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inquietare compare Calig. 26. 4, Inquietatus fremitu; Ner. 34. 1, qui

.. litibus ... inquietarent. officii causa : for the sake of a ceremonial obligation, for ceremony's sake.

7. In consulatu : see Introd. II. § 5. k. (2). (a).

8. adoperta sella, etc. : passed through the public thoroughfare in a closed sedan chair; so that he might pass unobserved and without troubling any one to pay his respects. In the sella, the rider sat; in the lectica, he reclined. They are distinguished in Claud. 25. 2: Viatores ne per Italiae oppida nisi aut pedibus aut sella aut lectica transirent monuit edicto. Cf. Ner. 9 : lectica per publicum simul vectus est. See J. C. Rolfe in Proc. Am. Phil. Assn. XLIV (1913), pages XLVIII f., where it is noted that this passage contains the sole reference to Augustus's riding in a sella, while there are seven references to his use of the lectica. It is, of course, not impossible that Suetonius here uses sella for lectica. Promiscuis salutationibus : to his morning receptions, which were open to all. See note to page 61, line 21.

11. quasi elephanto stipem : as if it were a penny (he was giving) to an elephant. Cf. Macr., Sat. II. 4. 3 : Idem Augustus cum ei quidam libellum trepidus offerret et modo proferret manum modo retraheret, Putas, inquit, te assem elephanto dare ?

12. numquam patres nisi in curia : i.e. they no longer attended his morning levees; cf. Dio LIV. 25. 4 f., LVI. 41. 5. For the opposite treatment of the senate, see Jul. 78. 1 f.

14. nullo submonente : without any one's prompting him; i.e. without the aid of a nomenclator : see note to page 56, line 19.

15. Officia cum multis, etc. : he exchanged social calls with many persons.

16. dies cuiusque sollemnes frequentare : observe all their anniversaries. Frequentare is used here of one person as in Tib. 32. 1, Quorundam illustrium exequias usque ad rogum frequentavit ; Tac., Ann. XIV. 4. 1, festos dies apud Baias frequentabat.

17. quam grandior : with prius in preceding line ; see Introd. II. $ 6. m. sponsaliorum : for the more common sponsalium, as also in * Sen., de Ben. I. 9. 4, decentissimum sponsaliorum genus. The day of the betrothal might precede the actual marriage by one or more years. Besides the formal words of parent or guardian ( Spondesne? Spondeo), the bridegroom gave the bride a present, often a ring placed on the third finger of the left hand, our ring finger'; see Plaut., Aul. 255 f.; Gell. X. 10. 1 f.

18. Gallum Cerrinium : inverted name ; see Introd. II. § 10. b. (3).

19. captum repente oculis : suddenly become blind. 20. praesens consolando : by his comforting words offered in person,

Chapter 54. Tolerance of Freedom of Speech in the Senate 22. si locum haberem : if I had the opportunity.

24. per iram : see Introd. II. § 5. n. (3). ingesserunt: overwhelmed him with the taunt. Its direct object is the indirect statement, licere . . . loqui. Cf. Hor., Sat. I. 5. 11 f.: Tum pueri nautis, pueris convicia nautae ingerere.

26. Antistius Labeo : an eminent jurist, son of one of the assassins of Julius Caesar, characterized by Tacitus (Ann. III. 75. 3) as incorrupta libertate et ob id fama celebratior, while his rival Capito spoke of his libertas as nimia atque vecors; cf. Gell. XIII. 12. 1-4. senatus lectione : at the selection in 18 B.C., mentioned in Aug. 35. 1. See note to page 67, line 5.

27. M. Lepidum hostem, etc.: see note to page 54, line 19. Cf. Dio LIV. 15. 7, where the reply of Labeo is given : • And what dreadful act have I committed in retaining in the senate a man whose position as pontifex maximus you still overlook ?'

28. an essent: an = annon ; see Introd. II. $ 6. b. 1.

30. fraudi cuiquam fuit: tend to any one's prejudice ; cf. Cic., αά Att. V. 21. 12: Fit gratia Bruti senatus consultum, ut neve Salaminiis neve qui eis dedisset fraudi esset. See Introd. II. § 4. g.

