infernal chorus appearance. I was awakened, soon together, making the air fairly tremble


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