Chapter 55. Treatment of Lampoons 31. famosos libellos : libels, libelous publications. nec ... et: not only ... but.

Page 79. 1. cognoscendum : sc. esse ; judicial cognizance should be taken : see Introd. II. § 10. d. (1). Cf. Tac., Ann. I. 72. 4: Primus Augustus cognitionem de famosis libellis specie legis eius tractavit. Dio (LVI. 27. 1) states that certain persons guilty of libel in 12 A.D. were punished and their slanderous notes were burned.

2. ad infamiam cuiuspiam : to bring any one into disrepute.
3. edant: the imperfect would be more usual ; Introd. II. $ 7. d.

Chapter 56. Demeanor at Elections and in Law-courts 5. contra dixit edicto : answered by a proclamation ; rather a strange use of the edict, but Augustus used it on other occasions to communicate with the citizens, even on personal matters, as may be seen from page 65, lines 3 ff. Cf. page 97, lines 21 f., libros ... populo notos per edictum saepe fecit. It was left for Claudius to carry this practice to an absurd extreme, issuing twenty in one day, and on trivial matters ; cf. Claud. 16. 4, 32, 38. 1. Et tamen ne de inbibenda, etc.; and still he interposed (his veto) to prevent any enactment to restrict freedom of speech in wills. In their wills the Romans often gave free expression to their opinions of public men and affairs. Augustus, it is said, was peculiarly sensitive to the last utterances of his friends ; cf. Aug. 66. 4. Dio (LVIII. 25. 2) cites the instance of Fulcinius Trio's violent testamentary attacks under Tiberius ; cf. Tac., Ann. VI. 38. 2. See note to page 85, line 4.

8. candidatis suis : candidates for office whom he favored. supplicabat: made his appeal. The presence of the emperor, as of influential friends in republican times, would in itself lend great weight to the ambitio of those thus recognized as candidati Caesaris.

9. in tribu : though a member of two tribes, Augustus would vote in only one ; see page 69, line 20, and note.

11. Forum angustius fecit : certain irregularities in the plan of his rectangular forum are explained by the fact that Augustus had to acquire the entire site from private owners and was not successful in carrying out his original plans. See Platner, Anc. Rome?, 278, and note to page 62, line 25.

12. possessoribus : dative after extorquere; see Introd. II. § 4. k. Cf. Cic., Cat. Mai. 23. 85 : nec mihi hunc errorem ... extorqueri volo. 13. filios : his adopted sons, Gaius and Lucius, sons of Agrippa and

cf. page 60, line 20; page 82, lines 25 ff. ut non adiceret: quin would be more usual than ut non; cf. Cic., in Verr. II. 4. 43. 95 : Numquam tam male est Siculis quin aliquid facete et commode dicant.

14. Eisdem praetextatis : likewise, while they still wore the toga praetexta, and so were under age ; see note to page 73, line 14. The words, a dative of reference, are to be construed with assurrectum and plausum (esse)

15. assurrectum ab universis, etc.: the entire audience arose in their honor and stood and applauded them; note the chiasmus : see Introd. II. § 10. h. The verbs are used impersonally. Observe that ab universis is employed with the first verb, a stantibus with the second ; the preposition being repeated although stantibus really belongs with universis. Augustus evidently did not believe in spoiling children by too much attention. Cf. Dio LIV. 27. 1, LV. 9. 1 f.

Julia ;

16. ita ... ut tamen : yet so that, with the understanding that. Ita is Here followed by a clause expressive of restriction or limitation ; see Introd. II. $ 8. m.

19. Asprenas Nonius : inverted name; see Introd. II. § 10. b. (3). Compare note to page 72, line 9. artius ei iunctus : rather a close friend of his; cf. page 47, lines 31 f., Pompeium artissimo contingebat gradu.

20. Cassio Severo : distinguished as an orator, but particularly for his virulent attacks on men and women of note, he is characterized by Tacitus (Ann. IV. 21. 5), the aristocrat, as sordidae originis, maleficae ritae, sed orandi validus ; cf. Tac., Ann. 1. 72. 4. He was at first banished to Crete and later suffered a sentence of exile and deportation to Seriphus. His proscribed books were circulated again under Caligula ; cf. Calig. 16. 1. officii sui : in keeping with his obligations. Dio's account (LV. 4. 3) is similar to that of our author.

21. superesset := adesset, in the technical sense of appearing in court to assist’ or “support' a friend or client. Note Affuit . . . clientibus in line 26, below. Deesset, in line 22, is similarly used of failure to support'.

22. eripere legibus reum : wrest a culprit from the clutches of the law. For the case of legibus see Introd. II. § 4. j.

23. praedamnare : according to Harper's Dictionary, not used by Cicero and Caesar and rare in Livy. See Introd. II. § 1. b.

24. subselliis : the seats provided near the tribunal for those concerned with the case, advocates, witnesses, etc.

25. ne laudatione quidem, etc.: without eren pronouncing a eulogy before the court. Such general eulogies the character of accused persons were forbidden by Pompey in 52 B.C.; cf. Dio XL. 52. 2 f. Pompey, however, violated his own ordinance, according to Dio (XL. 55. 2 f.).

26. Affuit et clientibus : see note to line 21, above. Cf. Introd. II. $ 1. c. Note the amusing case in Hor., Sat. I. 9. 38 ff. : “Si me amas,' inquit, paullum hic ades,' etc. Cf. Dio LIV. 3. 1.

27. evocato : evocati were formerly veterans summoned nominatim for special service ; cf. Caes., B. G. III. 20. 2. There was now a special class called evocati Augusti, supposed by Dio (XLV. 12. 3) to have had their origin in the veterans · called out'in 44 B.C. Their rank and insignia were those of centurions and they were usually chosen from the praetorians ; cf. Dio LV. 24. 8; Tac., Ann. II. 68. 3, with Furneaux's note. postulabatur iniuriarum : was sued for personal insults. Iniuria as a legal term involves a wrong against one's person, whether by assault, noisy abuse, libel, insulting gestures or otherwise.

29. Castricium : not otherwise known.
30. Murenae : see note to page 56, line 14.

Chapter 57. Evidences of Popularity 32. Omitto senatus consulta : see Introd. II. § 10. l. These decrees were such as conferred upon him the honors and titles constituting his powers as princeps, as well as others, some of which he declined, as has been shown in former notes.

Page 80. l. natalem : sc. diem; Introd. II. $ 3. b.

2. sponte atque consensu : modal ; see Introd. II. $ 4. s.' biduo : for two days, September twenty-second and twenty-third ; ablative expressing duration of time : see Introd. II. § 4. q. Dio (LIV. 34. 1, LV. 6. 6) does not ascribe the celebration to the equites alone.

3. in lacum Curti quotannis, etc.: the pool or fountain of the lacus Curtius in the Forum had doubtless dried up and its place was merely marked by a puteal, as suggested by Platner (Anc. Rome?, 268), who gives an account of its history, with references. We may compare the modern custom of tourists' throwing coins into the Fontana di Trevi at Rome in the pious belief of their assured return to the city.

4. Kal. Ian. strenam : a New Year's gift on the Kalends of January. The strena (" étrenne’ in French), connected with Strenia, the name of a Sabine goddess, was ominis boni gratia, according to Festus (s. V., page 313, M.); cf. Plaut., Stich. 673: Bona scaeva strenaque obviam occessit mihi. The emperors therefore accepted the strena as an omen of good luck. Tiberius limited the exchange of strenae to New Year's Day; cf. Tib. 34. 2. Caligula even proclaimed by edict strenas ineunte anno se recepturum and stood in the vestibule of the palace on the Kalends of January ad captandas stipes; cf. Calig. 42.

6. vicatim : see notes to page 69, line 14 and page 71, line 28. Apollinem Sandaliarium : in the vicus Sandaliarius, “Sandal Street', of the fourth regio. The Argiletum, one of the principal streets in regio IV, was especially noted for its book and shoe shops. Perhaps • Sandal street', or ó Shoemakers' Row ’, was a side street ; cf. Gell. XVIII. 4. 1: in Sandaliario forte apud librarios fuimus, and see Platner, Anc. Rome?, 457 ff.

7. Iovem Tragoedum : said to have been in the vicus Tragoedus in regio V.

In restitutionem : see Introd. II. $ 5. k. (1). (a):

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